Civil Engineering Questions and Answers PDF Free Download - Preparation for EngineeringFull description
compilation of information on environmentally sustainable building materials that could be used for the purposes of residential building design....
Building Tech and Materials.1
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Today, transfer of waste material is an incredible issue and it gets to be hard to discover common assets because of their extreme abuse. Utilization of waste materials as development materials has various advantages, for example, diminishment in cos
When we talk about the advantages of PVC plastic sheet materials or any other material of it, then there is an enormous number of advantages of using it. The first and foremost reason is that it diminishes the gas eruptions of the greenhouse, thus, i
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This practice-oriented book, now in its second edition, presents a lucid yet comprehensive coverage of the engineering properties and uses of the materials commonly used in building construc…Full description
The High-Pressure Laminates are used for surfacing purposes. This is the surfacing material that gives luxurious, classy and unique appeal to commercial or residential space. You can find these laminates in different shades, styles, textures to suit
Silliman University College of Engineering and Architecture Department of Architecture
ASSIGNMENT in ARCHT 23 BUILDING TECHNIQUE 1
Sheree Ann M. Labe BS Architecture – Architecture – II II
Arch. Alexander D. Udjaji Instructor
1. What is Indigenous Materials? Indigenous, by definition in the Webster’s dictionary, dictionary, it is an adjective meaning ‘originating in and characteristic of a particular region or country’. country ’. Indigenous materials, therefore, are materials that are naturally and locally found in a specific place or are a. Naturally, some areas are less endowed than others, so indigenous materials vary depending on the geographic features and location and climate condition of a region. These materials in effect become a large influence on the lifestyle and culture of a region’s people overtime with the skills and crafts handed down through generations. Something is indigenous if you can easily find it within your locality. It is something you do not need to spend or have t rouble fetching; in other words, you do not need to use major and improved transport systems. Indigenous materials also do not require costly processing, which consume energy and other resources, and can be used even in their raw, untreated forms. Being a country rich in rainforests and othe r natural resources, we have an abundant variety and amount of indigenous materials present around us. The indigenous materials commonly found in our country largely consist of a variety of timbers, canes, grass, and palms. We have a large variety of soft and hardwoods used in the construction and furniture industry, a few of the most popular we know are narra, kamagong and mahogany. The ever-famous bamboo is used in both industries as well as in many handicrafts, where abaca and rattan are also greatly used and woven into wicker products. The coconut tree is also a favorite indigenous material for its flexibility and overall usability from the root to the leaves. From a large variety of plants in our locale we can also resource many different kinds of natural fibers as well. These fibers when spun into threads and woven together create very fine clothing and textiles. Other indigenous materials in the Philippines that are commonly known and used creatively in crafts and decoration are c apiz, pearls, corals, and seashells, being an archipelago naturally abundant in beaches and marine resources. Even being in the P acific Ring of Fire has its effect on the availability of volcanic refuse as a r esource. Lahar and other igneous rocks are vastly being incorporated in co nstruction.
Due to the urbanization, today, things made of indigenous materials are fairly considered more for their aesthetic purpose, with little respect for their potential functionality, than for conventional urban development. We have grown used to buildings enclosed by concrete and glass that we get fascinated when we enter any place enclosed by traditional bamboo poles or coconut timber. “Unfortunately, the materials we use naturally affect the environment. Their production and transportation deplete resources and consume energy. More and more building materials are becoming scarce – scarce – not not only the raw materials but also the energy needed to produce them – them – and if present trends continue, some of t he most common raw materials and energy sources, such as oil and natural gas, will be exhausted within about the next century. And it is on these that we have become increasingly dependent since Wor ld War II as natural materials have been supplemented with synthetic chemicals and plastic products. Traditional materials like clay and stone still abound, and timber can be replenished by properly managed reforestation. In addition, if these materials are easily reused or recycled, they produce little or no pollution and they are reabsorbed into the natural cycles of the environment once their use as building materials is over. Energy fr om fossil fuels is becoming scarce and the amount used in the production ad transportation of materials is high. The best materials therefore are those materials mater ials that need little processing and/or are local. Locally grown and reclaimed timber entails only a low energy c ost expenditure. Clay dug from the site of the house and used for bricks or adobe is another example of a material that uses almost no energy except that re quired for the building work. In contrast to natural mater ials, synthetic and processed products, such as plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and oven-fired bricks and clay t iles, require a high-energy high-energy expenditure on both production and transportation.” (Pearson) transportation.” (Pearson) The aim, therefore, is to lean toward measures that are eco -friendly or sustainable, with the use of materials that are readily available locally and useable even in their raw form or with as little processing needed as possible, especially those that are recyclable and renewable in the environment.
