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Construction Machinery : Civil Engineering Practice
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL CERTIFICATE
Candidate’s observation sheet
IGC3 – THE HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICAL APPLICATION Sheet number of _____
Student name: Fadwa Jassem Alakasheh Student number: 00310414 Place inspected:
HYUNDAI CONSTRUCTIONS ___
Observations Hazards and consequences 1. Location: Parking area Hazard: People are working in open area (Hot environment) to construct parking lot.
Control Measures Immediate and Long Term Actions Immediate measure: People should be provided with sunglasses to avoid harmful effects on eyes.
Date of inspection 11/12/2015
Long term measure: Rest shades; adequate cold Consequence: water should be provided in Risk of Heat stress leading to the work area. ill health.
2. Location: Parking area
Hazard: Dust is generating during excavation to construct parking lot. Consequence: Risk of Inhalation of dust leading to ill health 3. Location : Parking area
Immediate measure: People should be provided with correct type of dusts masks/ respirators. Long term measure: Competent person should supervise the task.
Immediate measure: 1 day People should maintain the Hazard: distance from the Excavator Excessive noise is generated and provided with personal with back hoe which is in protective equipment such as improper maintenance during ear muffs or ear plugs. excavation to construct Long term measure: parking lot. Proper maintenance should Consequence: be done and tool box talks to Risk of excessive noise be conducted on hazards of Within 1 week
leading to hearing loss
4. Location: Parking area
Immediate measure: Operator should be provided with Anti vibration gloves and proper respirators.
Hazard: Operator observed not wearing Anti vibration gloves during drilling the earth surface with Jack hammer. Consequence: Risk of Neurological problems.
5. Location : Parking area
Long term measure: Jack Hammer to be inspected and maintained as per manufacturer instructions. Immediate measure: Barricades should be constructed.
Hazard: No barricades are found near Long term measure: the excavation. Excavation hazards to be Consequence: controlled by the valid work permit. People may fall into excavation leading to severe injuries and fatalities. 6. Location: Ground floor Hazard: Damaged slings are found in use while lifting objects.
Immediate measure: Damaged slings should be replaced by new ones.
Within 1 week
Long term measure: 1 week
Consequence: Leads to severe injuries and fatality.
Inspection by a competent person is needed before starting the work.
7. Location: Main entry (Ground floor)
Hazard: Welding performed in wet conditions to fix the entry gate. Consequence: Risk of electric shock. 8. Location: Main entry (Ground floor) Hazard:
Welding cables to be laid away from wet conditions. Long term measure:
Within 1 day
Working Surface should be kept clean and dry.
Immediate measure: Welders should be provided with required PPE. E.g.
Welders are found without PPE during welding. Consequence: Risk of burns for welders due to the burning slags and sparks evolved.
9. Location: Ground floor Hazard: Observed people lifting a heavy load manually.
Gloves, Apron, and Boots etc. Long term measure:
Welding hazards should be controlled by permit to work system. Immediate measure:
People should be provided with proper PPE (Safety shoes, coveralls, gloves etc). Long term measure:
Consequence: Leads to musculoskeletal disorders (Joint and Muscle pains). 10. Location: First floor
Lifting machines should be provided to lift heavy load.
Immediate measure: Suitable respirators must be provided to the people.
Long term measure: Effective ventilation should be done to reduce the hazard.
11. Location: Second floor
Hazard: Observed accidental start up of grinders while replacing the discs during floor smoothening activity.
Discs should be replaced after unplugging the power source.
Consequence: Leads to electrocution, laceration and abrasion.
A competent person should supervise while performing the task.
12. Location: Second floor
Hazard: Sparks are flying while performing grinding
Area should be isolated and people should be provided with face shields, coveralls, etc...
Hazard: Observed release of toxic vapours during painting activity on the worksite. Consequence: Risk of asphyxiation and health problems.
Long term measure:
Consequence: Leads to eye injury and skin burns. Long term measure:
Training should be provided to the workers on safe grinding activity. 13. Location: Second floor
Hazard: Incompetent and unauthorised workers are working on electrical systems.
Only competent and authorised workers are allowed to work on electrical equipments.
