Esta determinación del cobre soluble de una muestra de mineral, que contenga multitud de elementos mineralógicos se debe a la cuantificación de cobre metálico muy aparte de cobre soluble y o…Full description
Descripción: Esta determinación del cobre soluble de una muestra de mineral, que contenga multitud de elementos mineralógicos se debe a la cuantificación de cobre metálico muy aparte de cobre soluble y otros ti...
32.1.17 AOAC Offi Official cial Method 991.43 Total, Solu Sol uble, and Insol In solu uble Dietary Dietary Fiber Fiber in Foods Enzymatic–Gravimetric Method, MES–TRIS Buffer Enzymatic–Gravimetric First Action Action 1991 Final Fi nal Action Action 1994
(Ap pli plica ca ble to processed processed foods, grain and cereal cereal products, products, fruits, and vege vegetables.) See Ta ble 991.43A for the results results of the interlaboratory study supporting accep acceptance of the method. A . P ri nci ple ple Du pli plicate cate test portions portions of dried foods, fat-extracte fat-extracted d if con tain taining ing >10% fat, undergo undergo sequen sequential tial enzy enzymatic matic diges digestion tion by heat stable α-am -amy ylase, pro prote tease, ase, and amyloglycosidase to remove remove starch and protein. prote in. For to total tal dietary dietary fi ber ber (TDF), en enzyme zyme digestate is treated with alco al cohol hol to precip precipiitate solu solu ble dietary dietary fi ber ber before before filter filtering, ing, and TDF resiidue is washed with alco res al cohol hol and ace acetone, dried, and weighed. For insolu solu ble and sol solu u ble dieta etary ry fi fi ber ber (IDF and SDF), en enzyme zyme digestate is filtered, fil tered, and resi residue (IDF) is washed with warm water, water, dried and weighed. For SDF, com bine bined d fil filtrate and washes are precip precipiitated with alco al cohol, hol, fil tered, dried, dried , and weighed. weigh ed. TDF, IDF, and SDF resi residue values values are cor rected rected for protein, ash, and blank. B. Ap pa para ratus tus (a) Beakers. —400 —400 or 600 mL tall-form. tall-form. (b) Fil tering cruci cru cible. ble. —With —With fri fritted tted disk , coa rse, AST ASTM M 40–60 µm pore size, Pyrex Pyrex 60 mL (Corning No. 36060 Büchner; Corning, Inc., Science Products, Corning, NY 14 831 USA, or equivaalent). Prepare as follows: Ash over equiv overnight night at 525°C in muffle muffle furnace. fur nace. Let furnace tem per peraature fall below 130°C before re moving moving cruci cru ci bles. bles. Soak cru ci bles bles 1 h in 2% clean ing solu solution tion at room tem per peraature. Rinse cruci cru ci bles bles wi th H 2O and then deionized H 2O; for final final rinse, use 15 mL ace ac etone and then air-dry. Add ca 1.0 g Celite to dry cruci cru cibles, and d ry at 130°C to constant weight. Cool cruci cru ci ble ble ca 1 h in desic desicca cator, tor, and record re cord weight, to nearest nearest 0.1 mg, of cruci cruci ble ble plu s Celit e. (c) Vac Vacuum uum system. system. —Vac —Vacuum uum pump or as pi pira rator tor with regu regulat lating ing device. de vice. Heavy walled filter fil tering ing flask, 1 L, with side arm. Rub ber ring adap ad aptors, tors, for use with filter tering ing flasks. (d) Shaking water water baths. —(1 —(1) Ca pa ble of main maintain taining ing 98° ± 2°C, with auto au tomatic matic on-and-off timer. (2 ( 2) Constant Constant tem per peraature, ad just justable able to 60°C. (e) Bal Balance. ance. —Ana —Analyt lytiical, readability ±0.1 mg. (f ) Muf fle fle furnace. furnace. —Maintain —Maintaining ing 525° ± 5°C. (g) Oven. —Maintain —Maintaining ing 105°C and 130° ± 3°C. (h) Des Desic icca cator. tor. —With —With SiO2 or equiva equivalent desiccant. Biweekly, Bi weekly, dry desiccant overnight overnight at 130°C. (i) pH meter ter.. —Tem —Tem per peraature com pen pensated, sated, standard standardized ized with pH 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0 buffer solu solutions. tions. ( j Pipett etters ers.—With .—With dis pos posable able tips, 100–300 µL and 5 mL ca pac pacity. ity. j) Pip (k ) Dis pensers. —Dis —Dis pens pensing ing 15 ± 0.5 mL for 78% ethanol, 95% ethaanol, and ace eth acetone; 40 ± 0.5 mL for buffer. (l) Mag Magnetic netic stirrers stir rers and stir bars. C. Reagents Re agents Use deionized water water throughout. throughout. (a) Eth Etha anol solu solutions. tions. —(1 —(1) 85% 85%.—Place .—Place 895 mL 95% ethanol into 1 L vol u met metric ric flask, di lute to vol ume with H 2 O.
