Instructions for LEGO Mythical Dragon using the Magical Creatures Creator set.Descrição completa
Dragon Rouge - Dragon's BloodDescripción completa
What is the Dragon Language? The Dragon Language is a constructed language (or "conlang") featured in The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim. It is spoken by Dragons and was spoken by ancient Nords who learned to harness its power and use it against their Dragon masters. It was also used by members of the Dragon Cult, and is still used by the Draugr that they became. In the time that Skyrim takes place, the Dragon Language is known and spoken by a rare few, few, including the remaining Dragons and the Greybeards who follow the Way of the Voice, and spend their lives studying the powers the Dragon Language possesses (particularly, Words of Power). This site is dedicated to the expansion of the Dragon Language and promotion of its usage among Elder Scrolls fans. This is the ﬁrst of several lessons that will take you through pronunciation, common phrases, sentence construction, grammar, and other topics.
Basic Pronunciation The Dragon Language is based on what are called North Germanic languages, and shares many of their features, such as long vowels and rolled 'r's. Here we will look at some common Dragon words and phrases pick apart their pronunciation. The pronunciations are spelled out as accurately as they can in English. Drem Yol Lok - ["drem yole low-k"] Dovahkiin - ["doe-vah-keen"] Krosis- ["crow-sis"] Fus Ro Dah - ["foos row dah"] Su'um ahrk morah - ["soo-um ark more-ah"] Nid aaz - ["need oz"] Here we can see some patterns - "o" is almost always the long "o" such as in "foe", "row", and "told". "I" is tricky. tricky. Usually it is the long "ee" as in the English "seen" or "meek", but sometimes, as in "Krosis", it is the short "i" seen in the English "sit" and "in". When in doubt, pronounce it as "ee". Alternatively, Alternatively, "ii" is always pronounced "ee". "U" is also almost always "oo", as is "uu".
Vowels & Diphthongs The Dragon Language recognizes a few more vowels than English. Most of these are known as diphthongs , where two vowels form one syllable. In English, examples of diphthongs include the "ee" in "feel", or the "oo" in "foot". Additional vowels of the Dragon Language and their pronunciations are as follows: Vowel
Apostrophes In the Dragon Language, the apostrophe is used to separate two vowels into separate syllables, as opposed to forming a diphthong. Examples and their pronunciation are as follows: Thu'um - ["thoo-um"] Su'um - ["sue-um"] Du'ul - ["due-ul", the two-syllable pronunciation of "duel"] Lo'om - ["low-um"] The vowel preceding the apostrophe is pronounced long, and the vowel following the apostrophe is pronounced short.
Sentence Structure A sentence is made up several parts. The most basic sentence contains at least two things - a subject, and a verb. The subject is the acting noun of the sentence, and the verb is what the subject is doing. There are two kinds of verbs intransitive verbs , which require no direct object, and transitive verbs, which do require a direct object. This bring us to the direct object , which is the noun that the subject is acting upon. To determine what part of the sentence a word is, you can ask yourself these questions: 1. Subject - Who is doing the action? 2. Verb - What are they doing? 3. Direct Object - Who or what are they doing the action towards? Let's look at some English examples: 1. "The dragon ﬂies." In this sentence, the subject is "the dragon", and "ﬂies" is the verb. Here there is no direct object. 2. "The dragon killed Ralof." "The dragon" is the subject, "killed" is the verb, and "Ralof" is the direct object. 3. "Kyne bestowed the gift of the Voice upon mankind." In this example, "Kyne" is the subject, "bestowed" is the verb, and "the gift of the Voice" is the direct object. "Mankind" is another type of object called an indirect object. The indirect object is the recipient of the subject's actions upon the direct object.
The term sentence structure refers to how these parts are ordered in a language. Fortunately, the Dragon Language follows the same sentence structure as English. This sentence structure is: Subject - Verb - Object
For indirect objects, they can come before or after the object depending on whether you use a preposition. For example, you can say "I sold the shield to Belethor" or "I sold Belethor the shield."
As in English, adjectives always precede the nouns they describe, and adverbs can either precede or follow the verbs they describe. For more on the parts of speech, see the Alphabet & Grammar page. Exceptions occur in poetic writing, where sentence structure is more ﬂuid.
Possessive Possessive Determiner Pronoun
First Person, Singular
First Person, Plural
Unmaar (Ourselves )
Second Person, Singular
Second Person, Plural
Third Person, Masculine Singular
Third Person, Feminine Singular
Third Person Neutral Singular
Third person, Plural
Note the difference between the possessive determiner and the possessive pronoun, and between object and possessive determiner. With some English pronouns, these are the same (Her, His, Its). In Dragon, this is not necessarily true for their English equivalents. For example, "His sword is steel" would be "Ok zahkrii los dwiin", and "The steel sword is his" would be "Dwiin zahkrii los okah.