Long term measure:
14. Location: Second floor
All electrical jobs to be carried out under valid work permit system. Immediate measure:
Hazard: Cement plastering to walls is done without PPE and proper tools.
Right type of Hand tools, coveralls, safety goggles, safety shoes to be provided.
Consequence: Risk of eye injury and skin disorders.
Long term measure:
Consequence: Risk of Electrocution and Fatality.
Within 1 week
Risk assessment should be performed by a competent person to reduce possible hazards. 15. Location: Third floor Hazard: Observed excessive loads on scaffold Consequences: Scaffold may collapse leading to fractures and fatality.
16. Location: Third floor Hazard: Risk of falling material on the people working near the scaffolds.
Immediate measure: Carrying of heavy loads (welding machines, materials and etc) at a time and allowing excessive personnel on scaffold to be prohibited.
Long term measure: Load should not be exceeded as per sound engineering practices and as per specifications.
Immediate measure: Screens should be placed on the guardrail system and area under scaffold should be barricaded.
Within 1 week Consequence:
Long term measure:
Leads to serious head injuries.
Training in fall protection should be provided by a competent person.
17. Location: Third floor
Immediate measure: Personal fall arrest system should be provided to the people on scaffold.
Consequence: Falling from height may cause severe head injury or fatality.
Long term measure: Proper supervision and training is needed.
18. Location: Store room
Immediate measure: 1 day Explosion proof motor pumps should be provided in the store room to transfer liquids.
Hazard: Risk of workers falling from the scaffolds.
Hazard: Chemicals are being transferred from primary container to secondary container frequently.
Long term measure: Grounding should be done to primary container.
Consequence: Spillage of chemicals leads to inhalation of toxic substances. 19. Location: Store room Hazard: Damaged insulation on electrical wires Consequence: Leads to short circuit. 20. Location: Store room Hazard: Chemicals are stored in bulk quantities with Poor ventilation. Consequences Risk of Fire and explosion.
21. Location: Store room Hazard: Welding gas cylinders are stored without adequate protection. Consequence:
Within 1 week
Immediate measure: Electrical wire should be replaced.
Long term measure: 1 week Regular inspection should be done by the competent person. Immediate measure: Immediate Sufficient ventilation should be provided to reduce vapour accumulation. Long term measure: Risk assessment should be conducted to reduce possible hazards.
Immediate measure: Cylinders should be stored in upright positions in the racks and securely tie with chains.
Long term measure:
Explosion may occur due to fall of gas cylinders.
Competent person should inspect and give training to the workers on safe storage.
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL CERTIFICATE (2011 specification)
Within a week
Candidate report template
UNIT IGC3 – THE HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICAL APPLICAITON
Introduction including overview of area inspected and activities taking place I inspected a site which is being constructed by HYUNDAI Construction,Abu Dhabi for finding occupational health and safety procedures adopted, on 11/12/2015 from 10 A.M. to 4 P.M. For over 18 years, Hyundai Constructions has been synonymous with quality construction. The site is a 10 storied building under construction. Two floors have already been built and roofing activity for third floor is going on. There are 30 foremen, 2 Supervisors, a Site Engineer, and a Site manager. The working site consists of:
A Crane, a Concrete mixer, a hydraulic excavator, a tractors and welding machines. A storage area for construction material (cement, wood, paints, solvents, etc…). A cabin for Site engineer and manager to supervise the work activities often.
The work being carried out is construction of retaining walls in the ground floors, constructing parking lot, welding activity, electrical wiring installations and painting of constructed floors.
This report identifies the important areas which need modifications as listed below. These are listed in the order of importance. Fire safety Fire risk arises from damaged electrical wiring and storage of flammable substances like welding gas (oxy acetylene) cylinders, paints, wooden materials, solvents, wooden materials are stored with inadequate protection. Proper segregation of these materials is needed with adequate labelling and safe storage.
Machines like cranes and excavators are not used and maintained according to the manufactures recommendations. Injuries can be controlled by removing damaged slings from the workplace and proper procedures should be adopted while using machinery. Working practices Appropriate PPE is not used while painting and welding; allowing excessive personnel on the scaffolds; Barricades are not installed after excavation, etc, are some of the unsafe practices found during the inspection. Proper inspection, training and supervision are needed.
