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Page(s) I-2 IAGPA-CSF Form 6-R Sep 93

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NGIC-2003-00174-HT

Encyclopedia of Jihad, Security and Intelligence Volume, (pp.

1049-1059)t

SECRET WRITING: Included in the science of secret commrmication is the topic secret writins:

writing by use of secret ink or ciphers2. kr this study we will explain the meaning of enciphering, and some other terms that are connected to the topic. Ciphers is the operation of replacing letters or numbers in such

way that they are

replaced with other lettels that are not the originals, with the intention of concealing, camouflaging, and hiding the real mer.:ring. This is agreed upon by all of the sides that are concemed with this enciphering, and especially betwee,n the branches headquarters.

Enciphering3: Transforming the plain text into secret writing.

Al-Code (the Code) or The Secret Messaee:

This is

group of letters or words that

represent otler words or topics. For example, say, "I am starting

business," The

meaning of this phrase is, with rcspect to the other patties, "I am declaring JITIAD; and am starting

it."

Wtitine with Ciohers: The art of se,nding messages in method that conceals its true meaning from everyone but its recipient. The procedure of writing by means of ciphers, symbols, and riddles and delivery is composed of sender

number of basic elements (numerous aspects and standards).

rcceiver

enciphereda message

The document appearc to be an imprecise trauslafion fronr second language into Arabic. Underscorirrg and arrolvs have been added to this document to facilitate its reading. The Arabic nornshfrah [:IFR? in SATTS] is equally translated into the terms "ciphers" or "enciphering" based on its use in the original document. Thc verbal noun tasffrft:FlR] could bE translated "encrypting" or "encoding" but is gencrally ransiated "enciphering" for the sake ofconsistency.

UNICLASSIFTEI)

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NGIC-2003-00174-HT

common system on the basis of which it operates and the security rules adhered to by our security sources. secure means of h'ansrritting. These elements are strongly linked together. But

if

one element fails in its task theu tire

entire operation (of secret communications) tails. On one hand, the information spills out. On the other, the information is cut offfrom the other party. For

Figtne

l, which

fwther explanation see

shows the elements' association with respect to each other.

The best means of conveying information is to oombine it rvith obvious meanings so the one who comes across it does not understand

it. Secret writing, also named the

science of concealment, encompasses two methods:

Ciphers and Codes: In the system of ciphers the messages change according to fixed formulas that make solving thern difficult, except for those who know the formulas. The systern of codes uses the text in such

series of codes and words that represent the words

way that understanding the message becomes impossible without being

acquainted with the codebook and its table. Now, how do we learn the steps enciphering

of

of

message, and what are the steps? The answer: There are important rules

that must be known first in writing oiphers.

1-

There is

number

thing in the enciphered message called the solution key:

or a code that is

agreed upon

enciphered message. Naturally, enciphered message.

It

in

is to

advance and

increase

This is

is found in

the

the complexity of the

can be said that the enciphered message relies on

number of factors in order to increase the complexity: (1)

solution key and

Tlre past particrple mush{far [M:FR] can also be tanslated as "encrypted" or "encoded." See footuote 3.

Ui\CLASSIFIED

T]NCLASSIFIED @1 the text, the most

NGrC-2003-00r7+I{r

direc! clear fomr of the message. The mcaning of this is

clarified inside ofthis study. Now we take in detail what is memt by the cipher key in

clear way.

The Cipher Kev; It is the path that the reseiver of the code follows in order to arrive at the breaking down the message's code and oipher. Occasionally the key has an unspecific goal. It is

communication to the receiver that we are the ones who sent the message and

no one else but us; because it is possible for an organizatiotr to penehate into the systems and begin inlerference operations with messages-its goal is to fragment the system.

Definitely here, inside of the secret communication is

specific key or, we can call it

if

wished, the secret word. Comments: Diplomats and sailors prefer using encodeds symbols because they are stationed at one place.

As for intelligeirce people and the army, they prefer using cipher becawe they are constantly moving and do not have the time to work throug! lvrittng special books

of

synrbols.

Now to the types of cipher, or the methotls of enciphering messages.

