Akuntansi Manajemen Segemented reporting dan desentralisasi
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Descripción: Live Beat 3 - Workbook Pearson
Beat Reporting INTRODUCTION Beat is a journalistic term used to refer to segmented area or particular eld a reporter is assigned to monitor and report from there on a regular basis. The act of monitoring and coering assigned beats for the purpose of publication is referred to as beat reporting. This is another angle to the discussion on specialised reporting. This unit !ill !ill concentrate concentrate on beat reporting" reporting" t#pes and the $ind of reporters reporters assigned to coer particular beats.
%hat is a Beat& ' beat is a reporter(s assigned area of responsibilit#. ' beat ma# be an institution" such as the National 'ssembl#) a geographical area" such as a small to!n or an entire cit#*to!n" or a subject area" such as science and technolog#" business etc.
%hat is Beat Reporting& Beat reporting is the act of coering and reporting from a particular eld or subject of coerage for #our media organisation. Beat reporting is therefore specialised ne!s gathering. It could also be regarded as a form of correspondence. +ere" the beat is the place of coerage !hile the correspondent in that place is the beat reporter.
%ho is a Beat Reporter& ' beat reporter is a person !ith !ell,trained and ade-uate $no!ledge in a particular area of ne!s coerage !here he represents his ne!s organisation. ' beat reporter ma# be a #oung reporter assigned to coer such local beats li$e the police" the courts" local goernment or the schools. ' beat reporter could also be a !ell,trained and er# eperienced reporter of man# #ears standing !ho coers er# important institutions li$e 'so Roc$ for his media organisation. In this instance" one has to be a successful reporter reporter before one is assigned to coer such important beats.
T#p T#pes es of Beat Beats s There are are t!o t#pes of beats. beats. The rst is the topical beat. Topical beats thrie because the media audience constantl# needs updates from such topical subject. /ome topical beats are education" politics" business" business" econom#" science and technolog#" health" and so on. The second t#pe of beat is the geographical beat. 0eographical beat re-uire the reporter to report from specic location on all topical issues and subject matter.
1rinciples of Reporters on a Beat If #ou must succeed as reporter on the beat" #ou must2 3. Be prepared2 +ae a basic education in journalism" understand the societ#" understand the goernment" $no! histor#" economics and ps#cholog# and be !ell eposed in #our area of coerage. 4. Be alert2 The germ 5the beginning6 of a good stor# is hidden in man# a routine one. /o" al!a#s sta# focused and ta$e tips seriousl#. 7. Be persistent2 1ersistence entails t!o things to a reporter on a beat. 8irst" it means that !hen #ou as$ a -uestion) #ou cannot gie up until #ou get an ans!er. /econd" it means that #ou must $eep trac$ of slo!,deeloping projects or problems. 9. Be there2 In beat reporting" there is no substitute for personal contact. The onl# !a# to coer a beat is to be there eer# da#" if possible. :ou must ma$e #ourself seem to be part of the communit# #ou are coering. ;. Be !ar#2 :ou must al!a#s tr# to $eep #our readers informed about the latest eents or deelopments. :ou must also be cautious in #our dealings that come across #ou. <. /et dail# goals2 =a$e sure #ou hae a good idea of !hat #ou !ant to accomplish on a dail# basis. >. Build sources2 There is no substitute for regular contacts that !ill alert the reporter the rst time the# hear or see an#thing ne!s !orth# in the beat. ?. Do faours2 %here appropriate" go out of #our !a# to do faours for #our sources. It sure !ill help in times of #our o!n need. @. 's$ the s!eeping -uestions2 If #ou li$e" as$ the dumb -uestions but ma$e sure #ou are as$ing the -uestions that !ill get something out of #our sources or subjects. 3A.isten carefull# and !atch carefull#2 /ome reporters loo$ but the# do not see. %hen #ou loo$" tr# to obsere and see !hat is happening around. Chec$ out the moods" the reactions" bod# language !hen the -uestion !as as$ed. oo$ and see. 33.oo$ at the Records2 In coering #our beat" #ou are epected to constantl# $eep in touch !ith original documents. 0o for the original source material.
34.=a$e 1hone Calls2 =a$e constant phone chec$s and calls een if not er# necessar#. :ou should also $no! that phone calls cannot replace direct contact. The# are onl# a supplement. 37./tart out arl# and 8ast2 :ou need to constantl# leae #our oce earl# to #our beat. :ou must a clear understanding that stories do not usuall# pump up in the ne!sroom. /o" !hat are #ou still doing there b# @.AA in the morning& 39.Eno! the Beat2 :ou must ma$e a concerted eFort to $no! #our beat li$e #ou $no! #our true friend. There is no substitute for this. Gust ma$e sure #ou understand the process in and around #our beat. 3;./ho! /ome Courtes# and be 8riendl#2 's a beat reporter" #ou should be able to relate !ith people in #our beat and treat indiiduals #ou beat there some respect. :ou ma# neer $no! !ho the net source might be. ' beat reporter should also tr# to ma$e friends in his*her area of coerage. :ou sure need them than enemies. 3<.Be an Obserer2 ' beat reporter should maintain a critical distance bet!een him and the subjects he is coering. +e must be a non,participant obserer and not a participant. The moment a reporter associates er# closel# !ith the subjects of his beat" he begins !riting for his sources rather than the audience. This is er# dangerous. 3>.Be 1rotectie of Condential /ources2 :ou must respect the oF,record rule. :ou must also maintain the condence of #our sources een at gunpoint. 'n# beat reporter !ho easil# diulges the sources of information or gies a hint about it because of threats" is alread# dead professionall#. 3?.=aintain the Triple Ne!s Hirtues2 The triple ne!s irtues are the# fundamental pillars upon !hich eer# ne!s stor# must rest. The# are2 truth" objectiit# and accurac#. 8or no reason should an# of these be iolated.