Welding hazards Risk of electrocution and burns founded from welding activity which is performed wet conditions and workers not wearing proper PPE. The welding hazards are controlled by adopting work permit system and providing training and required PPE to the welders. Fall hazards Several fall hazards are identified in the work site. Workers are found on the heights (scaffolds) without personal fall arrest systems. Equipment and tools are placed on the scaffold under which no barricades are provided. Sufficient protective equipment and guarding systems should be provided which reduces the risk of accidents in the work site. Improvisation of job activities by adopting the safe work practices will reduce the risk of accidents in the work site. This in turn improves the efficiency and productivity. A lot of time and investment is saved in connection with staff training, accident investigation, and compensation claims.
The suggestions made in this report can be exercised directly by the staff only and at relatively little cost. Failure to implement the suggestions made will cause damage to reputation and negative publicity. This in turn will make a difference to the financial success. Management should also view the issues in terms of humanity and moral dimension. Main findings of the inspection This report identifies the important areas which need modifications as listed below. Fire hazards (observations 19, 20, 21) A number of fire hazards were present on the worksite specially inspecting store room: Damaged electric wiring and components, chemicals are stored in bulk quantities without proper ventilation and welding gas cylinders are stored under poor condition without security. These conditions may lead to major fire explosion and also to huge property damage, severe injuries or death. These conditions are violation of rules stated in Article 16 of ILO Convention C155 and more specifically the obligations mentioned in ILO Recommendation R164 for the employer are breached. Electric wirings and components to be replaced by authorized persons and welding gas cylinders should be separately stored in blocks in upright position and secured with chains. Store employees should be trained in segregation and proper storage of materials, regular inspections should be conducted by a competent person. Machinery and equipment (observations 3, 4, 6) Several items of machinery and equipment are identified to be in dangerous state due to the poor use and maintenance: Excessive noise was generated by backhoe during excavation to construct parking lot in open area of the worksite. Damaged slings of Cranes are found in use for lifting heavy objects (gas pipes) to be fitted in the second floor. Jack hammer which is been used to drill the concrete for pipe laying in the ground floor is found physically damaged. These conditions may result in severe injuries or deaths leading to significant fines or prosecutions and also to large compensation pay outs. These conditions are violation of rules by the employer mentioned in ILO Article 10 (a) of R164. Jack hammer should be repaired; Backhoe should be under regular maintenance, damaged slings should be immediately replaced.
Proper training should be provided for the operators of carne, backhoe and staff and regular inspection should be conducted by a competent person.
Working practices (Observations 1, 2, 11, 15) Due to the lack of safety awareness by workers on the site a number of unsafe practices are noted, which includes: Failure to wear sunglasses for avoiding hot temperature exposure (direct sunlight). Respirators are not found in use to avoid dust from excavation activity. Operator fails to unplug the power source while replacing the discs of grinder during floor smoothening work. Supervisor allowing excessive load and workers on scaffold. This is a possible breach of requirements to provide training to the workers in their respective job activities. These indicate the violation of rules stated in ILO Convention C155 and R164. Suitable sunglasses and respirators should be provided to the workers who are exposed to direct sunlight and dust. Proper training should be provided to grinding operator and scaffold supervisor to identify the possible hazards of equipments.
Welding hazards (Observations: 7, 8) Due to the lack of safety awareness among the workers and supervisors welding activity is performed in wet conditions which pose a great risk of electric shock and electrical burns. Welders are at great risk of radiation and skin burns as they are not wearing proper PPE. These conditions represent the violation of rules stated in ILO Article 16 of ILO Convention C155. Management should implement the work permit system where hot work (welding) is performed. Suitable Personal protective equipment i.e. Face shields, respirators and gloves are provided to the welders. Proper training should be provided by a competent person to welders on hazards of welding.
Fall hazard (observation 16, 17) Falling of materials has been identified in the working area under the scaffold, used for roofing work of the third floor.
