First half of the Samael 3.0 degree letter course.
ARIES () –
Dragon Rouge: Left-Hand Path Magic with a Neopagan Flavour Kennet Granholm Stockholm University
Abstract Dragon Rouge ist einer der einzigartigsten und interessantesten magischen Orden, die im Laufe der letzten zwanzig Jahren erschienen ist. Er ist auch die erste esoterische Bewegung, die erfolgreich aus Schweden exportiert wurde, sowie jemals der größte Orden des sogenannten Pfad zur linken Hand (Left-Hand Path). In der ersten Hälfte des Artikels werde ich die Geschichte des Ordens ausführlich beschreiben, seine philosophischen Lehren und Praxis besprechen, und Auskunft über seine Demographie sowie die Organisations- und Einweihungstrukturen. In der zweiten Hälfte des Artikels werde ich die Hauptdiskurse besprechen, die der Philosophie, der Praxis und den Strukturen von Dragon Rouge unterliegen: der Vorrang der Natur, die Anziehungskraft der weiblichen Göttlichen und die Diskurse des Individualismus, der Selbstvergötterung, und des Antinomismus die den Pfad zur Linken Hand kennzeichnen. Keywords Left-Hand Path, neopaganism, heathenism, magic, discourse, Satanism, post-Satanism
Introduction Dragon Rouge is one of the more unique and interesting magic orders to have come into existence in the last twenty years. It is also the ﬁrst esoteric movement which has successfully been exported out of Sweden, as well as the largest so-called Left-Hand Path1 order currently in existence.
The Left-Hand Path is a current of contemporary esotericism characterized by its extreme individualism and adherence to “dark” symbolism in the form of inversed pentagrams and crosses, and the use of terms such as Satan, the Prince of Darkness, and Black Magic. A discursive interpretation of this current will be provided further on in the article.
In the ﬁrst half of the article I will detail the history of the order, discuss its philosophical tenets and practice, and provide information on demography as well as the organizational and initiatory structures. In the second half of the article I will discuss some key discursive elements informing the philosophy, practice, and structures of Dragon Rouge—namely those of the primacy of nature, the appeal of the feminine divine, and the Left-Hand Path discourses of the ideology of individualism, the goal of self-deiﬁcation, and antinomianism. As is the case with Left-Hand Path groups in general, members of Dragon Rouge are ﬁrst and foremost engaged in self-transforming magical practice. Furthermore, magic is interpreted in an encompassing way where all and everything in an individual member’s life, both within and outside the order, is interpreted as having a connection to magic. History and Important Developments2 The prehistory of Dragon Rouge starts with its founder, Thomas Karlsson (b. ). A native to Stockholm, Sweden, Karlsson recounts having had extracorporeal experiences from age three onwards, and he began to experiment with the occult at around age twelve. A loose group soon formed around Karlsson, and by the time he had reached age seventeen this loose gathering had expanded into what would become Dragon Rouge. Besides working with his own group, Karlsson was deeply immersed in the esoteric milieu of the late s Stockholm, being in contact with a wide array of esoteric practitioners and working at the Vattumannen and Jolanda den tredje esoteric shops.3 Two factors in particular are of signiﬁcance for the formation of Dragon Rouge: Karlsson’s alleged contacts with senior magicians in Sweden, and his trip to Marrakech, Morocco, in the late s. Karlsson reports having received important texts and artefacts and learnt many of the terms and concepts later used in Dragon Rouge from a “Yezidi-Typhonian”4 group based in Gothen-
The ethnographic accounts are derived from the ﬁeldwork I conducted with the order from – (see Granholm ), as well as subsequent contact, observation, and interviews up to . 3) Interview, IF mgt / ; Questionnaire, IF / :. Both shops have been important nodal points of Swedish alternative spirituality, with Vattumannen (opened in ) being the most prominent centre in the milieu. 4) The branch of the Ordo Templi Orientis founded by Kenneth Grant (–) was until recently called the Typhonian O.T.O., and it is possible that the group mentioned by Karlsson worked with Grant-inspired magic. There are similarities between Grant’s magic
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burg, Sweden. This group gave him the direct impetus to start a proper magic order, and also suggested using the red dragon as the main symbol.5 On his visit to Marrakech Karlsson claims to have encountered a Dervish and received the prophetic declaration: ‘The old shall be destroyed and a temple shall be build for the Red Dragon’.6 The above narratives demonstrate the appeal to legitimacy through lineage and prophetic calling. Both are standard legitimizing discourses in the world of the esoteric,7 and together with Karlsson’s accounts of childhood mystical experiences they construct a life-narrative distinguished by the red thread of magic. Beside his magical activities Karlsson has a background in academia, earning a master’s degrees in the History of Ideas and History of Religions in the early s, and ﬁnally a PhD in the History of Religions in March ,8 all at Stockholm University. This academic connection is of signiﬁcance, as it has fostered what can be considered an academic atmosphere in Dragon Rouge. Dragon Rouge was opened for general membership on New Year’s Eve .9 The early order was very much characterized by an atmosphere of youthful exuberance and a somewhat disorganized approach, with meetings being held in the homes of various members and spontaneous magic workings being conducted in the conﬁnes of nature.10 The order experienced a drastic increase in membership applications in the mid s when a baptismal ceremony for
and Dragon Rouge, and the two can be described as belonging to the same esoteric current, namely the Left-Hand Path. As for more speciﬁc similarities, both Grant and Dragon Rouge have an explicit focus on Kliphotic Kabbalah and so-called Left-Hand Path Tantra (vamachara). 5) According to the Dragon Rouge website the was founded ‘following the advice from a circle of old Yezidi-Tyfonian magicians who left their great work of awakening the dragon force to their younger inheritors’, Dragon Rouge, ‘General Information’. 6) Questionnaire, IF / :. My translation. 7) The intricate founding legend created at the formation of The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn () is a good example of the creating legitimacy through lineage. Here, founder William Wynn Westcott concocted a story of how the Golden Dawn was not a new group, but a local group which had been sanctioned by a (imaginary) pre-existing German magical order (see Bogdan : –). Aleister Crowley and his Book of the Law () as a channelled text can be seen as an appeal to prophetic vision, as can Temple of Set-founder Michael Aquino’s The Book of Coming Forth by Night (). 8) For the thesis, see Karlsson, Götisk kabbala. 9) Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :; Frisk, Nyreligiositet i Sverige, ; Questionnaire, IF / :; Dragon Rouge, ‘Webpage of Lodge Odin’; Dragon Rouge, ‘General Information’. 10) Interview, IF mgt / –.
