this is about management in Engineering EconomicsFull description
It is the interconnection of multiple devices, generally termed as Hosts connected using multiple paths for the purpose of sending receiving data or media. There are also multiple devices or mediums which helps in the communication between two differ
The current status of land surveying in India with the help of computer and new technology.
Financial Management Chapter 10 The Basics of Capital Budgeting Test bank-WeygandtFull description
Financial Management Chapter 10 The Basics of Capital Budgeting Test bank-Weygandt
Financial Management Chapter 10 The Basics of Capital Budgeting Test bank-WeygandtFull description
For Financial Management
An introduction to the applied pulmonary mechanics for understanding of neonatal ventilation. This presentation should motivate the beginner to delve deep into the art of ventilation.Descripción completa
Assignment 1 - History of Computer
Simulated Annealing (SA) is a stochastic computational technique derived from statistical mechanics for finding near globally-minimum-cost solutions to large optimization problems. In this d…Descripción completa
B. K. Mody Government Pharmacy College, Rajkot Rajkot (212) Sunny R. Shah Lecturer
Definition History Terminology Classification Peripherals Binary conversions Application in Pharmacy
DEFINITION & CHARACTERISTICS
Compute Comput e + Operat Operator or A comput computer er is (opera (operator tor)de )device vice that that comput computes es.. Espe Especia ciall lly y a prog progra ramm mmab able le elec electr tron onic ic mach machine ine that that perf perfor orms ms highhigh-sp spee eed d math mathem emat atic ical al or logi logica call oper operat ation ions s or that that asse assemb mbles les,, stor stores es,, correlates correlates,, or otherwis otherwise e process processes es information. information. The basic basic parts parts of a comput computer er include includes s comput computer er hardw hardware are and comput computer er softw software are.. It cons consis ists ts of an Inpu Inputt Devic Device, e, a proc proces esso sorr and and an outp output ut devic device. e.
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ATT RIBUT E
Input Dev ic ice
Carries the message from the outer world to the computer
Keyboard, M ou ouse, Joystick, Barcode readers, Scanners etc,
It is the central processing unit, the primary attribute is to compute function ions as dict ictated by the user. It conver verts the data fro from inp input devi device ce to a comp comput uter er comp compa atible ible lang langua uage ge.. The The speed peed is meas measur ured ed in hertz, hertz, Megahe Megahertz rtz,, Gigaher Gigahertz tz etc. etc.
Vari Variou ous s type types s of proc proces ess sors ors are avail vaila able ble with ith diff ifferen erentt spee speeds ds and and capa capaci city ty.. For For e.g. e.g.,, AMD, AMD, Inte Intell etc. etc.,,
Outp OutputDe utDevi vice ce
The The outp utput devi device ce carr carrie ies s the the info inforrmat mation ion fro from the the C.P C.P.U to the the user in an user user frien friendlylang dlylangua uage ge
Monitor Monitor (CRT, (CRT, LCD LCD,, LED, LED, HD HD), ), Printer Printers s etc. etc.
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As obs observe erved d gene genera rall lly y the the comp comput uter er have have also lso evolv volve ed fro from a simp imple calc calcu ulati lating ng too tool to a comp comple lex x mach machin ine e able able to perf perfor orm m nume numero rous us task tasks s with within in a fract fractionof ionof a seco second nd.. The The histo history ry of compu compute terr date dates s back back to 3000 3000 BCE BCE in form form of abac abacus us.. Afte Afterr that that ther there e were were sequ sequen entia tiall chan change ges s with with the the time time and and acco accord rdin ingl gly y the the comp comput uter er coul could d be clas classi sifie fied d base based d on gene genera ratio tions ns in whic which h they they were were derived. derived. They They are catego categoriz rized ed histor historica ically lly as
1. Charle arles s Bab Babbag bage 2. Ada Byron 3. HermanHo rmanHoll lle erith rith
1. With With john john hers hersch chel el and and geor george ge peac peacoc ock, k, prod produc uced ed a tran trans slati lation on of lacroix’s calculus text. 2. Tran Trans slate lated d menebrea’s pape paperr into into engl englis ish, h, myth myth is of world’s first programmer programmer 3. Evolut Evolutio ion n of elect electro roni nic c acco accoun untin ting g mach machin ines es
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
John Mauchly J. Presper Eckert John von von Neuman mann Mauri auriceWil ceWilke kes s Alan Turing
1. 2. 3. 4.