2. Give sample illustrations of such materials use in the following components:
3. What are non-conventional materials? Forget steel and cement for the meanwhile and let’s go back to basics.
Seaweed power! Modern Seaweed House in Denmark (Image from Dezeen.com) Old-school builders were definitely ingenious in taking advantage of what nature has to o ffer as building materials. Nowadays, we might label them as non-conventional building building materials, but back then these low-tech materials were the default. default. They are carbon-neutral, sustainable, sustainable, and perform beyond expectations. Below are four samples of non-conventional building materials.
SEAWEED Believe it or not, seaweed is a popular building material by folks in Denmark and other Scandinavian countries— countries—and it dates back centuries. It grows abundantly and even washes up ashore for e asy gathering. Don’t underestimate this slimy, ropy plant; seaweed toughens up when properly dried and arranged. It’s reportedly reportedly fire-proof, does not rot, and needs no t oxic glues to turn into neat building blocks. As reported by Dezeen.com, the appropriately named Modern Seaweed House in Denmark benefits from the insulating properties of seaweed, both in in heat and acoustics. Perhaps the most amazing quality of a seaweed is its ability to draw in moisture from the air and then release as needed during dry days.
All green: Houses proudly roofed with turf. (Image from blog.designsquish.com) Nothing can be more low-tech and sustainable than turf or sod as non-conventional building materials for a house. Turf is actually the popular building building material for many houses in Iceland, whose inhabitants depend on the insulating properties of grass on their walls and roof. And of course, it makes sense to use what grows abundantly in the region. The Icelandic climate can be harsh. As such, Icelanders and the people have learned to design their homes with tried-and-tested method that uses a foundation of stones and wood, and then layers of peat and turf. The result is maximum protection from the element, combined with coziness and comfort.
Elegant and cozy: A house made of rammed earth. (Image from Inhabitat.com) Packed earth or rammed earth don’t just don’t just make for nice Tatooinesque dwellings inspired by Star Wars. Earth as a buildng material is pretty low-tech, certainly all-natural, and sustainable sustainable too. Here, a mix of earth, sand, gravel, and clay with added lime, cement, or asphalt to bind the whole thing are poured into wooden moulds, and then tamped and compacted. The resulting wall may
not be as strong as concrete, concre te, but when done properly can still have excellent load-bearing capacities. Packed earth structures, aside from being warm, cozy dwellings, also boasts of having breathable, fireproof, and termite-proof walls.
Slimy with a purpose: BIQ Building in Germany (Image from W ired.com) A while back, we wrote about the BIQ Building in Germany and its fascinating use of algae, but it’s worth repeating here. While not exactly a building building material per se, and is fairly fairly new in the scene besides, algae is getting everyone’s attention for its energy-efficient energy-efficient and sustainable properties. Who would have known that the humble algae can be used on a building? building? Grown inside glass panels that make up the building’s façade, algae converts sunlight into energy, via photosynthesis. photosynthesis. The energy produced can then be used for the building’s lighting and heating. The algae also provides shade from from glare and absorbs noise from the streets outside. No need to worry about aesthetic aesthetic considerations. The BIQ designers managed to make turn algae suspended in watery glass panels into a nifty skin for the buildings.