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the child of two order-members was arranged.11 Representatives of the Swedish tabloid paper Aftonbladet had been invited to participate, and they wrote a sensationalist and critical report labelling Dragon Rouge a dangerous satanic cult.12 This, in turn, provoked more media coverage,13 and it all resulted in a great upsurge in membership applications to the order. The rapid growth of the membership to an excess of ,14 when the organizational structure could eﬀectively accommodate only about a tenth of that, necessitated largescale structural changes, involving a rationalization of the administrational and initiatory structures of the order.15 The twenty-ﬁrst century marks the true internationalization of Dragon Rouge. The ﬁrst steps in this direction were taken in the late s with the introduction of the English-language members’ publication Cauda Draconis,16 and the development of a webpage. While the ﬁrst non-Swedish members joined the order already in the late s, the number of foreign membership applications increased in the early s, with continuous growth towards the end of the decade. Today, more than two-thirds of the Dragon Rouge membership consists of non-Swedish members, and the order can be said to have become truly transnational. This is apparent in the online presence of the order, with the webpages of Dragon Rouge now being viewable in nine diﬀerent languages: English, Swedish, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Greek, Russian, and Czech.17 A likely reason to the impressive growth of Dragon Rouge can be sought in increasing book publishing by members of the order. Long-time member Christofer Johnsson published the book Mörkrets stig (The Path of Darkness) already in ,18 but it was a privately published small print of only a
Ibid. Frisk, Nyreligiositet, . For the news reports, see Nilsson, ‘Religionens nynazister’; Nilsson, ‘Min son skall tro på djävulen’. 13) see e.g. Göteborgsposten, ‘Mördare driver Dragon Rouge’; Stugart, ‘Satanister snart på svart lista’; Stugart, ‘Magiska ritualer åter i ropet’; SVT , Taxi; Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå, ‘Satanism’. 14) Interview, IF mgt / . 15) Questionnaire, IF / :. 16) Ibid. All the diﬀerent language-versions of the members’ publication have since been named Dracontias. 17) Catering to a larger number of language-groups, instead of simply operating in the contemporary Lingua Franca of English, is an example of translocalizing tendencies within the order. See Granholm, ‘ “The Prince of Darkness on the Move” ’. 18) Johnsson, Mörkrets stig. 12)
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copies. Tommie Eriksson’s book Mörk magi19 (Dark Magic) was published by Ouroboros produktion in , subjected to widespread distribution, and became a bestseller at Vattumannen. It is, however, Thomas Karlsson’s books,20 issued in several editions, which have had the most signiﬁcant impact on the internationalization of the order. Johnsson and Karlsson’s involvement in the popular symphonic metal band Therion can certainly be added as a factor contributing to the general awareness of the order. However, it would be a mistake to conceive of the band as a vehicle to promote the order, or vice versa for that part.21 The maturation of Dragon Rouge has continued in the twenty-ﬁrst century with the opening of a permanent temple on the Island of Gotland, southeast of Stockholm, Sweden. This temple is located in an old barn on the family lands of Karlsson and all annual meetings of Dragon Rouge have been held on this location since , along with week-long magical retreats each summer— with attendants from around the world. Philosophy and Practice Magic is the name given to the methods by which a human can approach and control the unknown. The unknown is dark from our perspective. To call magic dark indicates that it is about researching and awakening things that lie outside the structure we are situated in.22
Dragon Rouge is a magic order, and as anyone involved in the study of phenomena included under the label will attest, deﬁning and describing magic is in no way simple and straight-forward. A major problem is that the term, originally native to Europe, was transposed to the practices of non-Western, non-literary people, and that transposition in turn has aﬀected the understanding of magic in Western contexts.23 Due to the inﬂuence of early evolutionary anthropology, magic is still often understood as “primitive, misguided science”. “Magic” is every bit as complex a term as “religion”, and providing
Eriksson, Mörk magi. Karlsson, Uthark; Karlsson, Kabbala, kliﬀot och den goetiska magin; Karlsson, Astrala resor; Karlsson, Adulrunan. 21) Granholm, Metal and Magic. 22) Eriksson, Mörk magi, . My translation. 23) Lehrich, The Language of Demons and Angels, –. See also Pasi, ‘Magic’. 20)
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an all-round, cross-cultural, deﬁnition is impossible. In the present context I deal with “magic” as a term of self-identity among members of Dragon Rouge, rather than as an analytical category, and look at emic interpretations. Members of Dragon Rouge often build upon Aleister Crowley’s ‘[m]agick is the Science and Art of causing Change to occur in conformity with Will’24 when explaining what magic is.25 Overall, the notion of Will is central, with Thomas Karlsson and others describing magic as the art or philosophy of Will.26 The term is commonly preceded by the qualiﬁer “dark”, signifying the “exploration of the unknown”.27 Another common term used is “Draconian”,28 pointing to the main symbol of the order, the red dragon. The “Draconian force” utilized by Dragon Rouge magicians consists of the “inner dragon”— the innate life-force in man, the Kundalini—and the “outer dragon”—the universal life-force or energy immanent in every aspect of nature, linking everything together. The dragon represents chaos, the potential of existence not yet manifested, and by connecting with the Draconian force the magician can both awaken power and energy latent in him-/herself and utilize the potential of chaos to manifest what he/she wants to make reality. Dragon Rouge is highly syncretistic and borrows from most magical and religious traditions, rather than focusing on only one. This means that the courses and meetings of the order mainly function as introductions to a wide array of subjects and themes, and it is then up to the individual members to more deeply explore practices they feel inspired by. Still, an oﬃcial foundation consists of “goetic kabbalah”, “odinic runosophy”, “vamachara tantra”,29 and “typhonian alchemy”—jointly termed “G.O.T.A.”.30 In essence, this entails practices focused on rune magic and Old Norse mythology (odinic runosophy), kundalini-meditation and chakra-stimulation (tantra), and an overall goal of deep-level spiritual evolution (alchemy). The primary foundation, however, is goetic kabbalah, more often termed kliphotic kabbalah within
Crowley, Magick, . See Questionnaire, IF / :; Questionnaire, IF / :; Questionnaire, IF / :. 26) Interview, :; Interview, IF mgt :. See also Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. 27) See Eriksson, Mörk magi, . 28) “The Draconian Current” is presented by Kenneth Grant as a “primordial tradition”, see Grant, Cults of the Shadow; Grant, Nightside of Eden. 29) For a discussion of the Dragon Rouge use of Tantra, see Granholm, ‘The Serpent Rises in the West’. 30) Dragon Rouge, ‘General Information’. 25)
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the order. This entails the invocation of demonic entities and astral exploration of the “shadow side” of the kabbalistic “Tree of Life” and forms the basis of the Dragon Rouge initiatory system. As the kliphotic spheres are eleven in number, the Dragon Rouge initiatory system also has eleven degrees.31 The ﬁrst three degrees are managed through correspondence courses in magic in which introductory theory and example practices can be found. Upon ﬁnishing a course the member requests to receive initiation into the corresponding degree. In doing so, he/she writes a report— of increasing complexity and detail for each higher degree—in which experiences and interpretations are noted. After initiation into the third degree— entailing entry into the “Dragon Order”, discussed in more detail further on— the initiate is expected to direct his/her magical development in a more individual fashion. In general, the initiatory levels of individual members are not openly discussed in the order. The main reason given for this is that it is an attempt to discourage members from using the initiatory system for competing with each other.32 Dragon Rouge meetings are commonly fashioned as courses in which different themes are explored and practices tried out. As such, they are divided into two parts. First, a senior member does a presentation—a sort of theoretical lecture—discussing the theme of the day. Not surprisingly, as many of the leading members of the order have a university background, the lectures are based on university models and often include references to scholarly works from comparative religion, anthropology, or some other related ﬁeld. The second part of the meeting is where the themes discussed are put into practice. Some music suited for the occasion, usually dark ambient or other music with meditative qualities, is played, the lights turned oﬀ and candles and incense
31) The Dragon Rouge degrees, and the names of the kliphotic spheres, are: .—Lilith; .—Gamaliel; .—Samael; .—A"arab Zaraq; .—Thagirion; .—Golachab; .— Gha’agsheblah; .—Satariel; .—Ghagiel; . & .—Thaumiel. The system is similar to that of the Golden Dawn, which functions as a model for most modern and contemporary magic orders, see Bogdan, Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiation, –. The Golden Dawn incorporated the kabbalistic Tree of Life as a model for its initiatory structure and Dragon Rouge has incorporated the kliphot, the “shadow-side” of the kabbalistic Tree of Life, into its structure. Instead of the ten worlds of the sephiroth, Dragon Rouge operates with eleven kliphotic worlds, a number that both Aleister Crowley and Kenneth Grant identify as the number of magic, see Grant, Cults, –. Grant also incorporates the kliphot in his system, as a necessary element for attaining high levels of magical initiation, see Grant, Cults, –. 32) Interview, .