John Bardeen Wil Willia liam Shoc Shockl kle ey Walt Walte er Brit Britta tain in Grace Murray Hopper
1. Marcian ian Hoff 2. Ste StephenWoz phenWozni nia ak 3. Stev e Jo Jobs
1. First First large large scal scale e elect electro ronicdigit nicdigital al compu compute terr 2. In 1943 Mauchly and Eckert prepare a proposal for the US Army to build an Electronic Electronic Numerical Numerical Integrator Integrator (ENIAC), (ENIAC), 3. cons constr truc uctio tion n of ENIA ENIAC C and and accu accumul mulat ator ors s star starte ted d 4. ENIA ENIAC C gives ives way to Elec Electr tron onic ic Discr iscret ete e Var Variab iable Auto Automa mati tic c Comp Comput uter er (EVD (EVDAC AC)) as propos proposed ed by Neu Neuman mann n 5. Prep Prepar ares es Elect Electro roni nic c Dela Delay y Stor Storag age e Auto Automa mati tic c Calc Calcul ulat ator or,, EDSA EDSAC C oper operat atio iona nall May, May, 1949 6. Prep Prepar ares es Auto Automat matic ic Comp Comput utin ing g Engin Engine e (ACE (ACE)) 7. Afte fter that Univac vac were prepared with ith mercury delay lay lin lines and met metal oxid xide tapes havin having g avera average ge acce access ss time time of 222 222 seco second nd and and 4 accu accumal malat ator ors s 8. IBM 701 (Defense Calculator) having memory stored using william tubes and secon secondar dary y memory memory consis consisting ting of memory memory tapes tapes and drums. drums. 1. 1958 1958 Philco Philco introdu introduces ces TRANSA TRANSAC C S-2000 S-2000 first first trans transist istoriz orized ed commerc commercial ial machine machine 2. FORTR FORTRAN AN,, ALGOL ALGOL,, and and COBOLare COBOLare firststa firststand ndar ardiz dized ed prog progra rammi mming ng lang langua uage ges s
1. Solid Solid logic logic tech techno nolo logy gy (inte (integr grat ated ed circu circuits its)) fam familyof ilyof ―compatible‖ computers 2. B A S I C 1. Larg Large e scale scale integ integra rate ted d circ circui uits ts (MSI (MSI,, LSI) LSI) 2. Larg Large e data databa bas ses 3. PASCAL,
The The part parts s of comp comput uter er coul could d be broa broadl dly y class classifi ified ed as of two two type types s 1. Computer hardware 2. Computer sof tw tware The The compu compute terr hard hardwa ware re are are thos those e part parts s of the the compu compute terr which which as the the name name sugg sugges ests ts are are hard hard in natu nature re in sens sense e they they are are the the part parts s of comp comput uter er which which could could be touche touched d and sens sensed. ed. Variou Various s physic physical al parts parts const constitu itute te the compute computerr
The monitor resembles a television set, and is where the computer displays information. Nowadays Nowadays it has been replaced by v arious sophisticated sophisticated technologies producing LED and LCD as well as High Definition pictures
The keyboard is the thing you type on to tell your computer what to do. It consists of alphabets A-Z, number 0-9, and vari ous other function keys
Unlike the keyboard, the mouse is another input devi ce that you use to communicate with your computer. It improves the communication ability as compared to keyboards.
