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Bargmann 1 Erica S. Bargmann 20 May 2009 Mr. Schlueter Research Paper
Most people have felt sad or depressed at times. Feeling depressed can be a normal reaction to loss, life's struggles, or an injured self-esteem. But when feelings o f intense sadness -- including feeling helpless, hopeless, and worthless -- last for da ys to weeks and keep you from functioning normally, normally, your depression your depression may be something more than sadness. It may very well be clinical depression -- a treatable medical condition. According to the website of the National the National Institute of Mental Health, Health, depression is the leading cause of disability among Americans between the ages of 15 and 44. Further statistics show that 6.7 % of the U.S. populations p opulations (14.8 million adults) are affected by Major Depression in any particular calendar year. And at least in the U.S. U.S.,, more women are diagnosed with depression than men, with the median age of onset being 32 for both genders. Most people when asked what depression is think that it’s when someone is so sad that they feel worthless and constantly think about taking their own lives. What they don’t know is that it’s much more than that. The definition of depression is a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity which reflects a sad and/or irritable mood exceeding e xceeding normal sadness or grief. The signs and symptoms are not only characterized by negative thoughts, moods, and behaviors but also specific changes in bodily functions (for example: cr ying spells, body aches and pains, low energy, energy, as well as problems with eating, weight, and sleeping.) In spite of clear research evidence and clinical guidelines regarding therapy, depression is often undertreated and misunderstood. Hopefully, Hopefully, this situation can change for the better. better. If this illness is not treated correctly, correctly, it can cause severe damage towards a person and their families and friends. This research paper will go in depth on the things that cause depression, the effects it has on patients, their families, and friends, as well as the solution to treating this illness. Family History and Physical Conditions
Depression runs in families for generations but researchers have not yet located a single, defective gene responsible for the condition. c ondition. When a family member has depression, spouses, siblings, or children are inevitably affected emotionally by the illness and while depressed parents don’t pass on depression per se to children, the way they pass on hair or eye color, they can pass on a vulnerability vulne rability to depression. Whether inherited or not, depression is often associated with changes in brain b rain structure or brain function.
Bargmann 2 Serious medical conditions like heart disease, cancer, and HIV/AIDS can contribute to depression, partly because of the physical weakness and stress they bring on. Depression can make medical conditions worse, since it weakens the immune system and can make pain harder to bear. In some cases, depression can be caused by medication used to treat medical conditions. cond itions. Depression also can increase the risk for subsequent physical illness, disability, disability, and premature death. The symptoms s ymptoms of depression can also be caused by undiagnosed medical conditions, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s Parkinson’s disease, hyperthyroidism, Lyme Lyme disease, and pancreatic cancer.
Heart Disease- For people with heart disease, depression increases the risk for an adverse cardiac event such as a heart attack or blood clots. For people who do not have heart disease, depression increases the risk of heart attack and coronary disease. During recovery from cardiac surgery, surgery, depression can intensify pain, cause worsened fatigue and sluggishness, or cause a person to withdraw into social isolation. Patients who have had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and have untreated depression after surgery also have an increased morbidity and mortality rate. Cancer- People diagnosed with cancer may ma y face an increased risk of depression that persists for years, according to research published online Feb. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and up to 1 in 4 people with cancer have clinical depression which causes great distress, impaired functioning, and may even make the person with cancer less able to follow their cancer treatment plan. When someone is diagnosed with cancer, their “normal reaction” is depression, which means that it do esn’t require any special treatment-the prevalence of depression among can cer patients ranges from 23 percent to 60 percent. While doctors today are better than ever at fighting the disease, a new study by the Institute of Medicine in Washington, D.C., finds that the anxiety, anxiety, fear and depression associated with cancer often go untreated. Of the country’s top 20 cancer care centers, eight reported screening for emotional stress in only some of their patients. "It's becoming a chronic illness, so now we have to take a wider view and treat the whole patient and take care of all their needs, including their cancer," said Dr. Dr. Lee Schwartzberg, co-author of the study and the medical director of o f the West Clinic in Memphis, Tenn. Huntington’s Huntington’s Disease- a disorder passed down through families in which nerve cells in the brain waste awa y, or degenerate. de generate. American doctor George Huntington, who traveled over the bleak countryside five miles to the larger town of Middleport, Ohio, first described the disorder in 1872 to the local medical society, society, composed of o f physicians of sparsely populated Meigs and Mason Counties. His brief, uniformly anecdotal and entirely unreferrenced address, not suffering publication delay, delay, was put eight weeks later in the Medical and Surgical Reporter of Philadelphia (v 26, no.