Twes of Ciphors:

1-

The Chart's6 Cipher: We vvill clari$r this in its place.

tbtct.

Th" acfiral word found herc ahdathiaris [AIIDACIAT] is comrnonly translated "coordinates"; but in this contcxt the term chart or table is more accurate.

UNCLASSIFIED

TII\CLASSIFIED 2-

The Cipher of Books, Newspapers, andMagazines include them is assembling the ietters found in

NGIC-2003-00174-Ht number of methods. Among

magazine according to apreviously agreed upon

method.

3-

The Cipher of Symbols andTerms: And this also we clarifu in its place.

To use cipher in aprosperous and successful way one must

fulfill and accomplish

the

following:

1-

The requirement that two copies exist

2-

The requirement of defining beforehand the identity of the sender and the receiver.

3-

The requireme.nt of appointing the time and date beforehand for the communication, and an alternate date and time.

4-

Begin the message by defining the sender's identity and the identity of the one to

whom it is sent.

5-

That the message be short and understandable.

6-

The necessity that there be an agreeme,nt beforehand between the sender and the one to whom

it is sent.

7-

Changing the tables'7 key after five or six communications.

8-

Conceal any trace of the key and the message after its solution and comprehension are guaranteed.

Ibtd.

TNCLASSIFIED

UI{CLASSIFIED

NGrC-2003-00174-HT Also to understand that there are two systems in enciphering, or tlat it includes two systens upon rvhich it depends in enciphering messages.

First: It is

System of Tlansp_osine.

The Second: It is the System of Substihrtion.

As for the method of the System of Transposing now we clarifu it as follows: First of all there is

difference between transposing of the letter from one place to another and

substituting one letter for another.

mean that the esse,ntial nature of the method

of

transposing is changing the locations of the letters, and its conventional definition is as

follows:

It is: Shifting the ciphers. This operation includes reorganizing the leters or changing their sequence in the open message without making changes to the essence of the letter itself. This example is provided to you for clarification, for example:

"l

want to write

"ABW ANS :HID" [which means 'Abu Anas is marfy'."] In this example we ire using the method of geometric forms to distribute the letters.

If

you noticed the sentEnce, it is composed of three words. The first word is composed of three letters, the second word likewise, and the third is composed of four letters. Now

follow the numbered steps to increase clarification:

fthis portion of text was illegible]

2-

We distribute the letters along the heads of the fbrms

UNCLASSIFMD

HID

T]NCLASSIFIED

NGIC-2003-00174-IrT

Now we rotate the letters one rotation to the right [forus to the left]. Therefore

it

becomes as follows

WSD

,t

/t

it

*_J *J *J :HI /\

Now we take from the figures the higlest horizontal level

/\

(--

Or we write all of the Ietters fouad on this level. It is as follows: (W We also write it together with the bottom level. It is (A

D).

I).

To increase the complcxity of the message we insert some nurnbErs and take down the number of letters in each word as follows: the first word the third

laten. We

add with each number the number

letters; and the second

letters; and

). tt is as follows:

33

+6 +6 9

+6 [sic]

Thefinalformofthemessage is((WSD)

ABAN: Htt9

10ll.Now, afterthe final

form of the message, we must nention that the receiver knows this metlod also. The role of the receiver is as follows: The first step the receiver does is to take the numbers and subtract the solution k"y

from them. The number is (9

10 ). the result of the subtraction

UNCLASSIFIED

i.

Oo

tl"

TJNCLASSIF'IED

NGIC-2003-00174-HT basis of this result he draws the nunber of figures. The receiver is able to know the number of words from the number of letters found in the parenthesis (W

2-

D).

Now we draw the agreed upon figures. The agreernent is as follows: We selectthe number of points of tre triangle on the basis of the number of letters inside of the first word. For example it means the word letters. Therefore, we select

triangle having

(ABW) ["Abu" or "fa*rer"]8

has

points, and so on.) The beginner

distributes the letters from the first parentlresis.

The remaining letters are dishibuted according to the empty spaces in sequence from the

right to the lefte.

WSD

{\

/lt\

atsg

4\ /\ /l

d\ /\ l.)