Most computers can make sounds, sounds, just like a stereo system. system. In fact, you CD’s on most computers or watch DVDs. A prerequisite is a sound card.
can even listen to audio
A printer is where a computer writes down information or output, onto onto paper, or a hardcopy.
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Computer Computer software software Softw Softwar are e is a part part of the the compu compute terr you you cann cannot ot touc touch. h. Softwa Software re consis consistt of compute computerr progra programs ms and proced procedure ures s that that perform perform some some tasks tasks on your your comput computer. er. Comput Com puter er softw software are is divided divided into into three basic types. types.
Types of of Software
System System Software Software
It is the Operatin Operating g System System and is the base program on a computer and is conside idered system softw oftwar are. e. It tell tells s the the comp compu uter ter how how to work ork or oper opera ate. te. The The oper operat atin ing g syste ystem m also lso allo allow ws you you to load load othe otherr prog progra rams ms that that do spec special ializ ized ed task tasks s on to your your comp comput uter er.. Variou Various s ope operat rating ing syste system m softw software are have bee been n made made availabl available e for eg. Windows Windows-- Windows Windows 98, Windows Windows XP, Windows Windows Vista, Vista, Windows Windows 7 etc., etc., Apar Apartt from from window indows s cert certain ain othe otherr oper operat ating ing syst systems ems are are also also availa availablesu blesuch ch as MAC MAC from from Apple Apple,, etc, etc,
Application s so oftware
Application software allows you to accomplish one or more specific and tailor made tasks. For e.g., Micro Microso soft ft Officeand Officeand its sub sub part parts, s, gamin gaming g softw softwar are, e, Tally Tally etc. etc.,,
Programming so software
This type of softwares assist the engineers to write and develop a specific software and design prog progra ramme mmes. s. For For e.g. e.g.,, C+, C+, C++, C++, Visua Visuall Basi Basic c etc. etc.
The The devic devices es that that inpu inputt the the infor informat matio ion n in comp comput uter er are are calle called d input input devic devices es • •
Keyb Keyboa oard rd:: The The mos most prim primar ary y inpu inputt devi device ce is keyb keyboa oard rd.. The The keyb keyboa oard rd is the the thin thing g you you type type on to tell tell your our comp comput uter er what hat to do. do. It cons consis ists ts of alph alphab abet ets s A-Z, A-Z, numb number er 0-9, 0-9, and and variou various s othe otherr funct functio ion n keys keys Mous Mouse: e: Unlik nlike e the the keybo eyboar ard d, the the mous mouse e is ano anothe ther inpu nput devi devic ce tha that you use to comm mmu unicat icate e with ith you your comp compu uter ter. It imp improve roves s the the comm commun unic ica ation ion abilit ility y as compa mpared red to keyb eyboard oards s. It cons onsists ists of ball all which ich loc locates tes the the curs curso or on the the scree reen and and perfor forms var various ious func functi tion ons. s. Nowa Nowada days ys the the balls balls have have been been repl replac aced ed by LASE LASER R light light.. It has has gene genera rally lly this this opti option ons, s, right right clic click, k, left left clic click, k, doub double le clic click k , scro scroll ll click click and scroll scrolling ing option option.. Scan Scanne ner: r: They They are are used used to crea create te a pict pictur ure e out out of any any given iven docu docume ment nt such uch as word ord file file,, docu docume men nt etc., tc., by con converti verting ng the the docu docume men nt into into a digit digital al fileby scan scanni ning ng.. They They are are cate catego goriz rized ed base based d on the the reso resolu lutio tion n of the the scan scanne ned d pict pictur ure e such such as 75 dot dot per per inch inch,, 150 150 dpi dpi etc, etc,.. Digit Digital al Camer Camera: a: The The came camera ra could could also also be used used as an inpu inputt deviceby deviceby conn connec ectin ting g it to the the comp comput uter er..