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lit. The practice is commonly started and ended with some sort of guided Kundalini meditation, i.e. meditation where the focus lies on awakening the practitioner’s inherent power reserves (identiﬁed as the tantric “ﬁery serpent” which when rising along the spine of the practitioner activates energy nodes called chakras). The primary practice takes place in between these meditations. Finally, experiences of the practice are discussed, and it is here that members can draw on each other’s experience and construct a coherent narrative of the practice. Dragon Rouge rituals and ceremonies are very loosely structured, usually being constructed impromptu for the occasion and even involving improvised elements. Very few standardized elements exist. In this, there is a stark contrast to much Western esoteric ritual work.33 Another distinguishing trait is the playfulness adopted when discussing magic. While members remain serious when performing practice, the mood is quite relaxed before and after, often including joking about the practice of magic itself. This, particularly with the loosely structured composition of Dragon Rouge practice, helps mark out the ritual time and space.34 In order to illustrate what Dragon Rouge practice can be like, I will provide a brief, abridged account from my ﬁeld work with the order. The example is from a course on ceremonial magic, arranged on the weekend of August –, . The ﬁrst day of the course centred on theoretical discussion, and in lieu of the limited space, I will only recount the second day of the course when the magical practice was performed. We were ten Dragon Rouge members all in all, six male and four female, that headed out on this uncharacteristically cold, but luckily clear, Sunday afternoon. Entering the forest by a woodland path we were careful not to disturb any plants, and walked for ﬁfteen minutes or so before arriving at a moss-covered stony mound where we stopped to do a short preparatory meditation. When ﬁnished, Thomas Karlsson gave a short theoretical talk on the presence of the Dragon, or chaos, in nature, mentioning popular scholars such as Mircea Eliade. He then asked us to search the forest and for each to choose an object which appealed35 to us. The space chosen for our ceremony, 33)
See Bogdan, Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiation. cf. Lindquist, Shamanic Performances, –, –. 35) The Swedish word “Tilltala”, which can be used both in the meaning “to please” (as in “this object pleases me”) and in the meaning “speak to” (as in “this object speaks to me”). In the above sentence “appeals to” should be understood in both of these ways. 34)
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one where a Dragon Rouge ceremony had been held the previous spring, would have been undistinguishable from the rest of the forest for the uninitiated. It was up to the individual magician and his feeling for the woods to envision the natural temple. We entered the area in line formation, through a “portal” formed by two pine trees standing next to each other, using the objects we had chosen to symbolically open the portal to let us in. A rock, standing in line with the portal through which we had entered the area, about twelve metres away from it, was to function as our altar. It was adorned with objects we had brought with us; four small tea-lights, two larger grave candles, the ceremonial dagger and bell from the temple, and some powdered incense in a ﬁreproof container. Three twigs were placed in an erect position at the centre of the altar, two of them forming a triangular shape with the third one in the middle facing the sky. The carcass of a small bird we had found earlier was placed on top of the altar stone. Behind and slightly to the right of the altar stood a tree which Thomas explained functioned as an Axis Mundi. Before beginning, we sat down on the ground to discuss the symbolism and progression of the ceremony, as well as the roles each of us would play in it—all chosen from Old Norse mythology. The women would represent time, taking the roles of the three Norns,36 Urd (past), Verdandi (present), and Skuld (future), and Hel—as “that which is hidden”. The men were to represent the extended cardinal points and the elements, in the form of the mythological beings Fenris (north and water), Loki (east and air), Surt (south and ﬁre), Jörmungandr (west and earth), Nidhög (“that which is below”), and Hraesvelgr (“that which is above”). The ceremony in its totality was to symbolize the creation of the universe and, more speciﬁcally, the creation of a dark magical universe—and in it the magician. We took some time to get into character, and then moved to our mutually agreed positions; the men at their respective cardinal points, with “Nidhög” and “Hraesvelgr” at centre of the area next to a circular formation of small stones, and the Norns in “chronological order” from the portal to behind the altar. “Hel” had a special role and stood on the left of the altar. The ﬁnal act before beginning was the lighting of the incense at the altar. The ceremony began with “Hel” uttering ‘I am Hel, that which is hidden’ and ringing the ceremonial bell. She then moved to positions behind the rest of us, who similarly and in turn—from the Norns in “chronological order” to the 36)
The Norns are entities from Old Norse mythology which are the masters of the destinies of both gods and human beings. The three Norns which are most commonly mentioned are the ones that rule over the past, present, and future, respectively.