A< N

:'H

Now he rotates to the opposite of flre se.nders' rotation of the letters. lt means that he moves the letters in the left directionr0. So the letters go back like so:

4$':

Il tll 1t, 1,, ttt

#)w

N4)s

s'Po

The parenthesis should end here, but the author misplaces it firrther in the sent€nce at the end ofthe words "and so on." is for the Arabic version; in our case from left to right. )0 -IDd.d. see diagrarn immediatelr above item 4

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NGIC-2003-00 114-HT

Now he writes the letters of the entire figure together. It is as follows

ABW

ANS :HlD ["Abu Anis is Martyr"]. Another example regarding the method oftransposing, on the basis of the system of geometric forms: For example we need to write (ANSIIB FWRA ["withdraw immediately'').

t-

We count the number of letters in each word. The tirst word has

letters and the second

letters, by dropping the nunationll. We select

pentagonal form for the first word and tetagonal form .or the second word.

We distribute the letters.

BW We shift the first cycle to the rightl2 and write the highest horizontal tevel

with adding the number

.r

firsl along

to the number of letters in each word like so:

N+-

-ls

,-'

tB BTNBA)ASHFwR 10 9t .ru

ll This refers to the diacritical mark that changes the sound at tlre end ofa word to 'AN' when converting it into its advcbial form.l 12 [n our case to the left, see diagram below item 3.

T]I\CLASSIFIEI) L0

UNCLASSIFIED 10

Asweagreedthereceiversubtractsthenumbers meaus flrat flre first rvord has

NGIC-2003-00174-trr

and(

leters and the second has

ttris

letters. Therefore. he draws

the geomefiic figures according to the number of letters [see the figrne below]. After this, he dishibutes the letters, beginning with the letters of the highest level and then the

remaining letters, incrementally from right to leftr3, The last step is the oppositer4 of the

two rolations. He writes the letters of the figures

s. Aa"

lrr

,r,

is

and so forth:

.)'n

The Cioher's Concealment: One of the many methods is the concealment of ciphers by

tle

s)4stem of ffansposing. It is the letters or words in

certain text. We understaud it as

an agreed upon method. This is not obvious, for example

*21.

Example 1: Take the following message (LA TSR"WA BL TM?LWA. FAEN

SIAETIKM DWN MJIE ALMDD ['Don'tbe

hasty, but proceed

carefully. The victory

will come to you without the arrival of help."l). If the agreement is made between the two sides to depend on the last word of the ssntence [the bold words of example

l].

The result is: "Proceed carefully. Help will come." The methods vary according to flre agneement.

Ibid.

that was 'o Or "to reverse.- This portion of the description remains unclear after consulting the final figure been provided. The figure appears to be identical, with respect to the relative locations of [etters, to the figure immediately preceding it on the previous page.

TNCLASSIFIEI)

1t

TINCLASSTFIED NGIC-2003-00174-HT Example

2: (ATTNI ALQ:"IR T)GIB?A HMI MwEtM? ["shivering

_.accompanied

by

came ro me,

painful fever."])

If we take the first letters in the words the unknown word is (A.LTHM [ffanslation:

"sh'ggle"]). This cipher is appropriate for dissemination by telephone. lmportant comments concerning interacting through cipher:

1-

The sender is not permitted to

2-

Each torvn has its own cipher, and

3-

As

rule expressions

lflow

or carry the cipher key.

if possible each group.

optimism are used with the ciphers, like "Journey on! Allah is

watching over you all."

4-

Conrrentions must be agree upon for writing the following: The nunationls, is it

letter or not? The hamzat6 is it an independent symbol or is it

letter? The "taa marbuuta"lT, is it

a'tah" [.?']

lunar!8? Foreign words, how do you write them

it (R BI

or a,taa,,

[.T']

.,A1,,,

is it solar or

like RpG [in English] how do you write

[inArabic]), etc.?

Enciphering bythe System of Substitution is understood as follows: Replace each letter with another letter or designated character or designated nunber according to the previous agreement between the two parties concerned with the contacl and the reception, especially (the sender

the receiver).