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The The devic devicesthat esthat outp output ut the the infor informat matio ion n from from the the compu compute terr are are calle called d outp output ut devic devices es.. For For e.g. e.g.,, Moni Monittor: or: It res resemb embles les to a T.V., .V., now nowaday adays s vari variou ous s sophi ophis stica ticate ted d moni monito tors rs are are used used which hich emplo mploy y Liqui iquid d Crys rystal tal Dis Display play (LCD (LCD), ), Ligh ight emittin emitting g diode diode (LED), (LED), instea instead d of Cat Cathod hode e Ray Tube Tube (CRT). (CRT). Printer Printer:: Differen Differentt types types of printer printers s are availabl available e such such as dot matrix, matrix, DeskJe DeskJet, t, Inkjet, Inkjet, LASER LASER etc., etc.,
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They They are are used used to keep keep data data when hen the the pow power to the the comp comput uteris eris turn turned ed off off The The devic deviceswhi eswhich ch stor store e the the data data on or outs outsid ide e the the compu compute terr are are calle called d stor storag age e devic devices es.. They They are are as follo follows ws:: Hard ard Disk: isk: Usually ally moun mounte ted d ins inside ide the the computer’s system unit. it. Can store bill illion ions of characters of data. Sta Stated in for forms of bytes: Megabytes Megabytes,, Gigabytes Gigabytes or Terabytes Terabytes Magn Magnet etic ic Stor Storag age e: Reco Record rdin ing g of data data onto onto disks isks or tape tape by magn magnet etiz izin ing g part partic icle les s of an oxide xide based ased surfa urface ce coat coatin ing. g. A fair fairly ly perm perman anen entt type type of stor storag age e that that can can be modifi modified ed.. Used Used by mainfr mainfram ame e or micro microco compu mpute ters rs Flop Flopp py Driv Drive: e: It is a flop floppy py dis disc which hich coul could d store tore data data upto upto 1.44 .44 Mb and and is almo almos st obs obsolet olete e and and super upers seded eded by fas faster, ter, small maller er and and bet better ter storage storage devices. devices. Optica Opticall Discs Discs:: They They consis consists ts of Compa mpact Disc isc (CD): It is a storage devic vice which ich stores info inforrmat mation ion up to 700Mbs. They are avai vailab lable in ready only, ly, writa itable and rewritable rewritable formats Digi Digita tall Vers Versat atil ile e Dis Disc (DVD (DVD): ): It is als also call calle ed Dig Digital ital Vid Video Disk. isk. They They could ould store tore up to 4.5 Gb to 8 Gb of data data.. They They are are also lso avail vailab able le in the the form form of read ready y only, only, writab ritable le and and rew rewritab ritable le format formats. s. Blu Blu Ray Ray Tech Techno nolo logy gy:: High Highly ly adva advanc ncedte edtech chno nolo logy gy,, which hich coul could d store tore up to 30 Gb to 50 Gb of data data.. Solid-S Solid-Stat tate e Storag Storage: e: They consis consists ts of – Flash Flash memory memory cards cards • Widely Widely used used in notebo notebook ok comput computers ers • Used Used to reco record rd MP3 MP3 music music files files – Key Key chai chain n hard hard drive drives s • Key chain chain flash flash memory memory devices devices • Conn Connec ects ts to a USB USB port port
LIST OF STORAGE DEVICES
– – – – – – – – – –
Magnetic tape and disks Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) Write Once Once Read Read Many - (WORM) Magneto-optical disks Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) Optical disks Digital Video Disks Memory cards Flash memory Removable storage
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
The computers are classified generally based on their content and the i ntent of the use. They are classified as Supercomputers, Mainframe computers, Minicomputers, Networked computers, Microcomputers, Personal computers, Laptops, Notebooks, Notebooks, Netbooks, PDA etc
Supe Superc rcom ompu pute terr