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extended cardinal points—presented themselves and their “cosmic function”. After each presentation “Hel” rang the bell. Next, each of us approached the altar, again in the same order, to present our chosen ceremonial objects and call out the red dragon from our respective realms. Each sacriﬁce was ended with the standard Dragon Rouge uttering ‘Ho Drakon ho Megas’,37 to which the other participant responded in chorus. “Hel” was the last to present her sacriﬁce, and she repeated the ceremonial uttering thrice, again with the rest of us responding. After a silent meditation for about two minutes Thomas declared the ceremony ended. We collected the items we had brought with us and removed the dead bird from the altar, but left our sacriﬁces by it. We left our nature-temple the same way we had entered, this time opening and closing the portal with our hands. All in all, the ceremony lasted for about thirteen minutes, not counting the meditations and preparations we had carried out in advance. All aspects of the ceremony, as well as the preparations for it, held magical signiﬁcance. The preparatory meditation was devised as a means to separate oneself from everyday reality, and together with the collection of “sacred items” to forge a connection with the surrounding nature. The sacred items also functioned as “totems”, imbuing the magicians present with the power of nature. By “opening the portal to the temple” a sacred space was crafted, further separating magical and everyday reality. The ﬁrst half of the actual ceremony, with each participant declaring their mythological identity and function, had the function of demarcating the borders of the magical universe that was to be crafted, and the ringing of the ceremonial bell focused the Will of each participant in order to make the borders reality. In the second part of the ceremony each participant placed their magic item at the altar, which can be seen as an act where the magician sacriﬁced his/her Will—represented by the item placed on the altar—and thus symbolically endowing the newly created magical universe, and the inhabitants of it—the participants in the ceremony, with power. The magician sacriﬁced his/her Will, to him-/herself, in order to attain power. By closing the portal to the temple at the end of the ceremony, a return to everyday reality was signalled and psychologically eﬀected. At its very core, the ceremony dealt with the creation of separated sacred space, in which the magician can assume control over his/her destiny and gain power for self-deiﬁcation. 37)
The uttering is said to be derived in Old Greek, and means “the great Dragon”. According to Dragon Rouge material the uttering provides power, and is used to end a ritual or as a greeting among members. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :.
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Organization The membership numbers of Dragon Rouge have ﬂuctuated greatly throughout the years, something which is in accordance to Eileen Barker’s observations on the high level of turnover in new religious movements.38 From numbering ten or so in ,39 the membership grew rapidly to half a thousand in the mid s.40 In the early to mid s the membership numbers ﬂuctuated between and members, showing a slow increase towards the end of the decade. Interestingly, the growth in the twenty-ﬁrst century has been predominantly among non-Swedish members, with the order since the mid s having less than one third of its members in Sweden. With close to members Dragon Rouge is also the largest existing Left-Hand Path organization. The membership is fairly young, with most active members being in their thirties. Over time the core membership has grown older, having in during the early days consisted of a majority of early -year-olds. Since some years the order has had a policy of not accepting under -year olds as members, but according to a former member, the order used to have members as young as in the mid s.41 Throughout most of its existence the order has had a predominance of male members, almost exclusively so in the early s and by about two thirds since the s. The exception was during the media frenzy of the mid s, when the order had more female than male members. Most of the order’s material is also written by male members, but there has been a consistent increase in active participation by female members throughout the s. Dragon Rouge is organized in three layers: the open order available to those members who pay the annual dues but are not taking initiations; those participating in the initiatory structure; and the inner order of initiates of 38)
Barker, ‘New Religious Movements’, –. Johnsson, Mörkrets stig; Questionnaire, IF / :. 40) In , the assessment of between and members are provided by Nilsson, ‘Religionens nynazister’; Nilsson, ‘Min son skall tro på djävulen’; In the assessment of members is provided by Stugart, ‘Magiska ritualer’; members are reported in by Frisk, Nyreligiositet i Sverige, ; and members in the same year by Arlebrand et al., Ny tid ny tro?, , . An oﬃcial inquiry made in by the social department of the Swedish government—with information taken from the Catalogue of Churches, Denominations and Movements in Sweden (Katalog over kyrkor, samfund och rörelser i Sverige ) and said to be accurate as of August , —counts the dues-paying members of Dragon Rouge at , see SOU, I god tro, . 41) Questionnaire, IF / :. 39)
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degree . or higher—the Dragon Order.42 This third organizational structure involves the initiate swearing the Dragon Oath, ceremonially declaring him/herself willing to be more deeply involved in magic and the order’s inner workings. The division is similar to the structure of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where members were initiated into the Second Order after receiving the ﬁfth degree. The diﬀerence is that the First Order activities of Golden Dawn where strictly theoretical,43 while the Dragon Rouge initiate focuses on practice from the very start. The order is governed by an Inner Circle which is responsible for administrative, ideological, economic, and other practical issues. Rather than being an elected, constant board of directors—as the Council of Nine in the Temple of Set—the composition of the Circle varies in accordance with the issues discussed. Local Dragon Rouge groups are divided into ritual groups, temple groups, and lodges. The Stockholm-based group is called the mother-lodge, and it is there that the central administration of the order is located and where all major decisions are made. Prior to , when the concept of the ritual group was introduced, all local groups were termed lodges. The temple group, as a more structured gathering in between the ritual group and the lodge, was introduced in the late s. Like the membership in general, there has been considerable ﬂuctuation in local groups as well—with a general increase in complexity, structures, and governance.44 In late there existed two lodges (in addition to the motherorder) in Sweden, one in Germany, and one in Italy.45 A Polish lodge, started in , was discontinued in mid . Of the Swedish lodges, Sinistra is located in Malmö in southern Sweden and was founded in .46 The other Swedish lodge, Atlantis, is located in Uppsala, about kilometres north-northwest of Stockholm, and was founded in the fall of . The German lodge Heldrasil attained lodge-status in and is located in Thüringen, and the Italian lodge Sothis attained lodge-status in late and is located in Naples. Several
Dragon Rouge, ‘General Information’; Questionnaire, IF / :. See Bogdan, Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiation, . 44) Interview, IF mgt / –; Questionnaire, IF / :. Rules governing the opening of lodges were ﬁrst established in . Until that point the opening of lodges was based on more intuitive and subjective assessments. Lodge abide under stricter rules than Temple groups, which in turn abide by stricter rules than ritual groups. 45) Dragon Rouge, ‘Aktiviteter’. 46) Questionnaire, IF / :. 43)
