What will you get in chapter I ? Listening Responding to expression of request Responding to expression of suggestion Responding to expression of complaint Responding to expression of possibility to do something Responding to expression of instruction Responding to a text in a narrative text Speaking Expressing an expression of request Expressing an expression of suggestion Expressing an expression of complaint Expre Ex pressin ssing g an ex expre pressio ssion n of pos possib sibili ilitie ties s and cap capabi abilit lities ies to do something Expressing expression of instruction Perform a narrative text Reading Reading the text in a narrative form aloud in a good intonation Change a narrative text into play Finding the meanings of new words Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details in narrative text Understanding the use of linking word Writing Writing paragraph in a narrative form with correct structure
Arranging paragraph given into a good story Capitalizing and punctuating a paragraph given Completing the given story
Page - 1
Listening Requesting In a request it's asking the listener to do something, It is as though you are reminding the person that he must do it. One would expect that listener would do it.
: Could you put away all the books, please? : Sure!
Alex please? Leony
: Co Could I ask you to to be be qu quiet,
Louis please? Lana
: Do Do yo you th think yo you co could lo lower th the vo volume of of th the mu music,
:D Do o you mi mind si sitting at at the other ta table, pl please? : Of course!
: Of course!
: Can you you move move a little little,, please? please? : I'm sorry, sorry, but but I can’t! can’t!
Suggesting Some students attend the meeting. They discuss the plan for a “Study Tour" with the teacher. Dita : I’ I’d like to su suggest that we hear the student first Dina : It sounds like a good suggestion Anty : Ma May I su suggest to go go to the beach of of Pontada? Anna Anna : I don't want to go to the Pontada because I always go there Ann Ant nto o
: I suggest that we go to Pontada beach : Th That at's 's a good/n /niice/great at/w /wo onderful ide dea a/suggest stiion
: Why don't we go to Pontada beach ?
Page - 2
: I think you're right
: I recommend that we go to Pontada beach : Thanks, but we have another plan
Complaint Expressions of complaint are the expressions of how to say that one is dissatisfied or unhappy.
And ndra ra Anton
: II''m no nott at at al alll sa sattisf sfie ied d with th the se serrvice in thi his s ho hotel : You're not alone
: This villa is terrible : I feel the same way
: I want to complaint about the service in this restaurant : I feel the same way
Possibilities and capabilities to do something
Expressions of Possi Expressions Possibilitie bilities s and capabilities capabilities to do something are the expressions of how to say that one is able or disable to do something. Andra Anton
: Do you think there is a possibility for Capricorn people to be successful in life base based d on the their ir basi basic c character? : That's one possibility
Rani : Do you think, we are capable of repairing our motorcycle? Ratite : I think we have that capacity Jack Jane
: Is there there a possibili possibility ty for her being being a compu computer ter freak? freak? : That's That's one possibilit possibility y Page - 3
Instruction Instruc Inst ructin ting g is a bit str strong onger er than req reques uestin ting. g. The spe speake akerr ex expec pects ts someone to do it.
: Do you you mind mind taking taking your your feet feet off the the table, table, please? please? : Sorry! Sorry! Not Not at all all
: Would you mind repeating that again? : Sure! I have no objection to repeat it
Ala lan n Anton
: I must ask you to take me to Di Diamond, please. : Ok
: Wil Willl you take take me me to air port, please please? ? : Of course course..
Task 1 Answer the questions orally.
When asking someone to make a suggestion, what do you usually say? 2. How do you respond to her/his suggestion? What do you say to express it? 3. When someone requests something, what do you say to grant it? 4. What do you say if decline her/his request? 1.
Task 2 Answer the questions by listening to the dialogue, 1. 2. 3.
Where does the dialogue probably take place? Who involved in the dialogue? What they do talk about?
Task 3 You are going to listen to the dialogue again. Fill in the blanks with the expressions you hear, Compare your answers with your friend's.