4. Discuss about recyclable material and other alternative building materials. Building Boards A group of sheets of building materials often faced with paper or vinyl, suitable for use as a finished surface on walls, ceilings, etc. This group of boards is all flat, relatively thin in section and have been made to standard sizes, usually 4 x 8 ft. These building boards are made of sever al materials and used for a variety of purposes. KINDS OF BUILDING BOARDS 1. Plywood 2. Hardwood 3. Insulating Fiberboard 4. Chipboard 5. Particle Board 6. Gypsum Board 7. Strawboard 8. Asbestos-cement board 9. Corkboard 10. Paperboard 11. Mineral Fiberboard 12. Plastic foamboards
PROPERTIES OF WOOD One of the main advantages of plywood is that it has good strength across as well as along the panel. The more nearly equal the strength in both directions will be. The tendency to swell and shrink is neutralized to a large extent, because in plywood approximately half the wood grain runs in one direction and t he other half at the right angles to it. Plywood has a greater resistance to blow an ordinary wood. Plywood cannot be split in the plane of the panel because of its successive layers at right angles to one another. Nails and screws can be driven very close to edge of the panels without danger of splitting. Plywood can be bent more easily than or dinary wood of the same thickness. The radius of curvature depends on the thickness limited by the strength of the outer piles in tension and by the strength of the inner piles in compression. Plywood offers innumerable possibilities for decoration because of the great variety of colors and textures that can be produced on the piles.
Decorative effects of the also can be applied to the face ply by sandblasting, by pressure, or by etching with wire brushes. 1. PLYWOOD Plywood is made by bonding together thin layers of wood in a way that the grain of each layer is at right angles to each adjacent layer.
Each layer of plywood is called a Veneer , and commonly made by rotary cutting – cutting – a a method of cutting wood veneer in which a log is fixed in a lathe and rotated against a knife so that the veneer is peeled from the log in a continuous sheet.
Waterproof glue is applied by machine to the face plies, core, and crossboards. They are assembled into plywood form and placed in hot presses which compress the veneers into solid sheets of approximately the proper thickness. At the same time he heat cures the glue, a process which takes from 2 to 20 minutes.
TYPES OF PLYWOOD 1. Marine plywood – plywood – absolutely absolutely waterproofed 2. Fancy plywood – plywood – non non waterproofed for panellings and cabinets.
Narra bookmatched Kalantas rotary cut Ribbon grained tanguile Lauon rotary cut Dao bookmatched Rosewood Tanguile 3. Ordinary Plywood 4. Form plywood 5. Pre-finished plywood paneling (Brand Danarra) a. Paper – Paper – overlaid overlaid b. Printed – Printed – comes comes in 14 tones, no need to varnish or paint. Nailed through V-grooves or glued. Comes in three pre-cut sizes and two series, the morocco ser ies and papyrus series. bookmatched – bookmatched – the the assembling of wood veneers from the same flitch so that successive sheets are alternated face up and face down ribbon grained – grained – a a series of strips uniting several parts.
Sizes Common size is 3 x 6 feet and 4 x 8 feet. Other panels special sizes are 3’ x 7’, 4’ x 6’, 4’x7’, 4 ’ x 9’, 4’ x 10’, 5’ x 8’, 5’ x 9’ and 5’10’.
Thickness 6 mm – mm – ¼” – double – double walling 9 mm – mm – 3/8” – double – double walling 12mm – 12mm – ½” – drawers, – drawers, shelves 16 mm – mm – 5/8” – drawers, – drawers, shelves 18 mm – mm – ¾” – cabinet – cabinet closet doors 25 mm – mm – 1” – cabinet – cabinet closet doors
2. HARDBOARD Made from processed wood chips. Chips of controlled size are subjected to high-pressure steam in pressure vessels. When the pressure is related the chips “explode” and the cellulose and lignin are separated from the unwanted elements and then m ixed into a homogenous mass and formed into a continuous board which is cut up into convenient length. These are pressed into uniform, hard, grainless
sheets in heated presses. They are smooth on one side and with a overlap – overlap – like like impression on the other side.