It Grammar term for the diacritical mark that rnakes noun indefinite or denotes an adverbial fuirction. PhonenricaUy equivalent to letter, br.rt orthograplrically dependent upon other letter forms. modified Arabic lefter '?' placed at the end of word to indicate feminine gender functionally e-quivalent to both "ah- and'at''in diffetent contextsr" Reference to pronunciation as "a!" or "a" plus the assimilation of the following letter. 16

{-II{CLASSTFIED

l0

L2

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NG[C-2003-00174-HT The method of zubstitution has degrees of complexity. We will begin with the simplest of the methods. It is the Method of Coorrdinates (the Table Method). The following example

is among the simplest table forms. It is

very easy method and the first step in it is

drawing the table and its cells as follows:

1-

We draw the horizontal cells (sguares) with the value that you need and arrange the enkies (the numerals) in them.

2-

We draw the vertical cells (squares) in the amount desired and anz.rge the enfries (the numerals) in them.

3-

I-ook at figure

4-

Now between the horizontal level for the nurnbers and the vertical level for the

(noting that there is an empty square at the beginning.)

numbers we place the

28 letters. We place any synbols ttrat we want but with

the condition that the sender and the receiver have the same copy of the table.

Look at the figure.

LA It

tO. Markl

fl,etterl

BSR'? lquicktyl ASLI{?

:?ID

lweaponl

lrnarWrl

UWARIE lcrisesl

Comments on the Table:

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11

13

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1-

lf took any letter from the table, or any

NGIC-2003-00174-HT

sigrr or symbol, then two numbers that I took

iudicate the one we took. The first number is horizoutal. The second number is

vertical. For exa:nple if we took the letter (A) we find the number

above ttre

letter (A); and on the horizontal level to the rightre of the letter (A) is the number

1,3 ). That

). This means that the coordinate numbers of (A) are is found is in the row

the place where the letter

is, the number

and column

of

). fnus Ae

numbers found at the top of the table are, in other words, the numbers of the columns and numbers formd to the right2o of the table are the row numbers.

2-

The second comment is that each letter, symbol, or word that is blue in color [the source document contains no colors] is indicated by two numbers ouly, and no other, one for

tle

row number and the other for the colunm number.

An example oftle use of the table: assume that want to write the foilowing: (BDAET ALHRB [translation: "the war began"]). Look at the frst word and the fust Ietbr in it, (B). Therefore search directly in the table for the letter (B). If found

i!

search for the column number found at the letter.

search for the row number formd at the letter.

number.

lf you notice the coordinates

Also

lt is recorded beginning with the row

of the letter "baa"

[B] are 2,3

1.

mean by that

the second row and the third column, because the coordinates of letter "daal" [D] are

6,4)" 'n

to

[sic], the coordinates

letter (A) are

1,3 ), and the coordinates of letter (T)

are

In our case left.

lbid. ?l tcp' is rnissing from the sanrple table, and coordinate (6,4) is empty.

UF{CLASSIFIEI)

T2

L4

UNCLASSIFIED (2,2).As

for the second word, it is AL-IIARB ["the war"]. Thus the coordinates

letter (A) are

ue

(2,5

NGIC-2003-00174-HT

103 ), the coordinates of letter (L) are

[sic], the coordinates of letter (R) are

(4,4

5,5

of

), the coordinates of letter (J)

ana

*t"

coordinates of letter (B)

(2,3). 6,4

The next step is to bring together all of the numb ers {2,3

4,4.-2,5 -5,5 -2,3 Now

do

,3

2,2

,3

1.

step that increases the order in sequence. Remove tt,e commas and the

dashes between the nuurbens as follows:

236413221344255523. Naturallythis

operation does not hinder the receiver's action because he knows

tlat

each joined pair

of

numbers represents one letter. The last operation that we paform to increase complexity is to add the solution number (the solution key) to each one of these numbers. Let it be, for example,

is as follows:

2364132213442s523 +33 3333333333333333 s697 46ss4677s88856 Thus the final form for the cipher is (5

69146554677 58885

All that remains is for the solver to refer to this cipher. This

61.