Stud St uden entt : Ex Excu cuse se me. My teache teacherr ga gave ve me an ass assig ignm nmen entt to write write Page - 4
book report 1 .............What book I should read? 2 Librar Lib rarian ian : ............Did your teacher require a specific book? Studen Stu dentt : Yes. A contem contempor porary ary novel novel,, exactly exactly.. 3 Librarian: Well . ................... you read Life of Pi The book is about Pi, a teena teenager ger whose sh ship ip capsi capsize zes s in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, leaving him an orphan, alone on a lifeboat with a hyena, a zebra and an enormous Bengal tiger named nam ed Rich Richard ard Parker. Parker. 4 Stud St uden entt : Th That at's 's gr grea eat. t. ..... … 5…… ………… …….. bo borr rro ow it? it? 6 Librar Lib rarian ian : …………You can borrow it for a week. Student Stude nt : Thank you, you, but I think I need need it for for a longer longer period. period. Probably Probably 7 it wil illl ta take ke tw two o we week eks s fi fini nish sh th the e bo book ok.. ....................... making copy of it? Librar Lib rarian ian : Oh,8 ……… no part of the book be copied. Student : OK OK.9......extend the due date until two weeks? Librar Lib rarian ian : 1 0 ..... ......... ......Her ..Here e you are. Task 4 You are going to listen two short dialog dialogues. ues. Choo Choose se the approp appropriate riate responses to the expressions you hear. 1.
a. That sounds great. b. Sure. You'd better review Jane Eyre. c, Sure. I will. Here you are. 2. a. Sorry to to say that I can't. can't. It's not mine. mine. I borrowed borrowed it from from Nisa. b. That's great. it sounds good. c. I'd like to suggest you read It Task 5 Work Wo rks s in Pa Pair irs. s. Li List sten en to the st stor ory. y. The Then, n, arr arran ange ge th the e fo follo llowi wing ng pictures and events based on the story.
Page - 5
a. One day, a Wolf was having dinner. b. He tried and tried to get it out. c. So, he instantly went and looked for the Crane, d. He was about to cry when he suddenly thought of the Crane, e. As usual, he was very greedy. f. He soon found her near a pond, and greeted her in a soft and melodious sound. g. Suddenly a bone got stuck in his throat. h. The crane wanted to fly away because she was very much afraid of the Wolf i. She helped him but he forgot his promise to give her reward if she was able to get a bone out from his 'throat. j. The Wolf trie tried d as hard as he could to mak make e the Crane help him, k. Finally, the crane got nothing, l. The bone gave him a lot of pain, Task 6 Listen to the text again and answer these questions in pairs. 1. What was the Wolf doing when a bone got stuck in his throat? 2. Could he get the bone out from his throat? 3. What did he do instantly? 4. Where did he find the Crane? 5. Why did the Wolf look for the Crane? 6. How did the Wolf tr try to persuade the Crane? 7. Did the Crane help him? 8. Did the wolf keep his promise? Why? Speaking Task 1 Work in pairs. Make a short dialogue based on one of the following situations.
1. You and your your friend friend are waitin waiting g for a bus. You You have been been waiting waiting nearly three quarters of an hour. You suggest taking a taxi.
Page - 6
Your Mend Mend has read a new story story book. You ask your your friend to retell retell the story to you. 3. Yo You u ha have ve bought bought a no nove vell and it was not very very good. good. The stor story y was not interesting as its cover. 4. You have have been out with with your Mend Mend to a party. party. You are returni returning ng with him to his house. He discovers he has lost his key and can't get in. You instruct to open the window, l 5. On holiday, your car breaks down mi es from the nearest town. Another car stops and the driver offers to help. He appears can help you.