Articles & Emphasis The words "a", "an", and "the" are known as articles. The equivalents in Dragon are "Aan" (for both "a" and "an"), and "Faal" and "Fin" for "the". The difference between "Faal" and "Fin" is that "Faal" has primarily formal uses, in reference to proper nouns or things of reverence. One of the biggest differences between English and Dragon is that Dragon's normal sentence structure rarely, if ever, uses articles. Context is used to determine the references that "Aan"/"Faal"/"Fin" provide. Dragon also foregoes the verb "to be" in some places in order to be more direct. While it is most correct to ommit all of the above, you can include or exclude any of these and still be grammatically correct. You can use this to place emphasis. Some examples and their emphasis follow for translations of the sentence, "I am the Dragonborn!": • • • •
"Zu'u Dovahkiin!" - This is the most direct way of phrasing this sentence. Its emphasis is "I am the Dragonborn!" or "I am the Dragonborn!" "Zu'u los Dovahkiin!" - By including "los", the emphasis becomes "I am the Dragonborn!" "Zu'u faal Dovahkiin!" - By including "faal", the emphasis becomes "I am the Dragonborn!" "Zu'u los faal Dovahkiin!" - Including both "los" and "faal" would likely only occur for extra emphasis, or in poetic writing where the extra syllables serve an artistic purpose.
Conjugation As we've discussed in the previous lesson, the verb is the action in the sentence. The term conjugationrefers to how a verb is modiﬁed according to the subject. For example: "I climb the mountain", compared to "She climbs the mountain." A more colorful illustration of verb conjugation is in the verb "to be", "I am", "you are", "he/she/it is", etc. Context clues are very important for understanding the Dragon Language, and it plays a large role here as well. The Dragon Language doesn't conjugate the vast majority of verbs like other languages do. This makes it easier to construct sentences, but sometimes more difﬁcult to interpret them. We'll tackle both perspectives in this lesson.
Let's translate "He battles the dragon" and "We battle the dragon". The ﬁrst is "Rok grah dovah", and the second is "Mu grah dovah". As we can see, the verb doesn't change. Later, we'll see this is true for most tenses as well.
Verb Tense & Context Tense refers to when a verb is taking place. On the simplest level, there's present tense , past tense , and future tense. This is the difference between "He battles the dragon", "He battled the dragon", and "He will battle the dragon". In the Dragon
Language, this would look like "Rok grah dovah", "Rok grah dovah", and "Rok fen grah dovah." Here the verb doesn't change for tense either. As stated before, this makes it easy to construct sentences but difﬁcult to interpret them without larger context. With this context, we can gleam the tenses of verbs with some analysis. Let's look at a few examples: 1.
"Erik los hun do Rorikstead. Rok grah dovahhe." - The ﬁrst sentence translates to "Erik is the hero of Rorkistead." Since it is in the present tense, we can make an educated guess that the following sentence is also in the present tense. Thus, we get "Erik is the hero of Rorikstead. He battles dragons." It is also possible for the second sentence to be in the past tense: "Erik is the hero of Rorikstead. He battled dragons." "Erik lost hun do Rorikstead. Rok grah dovahhe." - The ﬁrst sentence translates to "Erik was the hero of Rorkistead." We can then say for certain that the following sentence is also in the past tense. Thus, we get "Erik was the hero of Rorikstead. He battled dragons." "Erik fen kos hun do Rorikstead. Rok fen grah dovahhe." - The ﬁrst sentence translates to "Erik will be the hero of Rorkistead." The verb "fen" helps us contextualize that these phrases are in future tense. So, we have "Erik will be the hero of Rorikstead. He will battle dragons." "Erik hun do Rorikstead. Rok grah dovahhe." - This is the most grammatically correct form of the above, as it ommits "los". Without it we face a deﬁnite problem - is it in present tense or past tense? We then have to draw on the larger context of the conversation or writing. Is it written on a Word Wall or in a book? It is most likely past tense. Have you just asked "Wo Erik?"/"Wo los Erik" ("Who is Erik?")? Then it is probably present tense.
The Verb "Kos" In constructing our sentences, there are a few things we can do to places clues as to what tense we're using. These come mainly in the form of the conjugations for "Kos", the verb which means "to be". Its conjugations also share meaning with "to have". Below is a table for the conjugations of "kos" and its English equivalents. English Translation Be