Three grades of board a.
Standard – Standard – flexible flexible to be quite easily bent. It is light brown and is produced in thicknesses of 1/8, 3/16, 1/4 , and 5/16 in. Boards are 4 feet wide and are available in lengths of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 and 16 feet. This grade of hardbound is not suitable for exterior work.
b. Tempered Hardboard – Hardboard – is is made by impregnated standard board with a tempering compound of oils and resin and baking it to polymerize the t empering material. Tempered hardboard is dark brown color and is available in thickness of 1/8, 2/16, 1/4 , 5/16 and 3 /8 in. This board is brittle and stiff, ha improved machining qualities and much greater resistance to w ater penetration, making it suitable for exterior work. c.
Low-density hardboard – hardboard – not not as strong and durable as standard hardboard.
Some specially products of hard board.
3. INSULATING FIBERBOARD Made from three types of fiber – fiber – wood, wood, sugar cane, and asbestos, and binder, formed into a board. a.Wood a. Wood fibers produced by pressing logs against a gr indstone which breaks down into fibers or by making 5/8” chips chips from logs and charging into pressure vessels where they are softened with live stream. They are then sheared to breal chips down into fibers. Two basic grades of board are made: a.1. Insulating grade – grade – made made up as insulating, decorative panels decorative ceiling tile, V-notch, plaster base, and roof insulation. Standard thickness are ½. 5/8, ¾ and 1 in. a.2 Sheating grade – grade – One One having both surfaces and all edges coated with asphalt and the other w ith the fibers impregnated with asphalt during manufacture. b. Cane fiberboards is made by shredding cane and processing the fibers in much the same way as wood fibers. c. Mineral fiberboard is made from asbestos fibers mized with a c ementing agent. This type of board is used primarily for fireproofing and acoustical purposes.
4. CHIPBOARD A large class of building made from wood and part icle and a binder, often faced with veneer, Chipboard is made by binding phenolic resin or urea forldehyde glue in the form of a 4 ft. wide board, length from 8 to 16 feet long with thickness ¼, 5/16, 3/8, ½. 5/8, and ¾ in. Panels are made in two types, plain and pattered. Plain panels may be unsanded on one side, or sanded two sides. Patterened panels have one grooved surface, e ither evenly spaced or random. Chipboards are used both foir interior and exterior which include sheating for walls, and roof, subflooring, fence paneling, and commercial exteriors and interiors. The board lends itself to a range of stain and paint finishes, an advantage for interior use, while at the same time, its weather weat her resistance make it valuable as an outdoor material. Hardwood plywood can also be laminated to chipboard for interior finishing panel.
5. PARTICLE BOARD
A hardboard made from relatively small particles. The particles are graduated from coarse at the center of the board to fine at the surface to help produce with a smooth, dense surface. Both surfaces are sanded, and one surface and t he edges may be filled to provide a still smoother denses surface for particular uses. Common uses are floor underlay, using polyvinyl acetate adhesive, divergent point staples or annular-grooved flooring nails for fastening. Also use for shelving, with fill edges, as core stock in millwork and furniture manufacturing, and as a base to which may be applied wood veneers, plastic laminates, printed wood grain patterns, chalkboard coating. Sizes are 4 x 8 ft, 2 x 4 ft, and 4 x 4 ft. Thicknesses includes 1/4, 5/16, 3/8, ½, 5/8. 1 1/16 ¾ and 1 in.
6. GYPSUM BOARD A wall board having a gypsum core. One type is a board with a special paper face on which a variety of wood-grain patterns may be printed. Such a board may be nailed with special colored nails, or glue laminated to an interior surface to produce a wood – wood –grain grain effect. Another type is a gypsum board faced with a vinyl sheet, made to imitate a textile surface. This is either glued in place or held by aluminum or plastic moldings.