Bargmann 3 15, April 13, 1872). This has become one of the classical descriptions of neurological disease. People with Huntington’s disease have progressive motor problems, cognitive deficits (dementia) and psychiatric symptoms (the most common is depression) that usually start to appear in mid-life. There is no cure and death usually results within 10 to 20 years of symptom onset, or faster in the childhood-onset form of the disease. The disease is caused by a mutation in a single gene and when whe n this defective gene is passed from parent to child, 50 percent of the offspring inherit the disorder, which can be detected by genetic testing. Trauma and Stress
When dealing with trauma, most people who become depressed can recall a single traumatic event that happened just prior to their becoming depressed. Painful experiences such as the death of a loved one, divorce, a medical illness, or losing everything in a natural disaster may be so impactful as to trigger depression. Eve nts like these take away a sense of control and cause cau se great emotional upheaval. up heaval. A person’s person’s recovery from depression may also be affected by traumatic events. The more trauma a nd difficulty a person experiences, the longer a recovery from depression may take. If a person is run down psychologically, suffers suffers from anxiety or depression or has endured end ured previous traumatic experiences; it’s more difficult to handle another setback. As a result, additional grief symptoms can be unbearable. In order to cope, the traumatized individual may attempt to avoid grieving altogether.
It is clear that some people develop depression after a stressful event in their lives such as the death of a loved one, the loss of a job, or the end of a relationship are often negative and traumatic and cause great stress for many people. It is not certain why stress may lead to depression in this way. However, researchers have theorized an explanation called the "kindling effect," or "kindlingsensitization hypothesis." This theory surmises that initial depressive episodes spark changes in the brain's chemistry and limbic system that make it more prone to developing future episodes of depression. This may be compared to the use of kindling wood to spark the flames of a campfire. Since early episodes of depression make a person p erson more sensitive to developing depression, even small stressors can lead to later depressive episodes. It is not certain why stress may lead to de pression in this way. way. However, researchers have theorized an explanation called the "kindling effect," or "kindling-sensitization hypothesis." This theory surmises that initial depressive episodes spark changes in the brain's chemistry and limbic system that make it more prone to developing future episodes of depression. This may be compared co mpared to the use of kindling wood woo d to spark the flames of a campfire. Since early episodes of depression make a person more sensitive to
Bargmann 4 developing depression, even small stressors can lead to later depressive episodes. Pessimistic Personality
Someone with a pessimistic personality is often not as easy going or fun to be around. They have a negative view of the current world around them and the future does not look a lot better. Things can never go right, other people are only nice because they want something from them and there is no point in having dreams or goals because bec ause they will never happen or be achieved. Pessimistic people tend to feel that they have no real purpose in life and that there really doesn't seem to be any reason for them the m to try or even be around. There are people peop le who are only a little pessimistic at times, but there are also people out there who are more consistently pessimistic about themselves, their life and the world around them. It is these people who are more prone to fall into serious depression, though it can sometimes be depression that can cause a person to develop a more pessimistic outlook. Oftentimes, depression and emotional health are further exacerbated by how others react to negativity. negativity. Negative people are frequently perceived as "wet blankets" and may be avoided. For some people a pessimistic attitude serves as a source of sardonic humor and might even be a coping mechanism. People that fall into this category might feel they are actually warding off negativity by being prepared for the worst. "If you continually expect the worse, you are a re apt to be pleasantly surprised a lot. If you always expect the best, you may be disappointed frequently." This can be a reasonable rationale for a pessimist. However, some researchers believe that a pessimistic attitude might negatively affect health. Studies conducted in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2001 suggest a possible link