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earlier lodges have existed, most of them Swedish such as Black Earth Lodge in Gävle—active in the early s;47 lodge Odin in Karlshamn—in existence between and ;48 and lodge Helheim in Gothenburg—active from the late s to the fall of .49 The earliest lodge outside the Nordic countries, lodge Thagirion, operated in Hagen, Germany, between and . All lodges have a lodge-degree between and reﬂecting its oﬃcial status in the order, based on the level of activity of the lodge.50 Currently, lodge Sothis has degree ., lodges Sinistra and Heldrasil degree ., and the new lodge Atlantis degree ..51 Temple groups exist in Turku, Finland, and Gothenburg, Sweden. Only one ritual group currently exists, in Athens, Greece.52 Previous ritual groups have existed in Mexico; Växjö, Sweden; Prague, the Czech Republic; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and at an unspeciﬁed location in Germany.53 Discursive Formation As noted, I identify Dragon Rouge as a Left-Hand Path magic order.54 This is based on the self-designation of the order, but in contrast to emic discussions I do not regard “the Left-Hand Path” and “the Right-Hand Path” as two principal approaches to magic in Western esoteric contexts. Rather, I employ the former as a designate for a particular and distinct stream or current of modern esotericism. Anyone familiar with the study of Western esotericism will be familiar with the term current, used by Antoine Faivre to denote ‘movements, schools, or traditions’.55 In my use a “current” can be regarded as a distinct “discursive complex”56 situated within the general realm of esoteric discourse57 itself. Discourse analysis is a based on social constructionist
Håkansson, ‘Den röda draken’. Questionnaire, IF / :. 49) Information received during the annual meeting of Dragon Rouge. 50) Dragon Rouge, ‘Regler för bildande’. 51) Dragon Rouge, ‘Lodges’. 52) Dragon Rouge, ‘Aktiviteter’. 53) Interview, IF mgt / –; Questionnaire, IF / :. 54) For discussion of other Left-Hand Path groups, the Rune-Gild and the Temple of Set, see Granholm, ‘The Rune-Gild’; Granholm, ‘The Left-Hand Path and Post-Satanism’. 55) Faivre, ‘Questions of Terminology’, . 56) For further discussion on currents as discursive complexes see Granholm, ‘Esoteric Currents as Discursive Complexes’. 57) See von Stuckrad, ‘Western Esotericism’; von Stuckrad, Locations of Knowledge, –. 48)
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epistemology, where language and other forms of communication are construed as directing, forming, and indeed constructing the social realities of those engaging in the communication. A discourse, then, is, to quote Viven Burr, ‘a set of meanings, metaphors, representations, images, stories, statements and so on that in some way together produce a particular version of events’,58 or more simply ‘a ﬁxed way of talking about and understanding the world (or a section of it)’.59 In my discursive approach, esoteric currents are collections of speciﬁc and distinct discourses, which together produce particular worldviews, practices, organizational and social structures, and tropes of communication. This approach has the beneﬁt of providing structures to systematize material while at the same time allowing for the ﬂuidity and malleability which the analyzed material is characterized by. Discourses are never ﬁnitely set, but remain everchanging. This approach also allows for a greater ﬂexibility in examining esotericism, as a particular expression of an esoteric current will rarely, if ever, exist in a “pure” form, but rather be informed by other currents and freestanding discourses which guide and form this expression in unique ways. Discursive approaches are also compatible with historical ones. It is fully conceivable to trace discourses and discursive complexes in history and examine how they have been aﬀected and transformed by historical and societal processes. As a discursive approach is an empirical approach it does not suggest itself to an ahistorical, universalist, cross-cultural understanding of esotericism or speciﬁc esoteric currents. The Left-Hand Path-current, the principal guiding current for Dragon Rouge, is distinguished by three central discourses: the ideology of individualism, the goal of self-deiﬁcation, and an antinomian stance. None of these discourses is by itself unique to the Left-Hand Path and can be found in other esoteric manifestations as well, but in their speciﬁc combination and reliance on each other they form a distinct discursive complex—a current. Each of these discourses is dependent on the other two, and cannot be truly separated. Thus, the ideology of individualism—where the individual is consciously and deliberately (rhetorically) posited at the absolute centre of his/her existential universe—exists in a symbiotic relationship with the goal of self-deiﬁcation— where the individual, by truly becoming an individual by and through the means antinomian transgression of rules, conventions, and taboos, can gain full control over his/her existential universe. 58) 59)
Burr, An Introduction to Social Constructionism, . Jørgensen & Phillips, Diskursanalys som teori och metod, . My translation.
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The Left-Hand Path Discursive Complex in Dragon Rouge: The Ideology of Individualism The Dragon Rouge discourse on individualism is multifaceted. First oﬀ, a difference is made between ordinary human individuation—in essence the separation of the child from the mother and his/her realization of him-/herself as a separate being—and what could be termed the “existential” individuation of the dark magician.60 In the latter, the magician aims at becoming an individual in relation to the whole of existence, going through processes of liberation where he/she separates him-/herself from external dependencies. This is demonstrated in the ‘ritual of the seven power-points’,61 in which the magician is to meditate on things he/she draws power and enjoyment from—e.g. a particularly meaningful relationship—and come to the realization that his/her apparent dependency on these things is in actuality an illusion. The ritual is not devised as a means to separate the magician from social relationships, but instead help him/her engage in them in a more conscious and voluntary fashion. Dragon Rouge individualism is also strictly posited against “shallow modernist individualism” and “Satanic hyper-individualism”, both of which are considered to build on similar premises. According to Dragon Rouge, ‘[m]aterialism … leads to a superﬁcial and desperate form of individualism’ which is characterised by ‘[e]go trips and superﬁcial satisfaction’ and ‘becomes destructive both for the individuals and their surrounding world’.62 In essence, modern individualism is regarded as viewed as destructive, selﬁsh, and not as true individualism at all. The view is that in modernity the notion of ‘free will is used as an argument for its opposite’,63 and people are actually increasingly bound by external forces. Satanic “egoistic individualism”, primarily exempliﬁed by reference to the Church of Satan, is similarly rejected, as social relations, and a certain level of altruism that goes into them, are considered to be important. In fact, many members, particularly those deeply engaged with the order, consider Dragon Rouge as a sort of tribal gathering of equal individuals.64 Furthermore, the Dragon Rouge discourse on individualism has a strong bearing on practice. Each Dragon Rouge member is free to, and indeed expected to, make his/her own choices regarding the practice of magic, progress 60) 61) 62) 63) 64)
Dragon Rouge, ‘Philosophy’. The ritual is described in Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. My translation. Dragon Rouge, ‘Contra M’. Karlsson, ‘Ledare’ (). My translation. See Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :.