(2) 78% 78%.— .— Place 821 mL 95% etha ethanol into 1 L volu vol umet metric ric flask, dilute di lute to volume volume with H2O. ( b) α -Am y ylase lase solu so lution tion (heat stable) sta ble) . —Sto —Sto re at 0 ° –5 ° C. (1) Based on Nelson/Somogyi re reduc ducing ing sugar with solu soluble starch as sub strate strate.—10 .—10 000 ± 1000 units/mL (1 unit is de fined fined as the amount of enzyme enzyme required required to release release 1 µmole reduc reducing ing sugar equiva equivalents per min minute ute at pH 6.5 and 40 °C). (2 (2) Based on Ceralpha method using us ing p-nitrophenyl-maltosaccharide as sub strate in the pres presence ence of a thermostable al pha-glucosidase.—3000 pha-glucosidase.—3000 ± 300 Ceralpha units/mL (1 unit of enzyme enzyme is required required to release release 1 µmole mole p p-nitrophenyl -nitrophenyl per minute min ute at pH 6.5 and 40 °C). ( c ) Pro te ase. —P —P re re pa pa re 50 mg /m L en zy me so lu tion in MES–TRIS buffer fresh daily. Store at 0 ° –5 °C. ( 1) Ca sein as say say.—300–400 .—300–400 units/mL [1 prote protease unit is defined as the amount of enzyme enzyme required required to hydro hydrolyze lyze (and solubilize in TCA) 1 µmole tyro tyrosine sine equiv alents alents per minute from sol solu u ble casein at pH 8.0 and 40°C]; 7–15 units/mg (1 unit will hydro hy dro lyze casein to produce pro duce color equiva equivalent to 1.0 µmole tyro tyrosine sine per minute at pH 7. 5 an d 37 ° C). (Color by Folin–Ciocalteau re agent.) ( 2 ) A z o - c a s e i n a s s a y . — 3 0 0 – 4 0 0 u n i t s / m L [ 1 u n i t o f endo-peptidase activ activity ity is defined defined as the amount of enzyme en zyme required required to hydro hydrolyze lyze (and solubilize in TCA) 1 µmole tyro tyrosine sine equiva equivalents per minute minute from solu solu ble casein casein at pH 8.0 and 40 °C]. (d) Amyloglucosidase Amyloglucosidase.—Store .—Store at 0 ° –5°C. (1) Starch/glu Starch/glucose cose oxidase–peroxidase method .—2000–3300 .—2000–3300 units/mL (1 unit of enzyme en zyme activ activity ity is defined de fined as the amount of enzyme enzyme required required to release re lease 1 µmole glucose glu cose per minute min ute at pH 4.5 and 40 °C). (2) PNPBM (p-nitrophenyl beta-maltosidase) method .—130–200 .—130–200 units/mL [1 unit o f enzyme activ ac tivity (PNP unit) is the amount of enzyme, en zyme, which in the presence pres ence of excess excess levels levels of beta-glucosidase, will re lease 1 µ mole p p-nitrophenyl -nitrophenyl from p p-nitrophenyl -nitrophenyl beta-maltosidase per min minute ute at 40°C]. The only enzyme enzyme which has been found to be signif nifiicantly contam con tamiinated with inter in terfer fering ing activ activiities is amyloglucosidase. Thermostable al pha pha -amy -amylase lase and pro prote tease ase from commer com mercial cial sources have been found to be gener gen erally ally free of inter terfer fer ing en zymes. Low levels levels of beta-glucanase have been detected de tected in prote protease ase prepaarations, prep rations, but at levels levels well below that which would in inter terfere fere with total to tal dietary di etary fi ber ber anal analy ysis. The ma jor con contam tamiinant in amyloglucosidase prepa preparation was shown to be an endo-cellulase and re sulted in endo-depolymerization of mixed-linkage beta-glucan from bar barley ley and oats, with resul re sultant tant under underes esti tima mation tion of t h i s d i e t a r y f i b i b e r c o m p o n e n t . T h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f amyloglucosidase with endo-cellulase (beta-glucanase) can be easily eas ily detected. detected. Alter Al terna natively, tively, there are kits contain con taining ing all 3 enzymes en zymes (pre-tested) available available from a num ber of com pa panies. nies. (e) Diatomaceous earth. —Acid —Acid washed Celite. Celite. ( f ) Cleaning solu solution tion.—Liq .