between pessimism and heart disease. The studies, published in The Archives of General Psychiatry, Psychiatry, followed over 900 Dutch citizens from ages 65 to 85 over the sixyear period. Each participant was ranked on a scale of optimism and pessimism. The study found that 30.4% of the optimistic participants died during the study period, compared to 56.5% of the pessimistic participants. While factors like diet and smoking were accounted for, it should be noted that participants were not screened for depression. Whether or not a link does exist between pessimism and heart disease, it has become widely accepted that a positive attitude is certainly ce rtainly helpful in life. If being a pessimist doesn't shorten life, being an optimist op timist will make it more enjoyable. Virtually Virtually anyone who nurtures a habitually negative temperament can transform from a pessimist to a more positive person with time and effort. Psychotherapy and cognitive beh avior therapy can help a person to change cha nge his or her thinking habits. If the cost of therapy is prohibitive, a more affordable method might be to seek out self-help books that teach how to recognize negative thinking patterns and replace them with positive habits of thinking. Local classes and seminars might also be of assistance. With practice and diligence, positive thinking can become a habit as easily as pessimism does.
Families and Friends
Depression can be especially cruel in that it doesn't d oesn't affect just the depressed person, but everyone around them, too. Someone who is depressed can be very difficult and draining to deal with. What makes this so cruel is, that as a depressed person's relationships become strained--to the point where others actively ac tively avoid having anything to do with them. This further contributes to a worsening self-image and makes the person feel even more isolated, intensifying the depression. Depressed patients must learn to understand how their illness affects other people, and expect that their relationships will not be what they were, for some time. By the same token, those around them must understand that it is not the person, but the illness, which is an inconvenience. The best way for them to be relieved of the stress, is to help the patient toward recovery. recovery. Friends and family must remember that the depression patient did not no t ask for this illness, it is not a character flaw, and the patient often doesn't have much control over what he or she does. They cannot afford to take the symptoms of depression in someone else, personally. personally. Most primary relationships, however strong, go through trying times during the course of normal life even when everyone is in the best possible state of mind. Therefore, one can only imagine the difficulties and setbacks experienced by people suffering from depression. It is also equally challenging and difficult for the other person or people in such relationships, because, as part of the negative effects of depression, depressed people often fail to see reason, do not want to believe there is hope, and ultimately give up any and all effort towards making relationships work. Individuals
Depressed individuals will tend to avoid friends and social gatherings, and be unable to derive satisfaction from hobbies and leisure interests. It impairs their ability to sleep, eat, work, and get along with others. It damages their self-esteem, self-confidence, and the ability to accomplish everyday tasks. People who are depressed find daily tasks to be a significant struggle. They tire easily, easily, yet cannot get a good night's sleep. They have no motivation and lose interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Depression puts a dark, gloomy cloud over how ho w they see themselves, the world, and their future. This cloud cannot be willed away awa y, nor can we ignore it and have it magically disappear. Work and School
Ongoing stress and pressure can cause work depression. dep ression. It is a reality of the fast paced work environment of today. More than $43 billion are lost each year as a result of socalled work depression. It is a rather common co mmon illness affecting 1 out of every 20 adults at any given time. Work Work depression affects three out of every ten workers at least on ce a year. Most people see the workplace as a secure environment whe re they obtain some form of stability and structure. When a person struggles with symptoms of work depression, the very same place of structure can become a cage where he/she feels trapped without a means to get out. Depressive can affect an employee's productivity, judgment, ability to work with others, and overall o verall job performance. The inability to concentrate fully or make decisions may lead to costly mistakes or accidents. Changes in