7. STRAWBOARD A hardboard made of compressed wheat straw, processed at 350 to 400 ˚F and ˚F and covered with a tough kraft paper. Two grades: a.) Structural Board – Board – is is manufactures 2 in. thick, 4 ft wide and 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 ft. lone. It is used for nonbearing partition, as a plaster base, for insulating purposes exterior sheating, roof decking, and as an inner form face for concrete basement wall forms. b.) Insulation primarily for roof deck insulation.
8. ASBESTOS-CEMENT BOARD A dense, rigid, board containing a high proportion of asbestos fibers bonded with Port land cement, resistant to fire, flame and weathering, has low resistance to heat flow. Used as a building material in sheet form and corrugated sheating. Flat boards are made in 1/8, ¼, 3/8/ and ½ in thick; 4 ft wide, and from 6 to 12 feet long. Various types of corrugated sheets are made from the same material. All types of asbestos-cement boards must be drilled for the insertion of screws, bolts, or othe r fasteners.
9. CORKBOARD From the outer bark of the cork, oaktree, cork granules is mixed with synthetic resin, compressed and formed into sheet from 1 to 6 in. thick and baked under pressure i nto rigid boards. The standard board length is 36 in and w idths are 12, 18, 24 and 36 in. Corkboard is used almost exclusively for thermal insulating material and vibration control.
10. PAPERBOARD Made in two different types: a. A paper pulp pressed into boards 3/16, or ¼ in thick, 4 ft. wide , and 6, 7 or 8 ft long. Usually one surface is primed for easier finishing. b. A layer of stiff paper folded into corrugated form and faced on both sides with a thick paper backing, cemented to the core.
11. MINERAL FIBERGROUND Thick mats of mineral fibers, usually glass or rock wool are covered with a backing of stiff paper on one or both sides to form rigid boards, raging in thickness from ½ to 2 in. The usual board size is 24 x 48 in. These units are used for roofdeck insulation and are cemented to the deck with asphalt adhesive.
12. PLASTIC FOAMBOARDS Polystyrene and polyurethane plastics are foamed by a patented process to about 40 times their original volume. This foamed material is molded into boards from 1/2 to 3 in. thick, 12 or 24 in wide and from 4 to 12 ft long. Used for perimeter insulation for concrete floor slabs for wall and roof-deck insulation, and for roof deck when properly supported. These plastic boards have high insulation value and relatively high compressive strength, and are flexible enough to fit over c urved surface.
BUILDING PAPERS In building construction, paper is used for sheathing, roofing and insulation, in making asphalt shingles, laminated and corrugated building products, and concrete form m aterials, as a moisture and vapor barrier; as a cushioning material; as wall-paper; as an e nvelope or sheathe for other mater ials; and as a fireproofing material. Most paper is made from cellulose fibers which corners from wood pulp, but wastepaper, jute waste, Manila hemp, rags, straw and bagasse ( cane and corn stalks) are also utilized. TYPES OF WOOD PULP a. Mechanical Pulp – Pulp – or or groundwood, is produced by grinding blocks of wood against a revolving abrasive stone or by grinding steamed wood chips in a grinding mill. b. Chemical pulp – pulp – produced produced by digestive wood chips in various chemical to free the cellulose fibers from the liquid binding. c.
Semi-chemical pulp – pulp – wood wood chips are first subjected to a mild chemical treatment and then mechanically disintegrated in rotating disk refiners.
TYPES OF PAPER 1. Sheathing paper – paper – paper paper used to provide an airtight barrier over walls, floors etc. Two Types: a. Plain paper – paper – either either a low-cost paper made from a mixture of semichemical pulp and waste paper or a tough paper made from kraft pulp.
b. Asphalt impregnated or coated felt or kraft paper – paper – various various amounts of asphalt are used per hundred square feet of paper so t he papers of various weights are made, from 4 to 10 lb per square. These are what is known as breather papers, impervious to water but not water vapor. 2. Roofing Paper a. Roofing felts – felts – those those which are used in making a built-up roof and are usually produced in 36 in wide rolls, in various weights from 3 to 20 lb. per square.