means the receiver retraces

the steps in reverse exactly, beginning by deducting the solution number and then

UI\CLASSTF'IED

l3

1s

UNCLASSIFIED

NGIC-2003-00 74-HT successively separates each number. He searches for these numbers in the copy that he has, and writes that.

very important commert assume that you established the solution number as 8, and you want to add it to each ofthe previous nurnbers. l,et us take for example the first number. lt is

); thus

8+2-70 ). When the result of the addition comes out with

zero

[sic.] (meaning more than one cell) it is preferred that you write zero, which indicates that the number is

it is

10 ). Therefore when the solver of the message sees

10 and subtacts the solution number from

does not make

he knows that

10 tsic.l. T:ris is so that the solver

mistake in the higher numbers or the result of the additional operation.

Now we take the opposite example: Presune that you are the solver of the message and that it came to you in this form this time is

4424324532 ). The solutiou uumber agreed upon at

). Consequently the steps are simply, firs! we deduct

from each

number as follows:

4424324s32 -11 I 1t 11111

33.t3.2r.34.21

Second, we take each number one at

the firstnumberis

time

table. For example

3.3 [seechartonpage 1l]. Itmeansthethirdrow,thirdcolumn.

Therefore it is the letter (J). The number is the letler (S). The number He

for them in

t3.4

1.3 is the letter (A). The number 3.1

is the letter (W). The number

2.1)

tsicl

is the letter (S).

joins the letters and the result is the word (JASWS ["spy"])

TNCLASSTFIEI)

t4

16

UNCLASSIFIEI)

NGIC-2003-00174-Frt the alphabetical

Another mcthod for using the table is (by the sptem of fransmitting [sequence] search method).

The method is as follows: we make

regular table with cells but according to the nunber

of ietters of the words desired to be chosen. The operating principle of tltis table is to take the first row of the table and

fill

the empty spaces found rvith the solution word (the key

word). The row that is directly undorneath it has the solution number. We have the lower squares left over. Therefore we write our secret message directly in lhem frorn the riglrt to

tlre

lef2. Each square takes one letter. To increase the clarity, fbllow the fbllowing

steps:

We draw the table and create for example tle key word (XI-AH ALDIN [Sa]lah

al-Din or Saladin,

2-

Medieval Muslim hero]. We write these lettets in the first row.

We give to each letter of the letters of the key word

number, with the condition that

repeated letter is given the following number. Notice the repeated lettsr (A) in the

solutiou word, how the frst (A) hkes the number number

ana tfre second (A) takes the

), beginning from (A to I) according to the alphabetical sequence.

We decide what we want to write. For example, we want to send tlre following message:

(ANTYR T"LIMATI\A IWM ALIlvf'? OMS? SBTBR ["wait for ou inshuctions Friday September"]) Now we write the message from the right to left, square by square (see the figure.)

In our case from teft to tigltt.

[NCLASSIFIED

l5

T7

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NGrC-2003-00 17 4-HT

tl

Look over table wetl. You will observe that each number has a column below it rvith letters in it. If I now took each number and the letters below it the form is as follows (take flre numbers in order-)

1,23456 TTMT

RA?B

YN'M

IA?

LMS

..WM

AMLS

NAJB

789 TIOR

Now we write the letter groups without numbers:

(TTMT

RA?B

YN'M

..wM

NAJB

TloR

I,A?

LMS). This is the frnal fonn

for tle cipher. With regard to the solver, he has the solution nunrber and solution word" which changes at each agreed upon period. He nothing more to do than to rctum the original numbers to the groups according to the sequence. He rearranges them in the table and reads the message in the regular form.