Workers are identified without fall protection on scaffolds while carrying out the roofing activity. This may cause their fall from height leading to severe head and body injuries and sometimes even fatality. This condition may result in severe injuries or deaths and give out compensation apart from possible sanctions from authorities. This indicates the breach of rules mentioned in Article 16 of ILO Convention C155. Management should provide screens for placing on the guardrail system and area under scaffold should be barricaded. Management should allocate a full time supervisor to monitor the task and to restrict the entry. Proper fall protective equipment should be provided to the people working on scaffolds. Training in fall protection should be provided by a competent person to the staff. Conclusions Little attention towards safety issues are found to be paid in implementation. Due to poor maintenance and lack of safety knowledge employees are working under hazardous conditions. Lot of energy is found to be put in for carrying out easy tasks. Stress and strain are the immediate consequences. Property damage, loss of reputation and bad publicity are the issues that rise later. The five areas mentioned in the report need immediate attention. Appropriate suggestions have been made for some observations. Implementing these practices assumes very little cost and can be actioned by in house staff only. It is certain that costs required for facing the consequences of the hazards resulting due to these mentioned will be more tham their implementation cost. Recommendations Recommendation Damaged Electric wirings and components in the store room should be replaced by the electrician.
Likely resource implications 25 meters of double insulated electrical wire and 2 switch boards which includes the cost of 200 Aed.
Separate blocks and chains should be purchased by the management to store the welding gas cylinders in the store room.
2 no’s of storage blocks and 10 meters of steel chain which includes the cost of 1750 Aed.
Store room staff should be trained in segregation and proper
Classroom and practical training to store room staff
storage of materials.
(approx. 2 hours) should be conducted by Safety officer.
Regular inspections should be conducted by the competent person in the store room to prevent hazards. Excavation work should be stopped immediately and backhoe should be sent for maintenance.
A safety officer should conduct regular inspection in store room.
Site engineer should take responsibility to sent backhoe for regular maintenance. Cost implication is 5000 Aed.
Damaged slings should 2 no’s 3’’ width of be removed from the slings of 10 meters workplace should be purchased cost includes 4000 Aed
Jack hammer should be repaired.
Repair should be done by an authorized employee.
Training to the operators and staff to be provided by a competent person on regular maintenance and inspection of equipments and machinery.
Classroom and practical training to operators and staff (approx. 3 hours) should be conducted by Safety officer.
Workers exposed to the direct sunlight (UV rays) and dust to be provided with sunglasses and suitable respirators.
1. Procuring 10 no’s of UV protected sunglasses includes the cost of 400 Aed.
Proper training should be provided to scaffold supervisor on hazards of scaffold.
Classroom and practical training to supervisor (approx. 2 hours) should be conducted by Safety officer.
Classroom and practical training to operator and supervisor (approx. 2 hours) should be conducted by Safety officer.
Proper training should be provided to grinder operator and activity supervisor on inspection of equipment and hazards related to the specific task.
2. Procuring 10 no’s of particulate cartridge respirators include the cost of 800Aed.
Permit to work need to be implemented by the management when welding is performed.
Activity supervisor to control the task according to work permit checklist.
Check for wet conditions, Electrical cable connections and welding machine conditions before starting the work.
Grounding the machinery and use of GFCI cost implication 500 Aed.
Ensure use of suitable PPE i.e., face shield, particulate air purifying cartridge respirator and hand gloves.
Procuring 4 no’s Face shield, 4 no’s of particulate air purifying cartridge respirator and 8 no’s insulated hand gloves which includes cost 600 Aed.
Management should allocate a full time supervisor to monitor the task and to restrict the entry with barricades.
Procuring 10 meters of Guardrail screen includes the cost of 1500 Aed.
Screens should be placed on the guardrail system of scaffold.
Placing of 25 feet of barricade procure cost 800 Aed.
Fall arrest systems Procuring 15 no’s of should be provided to fall arrest harness the workers on scaffold. costing 800 Aed.
Training in fall protection should be provided by a competent person to the staff.
Classroom and practical training to the staff on potential fall hazard (approx. 2 hours) should be conducted by Safety officer.