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in his/her magical journey, level of commitment to both the organization and magic itself. As stated by Karlsson, ‘Draconian initiation follows certain patters, but at the same time each initiation is unique’.65 As such, it is diﬃcult to discern stable structures in the order’s practice and teachings, other than that of the foundational discourses examined here. As with practices and teachings, each member has the right and responsibility to deﬁne his/her own experiences.66 Still, even though there are no standardized interpretations, members do construct meaning of their experiences together. An individual’s freedom to deﬁne Dragon Rouge as an organization, however, is linked to his/her level of activity in the organization. Self-Deiﬁcation The discourse of self-deiﬁcation, or apotheosis, revolves around the notion of the personal growth of the practitioner of magic. The focus is on control and power, though on a personal and not a social or societal level. That is to say, Dragon Rouge discourses are devoid of the idea of the magician needing to demonstrate his prowess in magic by being economically “successful” that can be found in e.g. the Church of Satan. The order’s approach to personal growth diﬀers from many standard, “secular”, ones, in that the goal of the dark magician is not simply to “be all one can be” in a human capacity. He/she is to assume full control of one’s own existential universe, to become a creator instead of being created,67 and to ‘develop an elevated consciousness’.68 Consequently, magical practice in the order is primarily focused on methods of fostering the personal evolution of the practitioner.69 This explains the absence of spells and rituals designed to advance more immediate and mundane goals, such as achieving prosperity. In order to achieve deiﬁcation the magician needs to identify his/her True Self, existing underneath layers of false and illusory self65)
Karlsson, ‘Ledare’ (). My translation. The English word “experience” can be translated into Swedish as “erfarenhet” or “upplevelse.” “Erfarenhet” (Erfahrung in German) conveys the meaning of experiential knowledge and skill—as in the sentence “I have much experience of childcare.” “Upplevelse” (Erlebnis in German) refers more to the emotional interpretation of an event, such as in the sentence “That car-crash last night was a terrible experience.” In the context of magical experience the simultaneous usage of both meanings could be argued. 67) Dragon Rouge, ‘Tendenser ’. 68) Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. My translation. 69) A long-time member regards Dragon Rouge in essence as a ‘dark alchemical path of evolution’, Interview, IF mgt / . My translation. 66)
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hood, and strengthen this core-self gradually. In eﬀect, the magician strengthens his/her core to the degree where it can withstand anything, even death, and where it becomes akin to a universe of its own.70 In this, the discourse of self-deiﬁcation is intimately linked to the discourse of individualism. Both deal with the ultimate goal of the dark magician—attaining and maintaining sustained, individual, and conscious control over one’s own existential universe. Before attaining this liberation the individual’s destiny is predetermined.71 The discourse of self-deiﬁcation is also closely linked to themes of morality. In short, in assuming full, divine control over his/her existence, the magician also needs to assume full responsibility of his/her actions and their consequences.72 In this context, the seemingly benevolent intentions of “white magicians” and “New Age practitioners” are criticized for causing more harm than good.73 The common sentiment is that one needs to achieve a profound level of maturity, power, and morality before setting out to help others. While the dark magician is expected to be moral, his/her morality is individual, personal, and potentially ﬂexible, rather than abiding to a set of rigid prescribed rules: ‘Collective and unconscious morality is substituted by an individual and conscious [morality]’.74 An example of a practice informed by this discourse is the “soul-mirror”exercise described in the ﬁrst correspondence course in magic. This exercise involves the novice magician meditating over his perceived positive and negative character traits, in order to come to the realization that many “negative” traits have “positive” functions, and vice versa.75 Having understood the true nature of these character traits the magician can direct his/her personal development in an active and conscious manner. The discourses on individualism and self-deiﬁcation foster an atmosphere where the dark magician is presented as courageous, strong, and unique—in eﬀect an elite human being. The distinction from non-magicians is evident in sentences such as ‘[m]ost people sleep. They live their lives in a lethargy and lack any coherent will’,76 ‘[m]agic is for the strong, or for those who sincerely aim
70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76)
Ibid. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. Karlsson, ‘Förord’, x. Interview, IF mgt / –. Karlsson, ‘Förord’, xi. My translation. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. Ibid, . My translation.
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at becoming strong’,77 and ‘[t]o take the step and join an occult organization is a unique choice. It is made by avant-garde people who have understood that the world is run by mechanisms and forces which cannot be seen or explained by the great masses, but nevertheless aﬀect your life’.78 However, in assessing statements such as these it needs to be remembered that Dragon Rouge is a minority “religion”. The statements function as a shield to protect the practitioner from the lack of understanding and even ridicule from the outside society, and also create a sense of community in creating a “they” that “us” can be posited against. Furthermore, it is not the individual magician per se who is regarded as better than other people; it is the choice of engaging in magical evolution which is regarded as an elite choice. Still, the statements do exhibit an inﬂuence from the antinomian discourse, discussed below. Antinomianism Whereas the discourses of individualism and self-deiﬁcation are primarily concerned with goals of the dark magician, the antinomian discourse focuses on ways to achieve these goals. It deals with the necessity of the magician to transverse conventional rules and taboos—of societal, religious, and, most of all, personal nature—in order to achieve the liberation sought. Linguistic expressions of the discourse contain terms such as “dark magic” and “dark forces”,79 and the use of controversial mythological ﬁgures such as Lucifer and Lilith. Although Dragon Rouge material makes it clear that “dark” is not to be interpreted as referring to “evil” in any conventional way, but rather to the unexplained and therefore “un-illuminated”, it still functions as a vehicle for separation and taboo-breaking. The same goes for the use of controversial mythological ﬁgures: although they are reinterpreted in a positive fashion, their very use signals a desire to transverse boundaries. The discourse is also one which is most clearly, though not exclusively, evident in non-linguistic systems of communication—particularly the use of controversial symbols. The “inverse” pentagram—a common antinomian symbol found in e.g. the Church of Satan and the Temple of Set80—is absent in the
Ibid, . My translation. Dragon Rouge, Välkomstbrev till nya medlemmar. My translation. 79) Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. Reference is also made to C.G. Jung and his psychological notion of the “process of individuation”, see Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. 80) See Granholm, ‘The Sigil of Baphomet’; Granholm, ‘The Pentagram of Set, and the Trapezoid as used in the Church of Satan and the Tempe of Set’. 78)
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Dragon Rouge context. This is a result of Dragon Rouge actively attempting to avoid identiﬁcation with Satanism and create a unique social sphere for itself, as well as the relatively widespread use of the symbol, which in itself limits its antinomian power. The order’s main symbol is instead the red dragon—also easily associated with “the Devil”, though not as unambiguously so. Though the red Dragon is described as a life-aﬃrming symbol, representing both the universal and personal life-forces, it is also likened to the serpent in the Garden of Eden, Leviathan, the Chaos-entity Tiamat, the Greek Titan Typhon, and so forth.81 Another central symbol is the Clavicula Nox, containing “the trident of Shiva” (or the pitchfork of the Devil) thrust through a ring representing the feminine divine in the forms of Kali, Lilith, etc. The Clavicula Nox is exclusive to Dragon Rouge, and is used on e.g. medallions only available to initiated members. It stands for the union of opposites, as well as pure sexual energies not harnessed for procreation. Along with its connection to potentially “dark” deities, the name the symbol itself—translatable as the Key of Dark/Night— expresses the antinomian discourse.82 Additional Key Discourses In addition to the discourses of the Left-Hand Path current the order is strongly characterized by two discourses common to neopaganism;83 the primacy of nature and the pursuit of the feminine divine. The former asserts the vital role of nature as a realm of the divine, which can be accessed by the magician on his path to deiﬁcation. The latter, in conjunction with the Left-Hand Path discursive complex, expresses the focus on feminized aspects of the divine as those representing the most hidden, esoteric, and useful for the magician’s personal evolution. One of the key features of both discourses is the critique of traditional monotheistic religion and its devaluation of both nature and the feminine.84 Instead, a monistic worldview where ‘there are connections between