TINCLASSIFIED

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1B

TIIICLASSIFIED

NGIC-2003-0017+HT

The method of enciphering letters with lefters [sic.]: The method of enciphering the symbols with the letter [sic.], where the numbers are

substitrled (the numerical coordinates with tbe alphabetical coordinatesfl]' The dimensions of this table are

columns aud

rows. See the figure'

Notice that these are the letter coordinates. Now the empty space we fiIl with the

28

alphabetical letters. There is no condition on the sequence'

.I

,)

TNCLASSIFIEI)

t7

19

UNCLASSIFIED

NGIC-2003-00174-HT Now we take apractical example on the basis of the table. For example, we wanr to encipher the word

I-

AIZR

We take the letter

intersection

II-

of

). We obselve the table and find that is the result of the

the letters (A and

We take the letter intersection of the letters We take the letter intersection ofthe letters

VffI

["be cautious"]

We take the letter intersection ofthe letters

frefer to table on the previous page].

). We observe the table and find that is the result of the and

).

observe the table and find that is the result of the

and J).

). We observe the table and find that is the result of the and

).

J)

The e,ntire result is solver has

). The second form is AJBADJAD ). The

copy of this table. He comes to

letter

), and so on with the remainder.

Exa:nple

2:

we want to write the word

and takes their intersection.

URIQ ["rcute"]). (U:W

lt

is the

I) (R=A D) (I= D)

(Q:JD). The

WJAD;DJD

Other methods of substituting letter by letter: Cipher as slow as shape of

Mousez3: This means that alphabetical letters are distributed in the

rectangular form. This table is fixed. This table can begin with the agreed

upon key word at the top of the table.

tt This is "Fast Cipher."

U]\[CLASSTFIED

r8

2,0

T]NCLASSIFIEI)

NGIC-2003-00174-HT

Study the table very well before you read the steps of the operation (frgure

4). |f you

noticed the key word, it is M"AWI? ["a howling dog"]), located at the top of the table' The remaiuing squares have the letters of the alphabetic being distributed just as you

want and according to the agreement.

[Note that

and

twice, while

are

and

arc missing-]

The first method of the table is: using the horizontal rows. But how are the rows used? The first of these usages is:

I-

Substinrte each real letter with the letter that follows it on the right fin our case

leftl. An example from the table: this example is that we want to encipher the word AZ?B [,,go"] ). Therefore the enciphering is as follows:

(A:")(bG)(?:I)(B:U). This is

singular [sic.] method.

[A[CLASSTPTND

19

21

T]NCLASSIFIEI)

NGIC-2003-00174-HT each pair of the

*Gru Tha'e is the dual The final tbnn is [sic.] method that enciphers ).

letterstogether.Anexampleis(WA=A")because(A)isontheright2aofthe'waaw' [W] and the 'eiin'

tI

f'l

is to the right2s of the

'aliph' [A].

Substitute the desired real letter requested with the cipher letter precisely underneath the real letter's position. An example is the word Therefore the final form is

SJN

flaifl

)'

).

An important comment: There are letters on the right [for us left] of the chart for which there is no letter on its

righ#. How

do we do this? (We take the answer as it is')

Substitgte the real letter with

letter along the diagonal line and in the diagonal

direction agreed upon together. So if, for example, we took the diagonal form [sic.] to the lower left [in

olr

case the

right] and we tookthe word JWAB f"answet''] ), the solution ). Notice flrat the

is :

does not have

diagonal

line. The solution -- we took the same letter and can change the method according to

tle

agreement. The benefit of this method is that you are able to encipher an entire message! each word enciphered by

different method than the others, or that you are able to

encipher each letter by its own method. This is very possible.

An example

enciphering words, each word by one of the previous methods.

AL:AR" RQM WAHD Street Number

(A :(3)

(L-T) :-

(A :")(

:B)"

2o

lhid. '5 lbtd. 'o llrtd.

UI{CLASSTFIED

2A

22

UNCLASSIFIED 23-

(R:N)(Q:J)(M-I)" \tr/

A:

H:

(!:Q

Thus thefinal form is asfollows:("T:

"8

NGIC-2003-00 17 4-HT

)tn

IL/WS OQ

tt This is the methoddescribed in paragraph I,imnrediatetybelowthe table on p.19. If one of the fwo

enhies in the table is the missing L, then "r.:T" can be correct by this method. The writer Ieft out the last letter of the first rvord in this example. tE This is the method described in paragraph tr above. t'This is tbe method described in paragraph above.

T|r[CLASSIFTED

2l

23

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