—Liquid uid surfactant-type labo lab o ra ratory tory cleaner, designed designed for criti cal cal cleaning. clean ing. Pre pare 2% so solu lution tion in H2O. (g) MES .—2-( .—2-( N N -Morpholino)ethanesulfonic -Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid. (h) TRIS. —Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. —Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. (i) MES–TRIS buffer so solu lution. tion. —0.05M —0.05M MES, 0.05M TRIS, pH 8.2 at 24°C. Dissolve 19.52 g MES and 12.2 g TRIS in 1.7 L H2O. Ad just pH to 8.2 with 6M NaOH, and dilute to 2 L with H2O. ( Note: Note: It is im por im portant tant to ad just pH to 8.2 at 24°C. How However, ever, if buffer tem per peraature is 20°C, ad just pH to 8.3; if tem per peraature is 28°C, ad just pH to 8.1. For de vi viaations between between 20° and 28°C, ad just b y inter in ter po pola lation.) tion.)
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Table 991.43A. Interlaboratory study results for total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in foods (fresh weight basis), enzymatic–gravimetric method, MES–TRIS buffer Food
Mean, g/100 g
RSDr , %
Total dietary fiber (TDF) Barley
Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) Barley
Insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) Barley
Total dietary fiber (SDF + IDF) Barley
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Table 991.43B. Standards for testing enzyme activity Standard
Weight of standard, g
Expected recovery, %
α-Amylase + AMG
α-Amylase + AMG
Citrus pectin Arabinogalactan
( j) Hydrochloric acid solution. —0.561M. Add 93.5 mL 6M HCl to ca 700 mL H2O in 1 L volumetric flask. Dilute to 1 L with H2O. D. En zyme Pur ity To ensure absence of undesirable enzymatic activities and presence of desirable enzymatic activities, run standards listed in Ta ble 991.43B each time enzyme lot changes or at maximum interval of 6 months. E. Preparation of Tes t Sus pension Pre pare test portions as in 985.29E ( see 45.4.07) (if fat content of test sam ple is unknown, defat before de termining dietary fi ber). For high sugar products, desugar before determining dietary fi ber by extracting 2–3 times with 85% ethanol, 10 mL/g, de canting, and then drying overnight at 40°C. Run 2 blanks/assay with test por tions to measure any contri bution from reagents to residue. Weigh du plicate 1.000 ± 0.005 g test portions (M1 and M2), accurate to 0.1 mg, into 400 mL (or 600 mL) tall-form beak ers. Add 40 mL MES–TRIS buffer solution, pH 8.2, to each. Stir on magnetic stirrer until test portion is com pletely dis persed (to prevent lump formation, which would make test material inaccessi ble to enzymes). Add 50 µL heat-stable α-amylase solution, stirring at low speed. Cover beakers with Al foil, and incubate in 95° –100°C water bath 15 min with continuous agitation. Start timing once bath tem perature reaches 95°C (to tal of 35 min is nor mally sufficient). Remove all beakers from bath, and cool to 60°C. Re move foil. Scrape any ring from inside of beaker and dis perse any gels in bottom of beaker with spatula. Rinse beaker walls and spatula with 10 mL H2O. Add 100 µL protease solution to each beaker. Cover with Al foil, and incu bate 30 min at 60° ± 1°C with continuous agitation. Start timing when bath tem perature reaches 60°C. Remove fo il. Dis pense 5 mL 0.561M HCl into beakers while stirring. Ad just pH to 4.0–4.7 at 60°C, by adding 1M NaOH solution or 1M HCl solution. ( Note: It is im portant to check and adjust pH while solutions are 60°C because p H will in crease at lower tem peratures.) (Most cereal, grain, and vegeta ble products do not require pH ad justment. Once verified for each laboratory, pH checking procedure can be omitted. As a precaution, check pH of blank routinely; if outside desirable range, check test solutions also.) Add 300 µL amyloglucosidase so lu tion while stirring. Cover with Al foil, and incu bate 30 min at 60° ± 1°C with constant agitation. Start timing once bath reaches 60°C.