See Granholm, ‘The Dragon Symbol of Dragon Rouge’. See Granholm, ‘Clavicula Nox—A Dragon Rouge Emblem’. 83) See Harvey, Listening People, Speaking Earth, –; York, The Emerging Network, . The neopagan foundational discourse of the “reawakening of pre-Christian religion” is, while not totally absent, less prominent in Dragon Rouge. Although the order does entertain notions of a “primordial draconian tradition”, this is more akin to Traditionalist notions of a universal philosophia perennis. 84) See e.g. Interview, IF mgt / –; Dragon Rouge, ‘Contra M’. 82)
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everything’ and ‘where the divine light is [still] present in man’ is preferred.85 The Dragon Rouge critique of modernity and materialism, dealing with the promotion of “false individualism”, as discussed above, also focuses on negative implications for the natural world. According to the order, both modern materialism and monotheistic religion promote the notion that ‘nature and the animals are made for man to use’ and result in the situation where ‘[m]an can do what he likes with animals and nature’, and the human being itself becomes a ‘soulless organism being compared to cars or computers’.86 Much of the magical practice in Dragon Rouge is focused on nature in one form or another,87 with natural surroundings being regarded as among the best places to come into contact with truly magical forces.88 Powerful magic items can be found when ‘strolling in the forest’,89 and when using living parts of nature, such as cutting a branch of a living tree, the magician should ‘ask the living natural object for permission’.90 Nature represents primordial chaos and the dark forces of dissolution and creation, powers which have the potential of strengthening the creative and active agency in the human being. Conversely, the structured existence and surroundings of the city, human civilization, complicate and hinder the magician in his/her magical development.91 The discourse of the primacy of nature has had a great inﬂuence on even the “non-magical” lives of many Dragon Rouge members. For example, most longtime members of the order in the Stockholm region are vegetarians and accord great importance to issues of ecology and animal rights.92 Oﬃcial Dragon Rouge material asserts that ‘[m]an can become god by entering outside the humans limits and recognizing the importance of the beast’,93 and this feeling of connection can support vegetarianism and ecological sentiments. These issues are also discussed in terms of the “higher morality” supposedly developed in cultivating existential individualism and self-deiﬁcation. With the shift in focus away from “humanity”, the individualist discourse of Dragon Rouge helps foster an atmosphere where the apparent uniqueness of the human race is re-evaluated. Furthermore, for a Left-Hand Path practitioner the adoption of 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93)
Dragon Rouge, ‘Contra M’. Ibid. See e.g. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :, :. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :–. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. My translation. Ibid, :. My translation. Ibid, :. See Granholm, ‘Left-Hand Path Magic and Animal Rights’. Dragon Rouge, ‘Contra M’.
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animal rights sentiments and a vegetarian diet could be seen as antinomian, as these practices and philosophies are not “mainstream”. Opinions that the contemporary meat industry is perverse, both morally and magically reproachable, and irresponsible are commonplace among members of the order,94 as is the idea that the notion of animal rights naturally emerges as a key notion when working with foundational magical energies.95 While the Dragon Rouge approach to the feminine divine probably derives from neopagan inﬂuences, it diﬀers in many regards. In being informed by the antinomian discourse the Dragon Rouge focus on the feminine divine is predominantly, almost exclusively, on her “dark” and dangerous aspects, and the “sanitazion” of her in neopagan and “New Age”-circles is strongly criticized. Female deities and demonesses, such as Kali, Hel, and Lilith, are accorded particular signiﬁcance in rituals and texts.96 Similarly, the most powerful magical currents are often discussed as having a connection to femininity.97 In the second correspondence course in magic one can read that the feminine ‘represent[s] the gate to the dimensions of magic’, ‘[s]he is Mother Earth and through her womb life is born and dies. […] She is the underworld and the mother of all life’.98 The feminine is re-assessed, re-imagined, and re-presented in ways which support the antinomian discourse. The discourse also has relevance on the organizational level, as the motherorganization in Stockholm does not operate speciﬁc theme-groups other than a women’s ritual group which has been active in diﬀerent forms for most of the s. It is also common among members to describe the order as not bound to traditional gender roles. Conclusion It may seem as if this article has been rather light on oﬃcial Dragon Rouge standpoints on philosophy and teaching, and provided few examples of actual Dragon Rouge practices. The reason for this is the structural individualistic
See Granholm, ‘Left-Hand Path and Animal Rights’. Interview, If mgt / –. 96) See e.g. Dragon Rouge, Magikurs ; Karlsson, ‘Häxkonst del ’; Author Anonymized, ‘Häxsalvan’; Karlsson, ‘Mörk initiatorisk häxkonst’; Author Anonymized, ‘Mörka makter i Kalevala’; Author Anonymized, ‘Battle Bitch’, . 97) See e.g. Author Anonymized, ‘Tantra och den vänstra handens väg (Del )’, ; Author Anonymized, ‘Tantra och den vänstra handens väg. Del ’, . 98) Dragon Rouge, Magikurs , :. My translation. 95)
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eclecticism of the order, which makes it extremely dynamic and complex. Thus, in order to achieve an account of the order which has a more lasting relevance it makes more sense to focus on just these structures. I have attempted to do this by describing the discursive formation of the order. The standard Left-Hand Path discourses of individualism, self-deiﬁcation, and antinomianism, in conjunction with additional central discourses such as the primacy of nature and the pursuit of the feminine divine, constitute the foundation through which the eclectic teachings and practices of the order are interpreted. Furthermore, it is the very existence of these discourses, in their particular mix, which make the extreme eclecticism of Dragon Rouge sustainable. In addition to the above foundational discourses, however, Dragon Rouge is strongly inﬂuenced by what could be termed post-secular99 discourses. For a long time, perspectives on religion and spirituality in the post-Enlightenment West were informed hegemonic secularist discourses, which in turn directed both scholarly notions of secularization and the process itself.100 Post-secular discourses, which involve attempts to “re-sacralize” or “re-enchant” the experiential world, result from the, at least partial, societal breaking up of the hegemony of secularist ones, and are themselves heavily indebted to an awareness of the earlier hegemonic status of the notion of secularization. Dragon Rouge has come into existence and matured during a time when religion, enchantment, and the mystical is given new and more positive roles in society, and this in turn can partly explain its success. All these discourses interplay in the crafting of magical reality in Dragon Rouge. Set in a post-secular frameset, the core discourses in play within the order can be regarded as literal acts of re-enchanting the experiential world, creating a worldview which is centred on magical correspondences, a living
The term post-secular, most commonly linked to the scholarship of Jürgen Habermas and Charles Taylor, refers not to “de-secularization” per se, but to ‘a change in consciousness’ and the awareness of the continued relevance of religion in secular societies (Habermas, ‘Notes on Post-Secular Society’, ). As Taylor expresses it, “the post-secular age” is one ‘in which the hegemony of the mainstream master narrative of secularization will be more and more challenged’, Taylor, A Secular Age, . For a discourse theoretical use of the term, and diﬀers to some degree from the way it is used by Habermas and Taylor, see Granholm, ‘The Secular, the Post-Secular, and the Esoteric in the Public Sphere’. For a use of the term in an examination of late modern transformations of esotericism, see Granholm, ‘Post-Secular Esotericism?’. 100) For secularization as a potentially ‘self-fulﬁlling prophecy’ see Casanova, ‘Immigration and New Religious Pluralism’, .