Bargmann 6 performance and on-the-job behaviors that may suggest an employee is suffering from a depressive illness include: o Decreased or inconsistent productivity o Absenteeism, tardiness, frequent absence from work station o Increased errors, diminished work quality o Procrastination, missed deadlines Withdrawal from co-workers o Overly sensitive and/or emotional reactions o Decreased interest in work o Slowed thoughts o Difficulty learning and remembering o Slow movement and actions o Frequent comments about being tired all the time o School depression is the type of depression that occurs in school going children and research shows this is a more common illness than was previously thought. Numbers of students are affected by depression every year and due to the age group that can be affected by depression it is important at the first signs to have the child diagnosed. School depression is not a strange kind of depression; it is just the same as some of the other o ther types of depression. depression. Following are the symptoms of school of school depression: depression: The first and the foremost symptom of depression in school going o children is the inability to concentrate while studying. Irritation at school without a proper reason. o Poor appetite. o School going children may exhibit sleeping problems; these consist of o too little sleep or too much sleep. o Little interest in extra curricular activities. o Nervousness or hesitation without any reason. Fatigue. o o Negative thoughts and poor self-confidence also are the symptoms of depression in school going children. School depression or depression or depression in school age children exhibit the above listed symptoms commonly, commonly, but these symptoms might vary child to child. The prevalence of depression in school going children is 3 to 4 out of 100 children. School depression occurs equally in boy and girls. The relationship of students amongst their friends and teac hers play a big role in school depression. Some of the causes that may lead to depression in school age children are: o Extra pressure of parents or schoolteachers on students to perform well in examinations. Too many expectations from parents. o Students that do not join activities may also develop depression. o o Bookworms may also develop depression. o Low self-confidence can also develop depression in school age children.
Bargmann 7 o
The fear of bad performance in activities such as sports or bad performance in studies could also be the reason of depression in school age children. Students that have no friends are often found stressed, the stress may also lead to depression. Inferiority complex in students is also a reason that they may develop depression.
School depression is a treatable illness and can be treated if the proper treatment technique is followed. Parents need to identify the symptoms in their school age children, as most of the children do not even know that they the y are suffering from depression. Parents need to take their child to a specialist and look for proper treatment plan. Talk therapy, therapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, therapy, family therapy or interpersonal therapies are good method in these cases. The parents can also help the child getting over school depression. Antidepressants
Antidepressants are medication used for people who have depression. Most antidepressants are believed to work by b y slowing down the removal of certain chemicals from the brain. According to the chemical imbalance theory, low levels of the brain chemical serotonin lead to depression and depression medication works by bringing serotonin levels back to normal. Researchers agree that when depression is severe, medication can be helpful – even life saving. The most widely prescribed antidepressants come from a class of medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are available only with a doctor's prescription and are sold in tablet, capsule, ca psule, and liquid forms. Commonly used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), and fluvoxamine (Luvox).
− Prozac is the registered trademarked name for fluoxetine hydrochloride and the world's most widely prescribed antidepressant to-date, the first product in a major new class of drugs for depression for depression12 12 called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Prozac was first introduced to the US market in January 1988. It took two years for Prozac to gain its 'most prescribed' status and had become the world’s world’s most widely prescribed prescribed antidepressant. The team of inventors behind Prozac was lead by Ray Fuller. Fuller was posthumously awarded the Pharmaceutical Discoverer's Award Award from NARSAD for discovering fluoxetine or Prozac. Also awarded were Bryan Molloy and David Wong, both members of the Eli Lilly Company research team.