b. Rolled Roofing – Roofing – a a heavy mineral surfaced paper used as a finaal roof covering, made 18 and 36 in wide, in various weights from 45 to 120 lb. per square. 3. Insulation Paper The primarily objective in the production of this type of paper is to secure bulk and e ntrapped air with as much strength as possible. Insulating papers are made both from. a. Weed-fiber insulating paper – paper – is is made from groundwood or bagasse with some waste paper pulp added. The paper is usually gray, produced in 36 in. wide rolls, we ighing about 9 lb. per square. It is used for insulating walls, ceilings and floors. b. Asbestos fibers – fibers – a a soft, pliable paper used for insulating pipes carrying steam, boilers, and other vessels with high temperatures. It is produced in various weights from 5 to 10 l b per square, a heavier asbestos-felt paper is produced for use as a built-up roofing material. It is saturated with asphalt and produced in rolls 36 in. wide weighing approximately 15 lb per square.
4. CUSHIONING PAPER Similar to wood-fiber insulating paper, but less attention is paid to stre ngth. its chief use is for cushioning under linoleum. carpets, or slate roofing. 5. VAPOR-BARRIER PAPER These paper, which are intended to prevent the passage of moisture vapor through walls, ceilings and floor, are made in three different types.
a. Waxed paper – paper – made made from strong light kraft in thre e grades commonly known as x, xx, xxx. b. Twwo thickness of paper lanminated together with a film of asphalt. Two kinds of paper is used – used – One One is a kraft paper, the other, a mixture of ground wood pulps, treated by the sulfite and the kraft methods. c.
A sheet of kraft paper laminated to copper foil by an asphalt film. This is a heavy duty material used for vapor barrier and for flashing.
6. LAMINATING PAPER This is a special, high strength kraft paper made for use in the production of plastic laminated. The thin, strong paper is impregnated with liquid plastic, resin and several sheet are laminated together under heart and pressure to form the base for the plastic sheet. 7. CONCRETE FORM PAPER a. A form made from strong kraft paper in the form of a spiral tube. These are used as column forms and as ducts and core forms in concrete floors.
b. A boxlike form made from corrugated c ontainer paper. This is unbleached kraft paper sized with resin and coated with wax sizing and starch to make it abrasion resistant. These forms are used in forming ribbed concrete slabs.
pWALLPAPER Paper from which décor ative wallpaper is made. This is produced in two grades. a. No. 1 hanging – hanging – made made from bleached sulfite or bleached soda pulp, mized with not more that 20 percent high quality groundwood. Talc is used as filler, rosin and sodium silicate as sizing. The paper is coated with a clay film bound to the paper with case in, and the design is printed over the clay coating. b. No. 2 hanging – hanging – from from 72 to 90 percent ground wood and the rest unbleached sulfite. Little filter is used, but the paper must be sufficiently sized to stand the application of water paste without wetting or breaking through. 8. ENVELOPE PAPER Paper is used as an outer covering or envelope for a number of building materials. One of these is gypsum board, composed of a layer of calcined gypsum covered in both sides by a sheet of kraft paper. A number of insulating materials are enveloped in a kraft paper cover, sometimes asphalted. 9. FIRE PROOFING PAPER Made from asbestos fibers, since this is an incombustible material. The material maybe in t he form of matted paper, similar to asbestos insulating or roofing paper, or it may be in the form of a cloth woven from thread spun from asbestos fibers.
5. How does sustainability relates to indigenous materials? A sustainable home must make use of local (indigenous) materials, those occurring 'naturally' in the local area. House as Assemblage of by-products: For thousands and thousands of years, housing was built from found materials such as rock, earth, reeds and logs. Today, there are mountains of by-products of our c ivilization that are already made and delivered to all areas. These are the natural resources of o f the modern humanity. An Earthship must make use of these materials via techniques available to the common person. These materials and the techniques for using them must be accessible to the common person in terms of price and skill required to use them. The less energy required to turn a found object into a usable building material the better. This concept is also called embodied-energy.pp