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nature, and experiences of transmutation. For the Dragon Rouge member magic is the very lens through which everything is experienced and interpreted: life is magic, and magic is life. Bibliography Arlebrand, Håkan, Magnus Hermansson, and Kerstin Wallin, Ny tid ny tro? Nyandliga rörelser och riktningar i dagens samhälle, Malmö: Gleerups . Author Anonymized, ‘Häxsalvan’ [The Witch’s Ointment], Dracontias – / , –. ———, ‘Mörka makter i Kalevala’ [Dark Forces in the Kalevala], Dracontias / , – . ———, ‘Battle Bitch: The Irish War Goddess and the Draconian Initiation’, Dracontias / , –. ———, ‘Tantra och den vänstra handens väg (Del )’ [Tantra and the Left-Hand Path (Part )], Dracontias / , –. ———, ‘Tantra och den vänstra handens väg. Del —Amrita’ [Tantra and the Left-Hand Path. Part —Amrita], Dracontias / , –. Barker, Eileen, ‘New Religious Movements: Their Incidence and Signiﬁcance’, in: Jamie Cresswell and Bryan Wilson (eds.), New Religious Movements: Challenge and Response, London: Routledge , –. Bogdan, Henrik, Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiation, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press . Burr, Vivien, An Introduction to Social Constructionism, London: Routledge . Casanova, J., ‘Immigration and the New Religious Pluralism: A European Union-United States Comparison’, in: Geoﬀrey Brahm Levey and Tariq Modood (eds.), Secularism, Religion and Multicultural Citizenship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , –. Crowley, Aleister, Magick. Edited, Annotated and Introduced by John Symonds and Kenneth Grant, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul . Dragon Rouge, Magikurs [Course in Magic ], six parts. Unpublished internal material / –. ———,Välkomstbrev till nya medlemmar [Letter of Welcome for New Members]. Unpublished internal material . ———, Magikurs [Course in Magic ], six parts. Unpublished internal material / –. ———, ‘Webpage of Lodge Odin’. http://w..telia.com/~u/faq.html (accessed December , ). ———, ‘General Information’, http://www.dragonrouge.net/english/general.htm (accessed June , ). ———, ‘Philosophy’, http://www.dragonrouge.net/english/philosophy.htm (accessed June , ). ———, ‘Aktiviteter’ [Activities], Dracontias / , –. ———, ‘Lodges’, http://www.dragonrouge.net/english/lodges.htm (accessed March , ). ———, ‘Contra M’, http//www.dragonrouge.net/English/Contra__M.pdf (accessed March , ).
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———, ‘Regler för bildande av loge eller ritualgrupp’ [Rules for Opening Lodge or Ritual Group], http://www.dragonrouge.net/swedish/regler_foer_ritualgrupper_och_loger.pdf (accessed March , ). Eriksson, Tommie, Mörk magi, Sundbyberg: Ouroboros produktion . Faivre, Antoine, ‘Questions of Terminology Proper to the Study of Esoteric Currents in Modern and Contemporary Europe’, in: Antoine Faivre and Wouter J. Hanegraaﬀ (eds.), Western Esotericism and the Science of Religion, Leuven: Peeters , –. Frisk, Liselotte, Nyreligiositet i Sverige, Nora: Nya Doxa . Granholm, Kennet, ‘ “The Prince of Darkness on the Move”: Transnationality and Translocality in Left-Hand Path Magic’, Torino: CESNUR, http://www.cesnur.org// bord_granholm.htm (). ———, ‘Post-Secular Esotericism? Perspectives on the Transformation of Esotericism’, in: Tore Ahlbäck (ed.), Western Esotericism: Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis , Åbo/ Stockholm: Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History , – . ———, ‘Left-Hand Path and Animal Rights’, Nova Religio : (), –. ———, ‘The Rune-Gild: Heathenism, Traditionalism, and the Left-Hand Path’, International Journal for the Study of New Religions : (), –. ———, ‘The Serpent Rises in the West: Positive Orientalism and Reinterpretation of Tantra in the Western Left-Hand Path’, In: I. Keul, (ed.), Transformation and Transfer of Tantra in Asia and Beyond, Berlin: De Gruyter , –. ———, ‘The Secular, the Post-Secular, and the Esoteric in the Public Sphere’, in: Egil Asprem and Kennet Granholm (eds.), Contemporary Esotericism, London: Equinox Publishing . ———, ‘The Sigil of Baphomet’, in: Egil Asprem and Joyce Pijnenburg (eds.), Similitudes of the Sublime: Esotericism and Magic in Images, Seattle, WA: Ouroboros Press forthcoming. ———, ‘The Pentagram of Set, and the Trapezoid as Used in the Church of Satan and the Temple of Set’, in: Egil Asprem and Joyce Pijnenburg (eds.), Similitudes of the Sublime: Esotericism and Magic in Images, Seattle, WA: Ouroboros Press forthcoming. ———, ‘The Dragon Symbol of Dragon Rouge’, in: Egil Asprem and Joyce Pijnenburg (eds.), Similitudes of the Sublime: Esotericism and Magic in Images, Seattle, WA: Ouroboros Press forthcoming. ———, ‘The Clavicula Nox—A Dragon Rouge Emblem’, in: Egil Asprem and Joyce Pijnenburg (eds.), Similitudes of the Sublime: Esotericism and Magic in Images, Seattle, WA: Ouroboros Press forthcoming. ———, ‘Esoteric Currents as Discursive Complexes’, Religion (special issue on discursive approaches in the study of religion) forthcoming. ———, ‘Metal and Magic: The Intricate Relation Between the Metal Band Therion and the Magic Order Dragon Rouge’, in: Carole M. Cusack and Alex Norman (eds.), Handbook of New Religions and Cultural Production, Leiden: Brill forthcoming. ———, ‘The Left-Hand Path and Post-Satanism: The Temple of Set and the Evolution of Satanism’, in: Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen (eds.), The Devil’s Party, Oxford: Oxford University Press forthcoming. Grant, Kenneth, Cults of the Shadow, London: Skoob . ———, Nightside of Eden, London: Skoob .
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Interviews Interview by author with male and female Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, --. Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF mgt : –. Interview by author with male Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, --. Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF mgt : –. Interview by author with male Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, --. Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF mgt / –. Interview by author with male Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, --. Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF mgt / –. Interview by author with female Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, --. Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF mgt / –. Interview by author with female Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, --. Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF mgt / –. Interview by author with male and female Dragon Rouge member, Stockholm, Sweden, –. Questionnaire answer by male Dragon Rouge member, . Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF / :. Questionnaire answer by male Dragon Rouge member, . Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF / :. Questionnaire answer by male Dragon Rouge member, . Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF / :. Questionnaire answer by male Dragon Rouge member, . Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF / :. Questionnaire answer by male Dragon Rouge member, . Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF / :. Questionnaire answer by female former Dragon Rouge member, . Archived at the Folklore archive at Åbo Akademi University, IF / :.