The most common treatment for depression includes the combination of antidepressant medicine and psychotherapy (called "therapy" for short, or "counseling"). "c ounseling"). Psychotherapy is a general term for a process p rocess of treating mental and emotional disorders by talking about
Bargmann 8 your condition and related issues with a mental men tal health provider. During psychotherapy, psychotherapy, you learn about your condition and an d your mood, feelings, thoughts and behavior. A licensed mental health professional helps people with depression focus on behaviors, emotions, and ideas that contribute to depression, and understand and identify life problems that are contributing to their illness to enable them to regain a sense of control. co ntrol. Psychotherapy can be done on an individual or group basis and can include family members and spouses.Using the insights and knowledge you gain in psychotherapy, you pick up healthy coping skills and stress management. Psychotherapy often can be successfully completed in just a few months, but in the case of a severe mental illness, long-term treatment may be helpful. There are many man y specific types of psychotherapy, each with its own approach to improving your mental well-being. The type of psychotherapy that's right for you depends on your individual situation. Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy, therapy, counseling, psychosocial therapy or, simply, therapy. therapy. Alternative Methods of Treatment Treatment
Another way of treating depression is through alternative methods of treatment such as acupuncture, guided imagery, chiropractic treatments, yoga, hypnosis, biofeedback, aromatherapy, relaxation, herbal remedies, massages, and many more. Of all of these treatments, the one that seems to help the most is Aromatherapy. Aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is particularly effective in dealing with stress, depression and stress related disorders. 'Depression' is a term which encompasses a wide spectrum of psychic problems and symptoms which, in turn, can lead to more serious illnesses. Aromatherapy, Aromatherapy, in helping to relax the patient and b y reducing stress, may actually help to prevent such conditions. Depression related disorders, such as digestive problems, stress and other mental problems, can be treated by Aromatherapy. Aromatherapy. As depression is reduced, there is a corresponding improvement in sleep patterns and energy levels. Aromatherapy is an alternative treatment that uses the highly concentrated essential oils that are extracted from plants to treat symptoms and assist in the healing process. Aromatherapy is aimed at revitalizing the body bod y and mind while lifting your spirits. Aromatherapy will aid in promoting a sense of well being. Aromatherapy is also known for easing mental fatigue and insomnia. When you use these wonderful essential oils in the correct blend for massages, baths, diffusers and even personal perfumes you will begin to benefit from the use of aromatherapy. Using aromatherapy for depression will give you the peace of mind and the well being that you need. You You will enjoy the uplifting feeling that will rid your life of depression. Conclusion-
Most people have felt sad or depressed at times and have wondered if the world would be a better place if they weren’t in it but b y researching this topic, I’ve learned that even though 6.7 % of the United States population is affected by depression, there are o ptions and treatments available for those unfortunate ones one s who feel like they have nothing no thing left to live for. Depression is a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a desponent lack of activity which reflects a sad and/or irritable mood ex ceeding normal sadness or grief.
The causes of depression can vary between patients but for the majority depression is caused mainly by grief due to the death of a loved one, an illness, a traumatic event and sometimes stress that occurs during work and/or school. Depression can also run in families for generations and can be caused by someone who has a pessimistic attitude towards life as well. Depression can take its toll on both the individual and his h is or her families, friends, classmates and co-workers. When the patient has finally admitted to being depressed, the next step is to get help from their doctor who can perscribe an antidepressant such as Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, or Symbolta. Other options besides antidepressants could be psychotherapy which helps the patient learn about their condition and how to treat it, or Aromatherapy which helps relax the patient by reducing stress, allowing the body to recouperate and prevent such a condition from happening again. About 7 out of 100 men and 1 out of 100 women who have been diagnosed with depression at sometime in lifetime will go on the complete suicide. In 2005, suicide was the 11th leading cause of death in the U.S., claiming 32,637 lives. Many Man y suicides are preventable. Most suicidal people desperately want to live but they are just are unable to see an alternative solution to their problem. Suicidal individuals will show numerous symptoms of depression and if these symptoms are discovered early on, then the first step to recovery has been put pu t into motion. Admitting that you have a problem and are dealing with depression is getting you one step closer to a complete and total recovery. Depression is preventable and if people are willing to seek help, then many lives will be saved each year because if people get treatment for their depression, then no one will have to say goodbye to a loved one ever again.