A superc percom omp puter uter is the the mos most pow powerfu erfull comp omputer uter avail vailab ablle at a give given n time time.. Capacity: Gargantuan — the largest in the world Speed: Extremely fast — the fastest supercomputer is the Earth Simulator, located at the Yokohama Institute for Earth Sciences in Japan. Users: Users: Onl y used by very large organizations that need their immense calculating power — weather forecasting and climate research are two of the most common uses of supercomputers
Main Mainfr fra ame
A main mainfr fram ame e is a big big,, power owerfu ful, l, exp expens ensive ive comp omputer uter tha that can can su suppo pport many many use users at the the same ame tim time. e. Larg Large e sys syste tems ms such as these centralize data processing and storage. Capacity: Enormous Enormous - the capacity of several hundred or even thousands of PCs Speed: Very fast - much, much faster than a PC Users: Users: Onl y used by large businesses and organizations
Mini Minico comp mput uter er
Mini Minico comp mput ute ers are are mid mid-s -siz ized ed,, mult multii-us user er comp comput uter ers s ttha hatt are are small maller er and and les less sp pow ower erfu full tha than n mai mainf nfra rame me comp comput uter ers. s. Minicomputers are commonly used used as servers in a network. Capacity: Less Less than a mainframe computer, but greater then a mi crocomputer Speed: Slower than a mainf rame computer, faster than a m icrocomputer Users: Users: Onl y organizations that cannot afford or do not need the processing processing power of a mainframe system
Micr Microc ocom ompu pute terr
A mic micro roco comp mput uter er is a sma small ll,, sin singl glee-us user er comp comput uter er with ith a micr microp opro roce ces ssor as its its CPU. CPU. Des Desktop ktop comp comput uter ers s, lap lapto top p computers, tablet PCs, PCs, and many types of handheld devices are all types of m icrocomputers.
Netw etworke orked d Comp Compu uter ter
A netw netwo ork is a grou group p of com compute puters rs tha that are are con connec nected ted so that that the they can share hare equip quipme men nt and and info inforrmat mation ion. Most ost peopl eople e on a network use workstation ions, which ich are simply mply PCs that are connected to the network. A sewer is a central compu compute terr wher where e user users s on the the netw networ ork k can can save save thei theirr files files and and infor informat matio ion. n. Capa Capaci city ty:: (Work Works stati tation on)) Same Same as a PC, PC, only only need needs s a netw etwork ork card card (Ser (Serve ver) r) Grea Greate terr than than a PC, PC, often ften more more than than 100 100 GE – Spee Speed: d: (Work (Workst stat ation ion)) Same Same as a PC (Ser (Server ver)) Gene Genera rally lly faste fasterr than than a PC, PC, may use use multi multipleCPU pleCPUs s Users Users:: (Workst (Workstatio ation) n) People People in a netwo networke rked d office office or organi organizat zation ion (Server (Server)) Genera Generally lly a netwo network rk adminis administra trator tor or eng engine ineer er
Personal compu mputers
A PC isa personal compu mputer, origin igina ally lly design igned by IBM way back in198 in1981. Capa Capaci city ty:: Avera Average ge hard hard disk disk size size is 20GB 20GB to 80 GB Spee Speed:Fas d:Fast. t. Avera Averagesp gespee eed d is from from I GHz GHz to 3 GHz GHz Users Users:: Just Just abo about ut everyon everyone e uses uses a PC! Hom Homes es,, offices offices,, schoo schools. ls... .. Devel Develop opedby edby Appl Apple,a e,a Maci Macint ntos osh h is a comp comput uter er,, but but it is NOT NOT a PC. PC. Macs Macs have have a differ differen entt oper operat atin ing g syst system em and and use use thei theirr own own softw softwar are e and and hard hardw ware are
A lapt laptop op,, or note notebo book ok,, is a ligh lighte terr and and more more port portab able le vers versio ion n of a PC or Mac Mac that that can can run run on batt batter erie ies s. Capa Capaci city ty:: Aver Avera age hard ard disk isk size ize is 10 GB to 40 GB Spee Speed: d: Fas Fast, but but sligh lightl tly y les less than than a PC. PC. Aver Averag age e speed peed is fro from 700 MHz to 2 GHz GHz
Personal Personal Data Assiss Assisstant tant (PDA)