36 1OITIC' R1ORTIN0 INTRODUCTION Coering politics re-uires a broad range of $no!ledge of political science or at least the basic $no!ledge of goernmental structures and the operational s#stem of goernment at !hateer leel. ' political reporter must also understand the d#namics of human societies. This is ital for his coerage of the beat because he !ill sure be dealing !ith comple human beings called politicians.
8unction of a 1olitical Reporter 3. The 1olitical reporter interprets the electoral processes to the electorate in manner the# !ill understand the issues better. 4. It is also the dut# of the political reporter to monitor" inestigate" anal#e and report political happenings and eents in a language and format the electorate !ill appreciate. 7. the functions of a political reporter include reporting and interpreting eents) dening issues) portra#ing personalities) inestigating support) identif#ing trends) chec$ing and anal#sing public opinion
Jualities of a 0ood 1olitical Reporter 3. ' good political reporter must normall# possess the -ualities of a reporter" !hich has been treated in detail earlier. These -ualities are basic. The other ones follo!ing these are additional because of the demands of political reporting. 4. ' good political reporter must hae passion for politics. 7. ' good political reporter must hae a clear understanding of the meaning of politics" political intrigues" po!er games as !ell as a rst hand familiarit# !ith the electoral processes. +e or she must also hae an understanding of part# politics and report such issues ade-uatel#. 9. +e or she must also be research sa# and a good historian of political matters and actiities. ;. ' good political reporter must also hae good memor# for faces and names. <. ' good political reporter should also hae the capacit# to understand and interpret the goernmental processes to his audience. >. +e should hae the abilit# to memorise and summarise political speeches at short notice. ?. The good political reporter should also hae a clear understanding of the la!s goerning the political process in a countr# or localit# of coerage.
/ources of Information for the 1olitical Reporter There are a ariet# of sources !here the political reporter can loo$ up records" erif# facts and do other sundr# and related matters connected to his beat before going to press. These sources include the follo!ing. 3. 1olitical parties 4. /tate +ouse or 0oernment +ouse or 0oernment /ecretariat 7. The leadership of political parties 9. =inistries and 0oernment 1arastatals ;. 1o!erful politicians and indiiduals <. /trong part# men and supporters
Challenges 'ssociated !ith 1olitical Reporting
3. The editorial polic# of the particular media organisation ma# conKict !ith the political reporter(s perception of the issues. This is eident !hen the media organisation becomes partisan or semi partisan in the political aFairs of the nations. 4. In the deeloping societies" politics is sometimes seen as a do,or die aFair. This perspectie ma$es politics al!a#s iolent prone in the deeloping. =an# journalists hae lost their lies coering politics in the deeloping nations. This remains a big challenge in political reporting. 7. 'nother major challenge associated !ith political reporting is that some reporters hae gotten into the habit of becoming Ler# closeM !ith politicians thereb# inKuencing their judgment of the issues. 9. /ome reporters in this beat sometimes nd it dicult remain neutral in political issues and part# politics. The# also nd it dicult to remain neutral or hide their political ie!s. Thus" it is not surprising to hae iberals" Democrats" Republicans and others amongst the journalists. This aFects objectiit# and fairness in the dail# coerage of their beat.
46 1'RI'=N R1ORTIN0 • Parliamentary reporting is a technical and sensitive assignment. A Reporter has to take care of certain points if he would like to be a successful reporter. POINTS TO BE REMEMBER
• You are a stranger; you are bound by the rules. • Observe very basic conduct and parliamentary tradition. • ust comply with all standing orders. • Read !ational Assembly "Powers # Privileges$ Act. • !ever carry any recording device such as tape recorder% video camera% cell phone% or film e&uipment into Parliament unless specifically authori'ed. • (amiliari'e yourself with proceedings. • )imply sit% listen and take notes. • !ever rely on the notes made by any other reporter. • )eek the assistance of the parliamentary secretariat staff on information you need. • Present all issues and leave *udgment to the readers. • +f you have any doubt about an important !ews point% have a follow up meeting with P to clarify the point. PARLIMANTRY REPORTING
• Parliamentary reporting is a speciali'ed *ob. Only e,perienced and a person who has the nose for parliament courage can do this *ob. Parliament reporting is a sensitive assignment. You should be well versed on the following if you are interested to become a parliamentary reporter• Read the constitution • Read the parliamentary procedure act • /now what is ad*ournment otion% Privilege motion% 0uestion hour% Point of order. • 1ow these motions can be moved and how they are disposed off • 2he procedure of law making
• 1ow a bill can shape the law • 1ow the voting takes place • 3hat is the role of )peaker% 4eputy )peaker of the !ational Assembly and 5hairman% 4eputy 5hairman of the )enate • 5omposition of provincial assemblies • 1ow the leader of the house and Opposition leader are elected • 3hat is the role of Press 6allery • Also read the history of parliaments • Parliamentary Reporter must familiari'e himself with the working of 1ouse 5ommittees. 2he 5ommittees of Parliament are important source of !ews. • 2he Reporter must visit the library of the parliament. 1e will find e,clusive material to report. • 2he Reporter should know that the members can say anything during debate without fear of any legal action due to parliamentary immunity 7 but that doesn8t necessarily mean that whatever they say is correct. 9eing a responsible newsman% it is the *ob of a reporter to pick and choose what to be reported. PARLIAMENTARY TERMINOLOGIES
2erminologies- 1ow to make standard parliamentary news. • 2here are number of parliamentary terminologies which are re&uired to be known to the parliamentary reporter