F. Determination of Total Di etary Fiber To each digested test solution, add 225 mL (measured after heating) 95% ethanol at 60°C. Ratio of ethanol to test solution volume should be 4:1. Remove from bath, and cover beakers with large sheets of Al foil. Let precipitate form 1 h at room tem perature. Wet and redistribute Celite bed in pre viously tared crucible B(b), using 15 mL 78% ethanol from wash bottle. Apply suction to cruci ble to draw Celite onto fritted glass as even mat. Filter alcohol-treated enzyme digestate through cruci ble. Using wash bottle with 78% ethanol and rubber spatula, quantitatively transfer all remaining particles to cruci ble. ( Note: If some products form a gum, trap ping the liquid, break film with spatula.) Using vacuum, wash residue 2 times each with 15 mL portions of 78% ethanol, 95% ethanol, and acetone. Dry cruci ble containing residue overnight in 105°C oven. Cool crucible in desiccator ca 1 h. Weigh cruci ble, containing dietary fi ber residue and Celite, to nearest 0.1 mg, and calculate residue weight by subtracting weight of dry cruci ble with Celite, B(b). Use one du plicate from each test portion to determine protein, 960.52 ( see 12.1.07), using N × 6.25 as conversion factor. For ash analysis, incinerate second du plicate 5 h at 525°C. Cool in desiccator, and weigh to nearest 0.1 mg. Subtract weight of cruci ble and Celite, B(b), to determine ash weight. G. Determination of In s oluble Dietary Fiber Wet and redistribute Celite bed in pre viously tared cruci ble, B(b), using ca 3 mL H2O. Ap ply suction to cru ci ble to draw Celite into even mat. Filter enzyme digestate, from E, through cruci ble into filtration flask. Rinse beaker, and then wash residue 2 times with 10 mL 70°C H2O. Com bine filtrate and water washings, transfer to pretared 600 mL tall-form beaker, and reserve for determination of solu ble dietary fi ber, H. Using vacuum, wash residue 2 times each with 15 mL portions of 78% ethanol, 95% ethanol, and acetone. ( Note: Delay in washing IDF residues with 78% ethanol, 95% ethanol, and acetone may cause inflated IDF values.) Use du plicates to determine protein and ash as in F. H. Determination of Soluble Dietary Fi ber Proceed as for insolu ble dietary fi ber determination through instruction to com bine the f iltrate and water washings in pretared 600 mL tall-form beak ers. Weigh beak ers with combined solution of filtrate and water washings, and estimate volumes. Add 4 volumes of 95% ethanol pre heated to 60°C. Use portion of 60°C ethanol to rinse filtering flask from IDF determination. Alternatively, ad just weight of com bined solution of filtrate and water washings to 80 g by addition of H2O, and add 320 mL 60°C 95% ethanol. Let precipitate form at room tem perature 1 h.
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Follow TDF determination, F, from “Wet and redistribute Celite bed . . . ”.
[(R1 + R 2 )/2 ] − P − A − B (M1 + M 2 )/2
I. Calculations Blank (B, mg) determination: B=
BR1 + BR 2 2
– PB – AB
where BR 1 and BR 2 = residue weights (mg) fo r du plicate blank determinations; and PB and AB = weights (mg) of protein and ash, respectively, determined on first and second blank residues. Dietary fi ber (DF, g/100 g) determination:
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where R 1 and R 2 = residue weights (mg) for du plicate test portions; P and A = weights (mg) of protein and ash, respectively, determined on first and sec ond residues; B = blank weight (mg); and M 1 and M2 = weights (mg) for test portions. Total dietary fi ber determination: Determine either by inde pendent analysis, as in F, or by summing IDF and SDF, as in G and H. Reference: J. AOAC Int. 75, 395(1992). Revised: June 2000