A PDA, PDA, or Pers Person onal al Data Data Ass Assista istant nt,, is a hand handhe held ld comp comput uter er tha that is gene genera rall lly y used used to keep keep trac track k of app appoin ointme tments nts and and addresses. Capa Capaci city ty:: Much Much small maller er than than a PC - 8MB 8MB to 64 MB of stora torage ge space pace Spee Speed:Muc d:Much h slow lower than than a PC -8 MH MHz z to 266 266 MH MHz z Cost Cost:: Expen Expensi sive ve when when comp compar ared ed to the the capa capacit citie ies s of a PC User Users: s: Busi Busine ness ss peop people le and and othe others rs who need need to be orga organiz nized ed
Peripherals are those devices that are joined to the computer for ease of access and i ncrease the utility of computers. Some of the peripherals routinely used are – Printers: Different types of printers are available such as dot matrix, DeskJet, DeskJet, Inkjet, LASER etc., – Web cams: They are used to view through computers using a camera which may or may not be inbuilt. Different types of webcams are available depending upon the resolution such as VGA, Mega Pi xels etc. – Scanners: They are used to create a picture out of any given document such as word file, document etc., by converting the document into a digital fil e by scanning. – Apart from these numerous various other devices could be plugged and use depending upon the requirements such as f ingerprint reader, barcode reader, etc,.
ASCII AND BINARY CONVERSIONS
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ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Computers can only understand their language and hence to convert human language in to a computer friendly language ASCII was developed. Computer can only understand numbers and so an ASCII code is numerical representation of the input language. For converting the normal language to a com puter friendly language various conversions are required. Various binary conversions convert convert the decimal number to 0 and 1 or their combination.
APPLICATION IN PHARMACY
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Comp Comput uter ers s are are omni mni pres presen entt in pharm harmac aceu euti tic cal res researc earch h and and deve develo lopm pmen entt labo labora rato tori ries es,, and and near nearly ly every veryon one e has has at leas leastt one one used used in some ome way to aid in his his or her her role role The scope scope of comput computer er use use to virtuall virtually y all stage stages s of pha pharmac rmaceut euticalrese icalresearc arch h and develop developmen mentt The The comp comput uter er has has a very very wide wide rang range e and and exten extentt of appli applica catio tionsis nsis phar pharmac macy y field. field. The The vario various us area areas s wher where e the the compu compute terr could could be appl appliedare iedare but but not not limite limited d to: to: – In day day to day day work ork of a phar pharmac maceu euti tica call stud studen entt in form form of an excel excel spre spread adsh shee eett to word word – Performing Performing various calculations calculations which which requires requires statistica statisticall inference inference – In data data ana analys lysis is and data data manage managemen mentt in preclin preclinica icall and clinica clinicall studi studies es.. – Statistical Statistical modeling modeling in pharmaceut pharmaceutical ical research research – Cheminformatics – Comput Com puter er aided aided drug drug design designs s – For For pred predic ictin ting g the the meta metabo bolis lism m of drug drug inside inside the the body body
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER VIRUS
A virus is a computer program that can copy itself and hence the name gi ven so.
Generally the acronym virus stands for
The work on automatic self reproducing was fir st coined by Jon Von Neuman in 1949. Virus is a di fferent term with respect to adware, malware, which do not have reproducing ability. They are also technically different from trojan horses and worms.
Vital Information Resource Under Seize. (Not Official)
IMAGES OF COMPUTER PERIPHERALS
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Computer Application in Pharmaceutical Research Research and Development: Edited by Sean Ekins by John W iley & Sons Publication. Computer organization and design fundamentals by David Tarnoff www.microsoft.com www.computerhistory.org Images were obtained from Google i mage search