Task 2 Read the following fable with a partner. Check out your pronunciation with your partner. The Tortoise and the Hare
One br One brig ight ht,, su sunn nny y mo morn rnin ing g a to tort rtoi oise se-w -we e sh shal alll ca call ll hi him m Mr Mr.. Tortoise-was Tortois e-was taking a walk wh when en su dd dden enly ly he met a ha re re.. No Now w i he did not like this hare at all, for he was very sarcast sarcast c, and alwa al ways ys la laug ughe hed d at th the e to tort rtoi oise se.. Ne Neve vert rthe hele less, ss, th the e to tort rtoi oise se smil sm iled ed an and d gree greeted ted him, him, "Good "Good morning, morning, Mr. Hare. Hare. How are are you?". you?". The har hare e did not ans answer, wer, but as soon as he saw the tort tortois oise, e, he began to laugh very loudly. "Oh, oh. I can't help laughing at you, Mr. Tortoise!". "Why What's so funny?". "You! You are so slow, Mr. Tortoise. 'Me? Slow? Who says I'm slow?' asked the tortoise. 'I do," answered the hare. "With those funny legs of yours you certainly can’t can ’t run, you can only walk," walk," "But there's nothing the matter with my legs." "Well, I don't know whether one can call them legs or not. They're so short and looki looking ng so funny, funny, I don don't 't underst understand and how you can got about at all", The Tortois Tortoise e got very angry, but he just smiled. He walked on saying, "Good bye, b ye, Mr. Hare Hare.. See you you again'. "Wait a moment, Mr. Tortoise. Where do you think you're going?". "|'m just taking a walk." 'Oh? You certainly can't walk very far, though, can you?". Hearing this the tortoise became angrier still, but he pretended to be calm calm. "Loo ook k," he sai said, d, "wh "why y don don't 't you sto stop p te teasi asing ng me and making fun of me? I'm sure I can run as fast as you can'. At this the hare laughed so loudly that he was unable to an swer the tor toi se im imm med edia iate tely ly.. Page - 7
"You? As fast as me? Poor, Mr. Tortoise, don't you know that I'm the f astest creature in the forest? "We shall see, "said the tortoise. 'I have a good plan. Do you see that tree over there on the top of the the hill?" hill?" "Yes, I do". "Now, let's have a race and see which of us can reach that tree first. It's a very long way off, but it will prove which of us can run the faster". The hare stoppe stopped d laughi laughing ng and asked asked,, "Are you serio serious, us, Mr. Tortoise?" Torto ise?".. "Of course I am," answered the tortoise. "Let's begin the race right away!". One, two, three! The tortoise and the hare were off. Of course the tortoise was quickly left far behind by the hare. When the hare had run for about half an hour he thought, "I think I will just lie down here to rest a while. I've made myself tired runn ru nnin ing g so fast. fast. An Anyw yway ay,, It will jump jump up and run away from him again. What a fool is Mr. Tortoise to have a race with me, the fastes fa stestt creat creature ure on legs!". legs!". So the hare lay down to rest, and soon was fast asleep. He was fast asle asleep ep for hour hours s an and d ho hour urs! s! And he did no nott he hear ar the to tort rtoi oise se passing quietly. it was already late in the afternoon when the hare woke up. "Goodness!" he cried out. 'It's nearly dark! Where's Mr. Tortoise?". He looked up towards the hill and saw the tortoise, very far off and very small!. "Mr, Tortoise can be only a few meters from the tree by now ! I must hurry!'. And the hare started started to run just as fast as he could go. He run and run with with all his might to get to the tree first. Ten min minutes utes ! more Three minutes more„.. two minutes more .... one minute.... thirty seconds.—ten seconds ..... three-two ... one' At that moment the tortoise reached the tree! And so he was the first to arrive at the tree ! The hare was late.—only one second! Ashamed, tired and very exhausted because of running so very fast, the hare rolled over on the ground and died!. Task 3 Retell the story you have just read. Task 4 Answer the questions based on the text!
Page - 8
What was Mr. Hare like? Why did Mr. Hare laugh at Mr. Tortoise? What made Mr. Tortoise get angry to Mr. Hare? What was Mr. Tortoise's plan for f or himself and Mr. Hare? 5. What did Mr. Mr. Hare do after after he had run run for about about half an hour? 6. When did Mr. Hare wake up? s aw Mr. Tortoise almost win the 7. What did Mr. Hare do after he saw race? 8. How could Mr. Tortoise win the race? 9. What happened to Mr. Hare after arriving at the tree? 10. What is the moral value you get form the story? Task 5 Study the following words and phonetic symbols. Pay attention to the syllable which is stressed 1. 2. 3. 4.
Task 6 Pronounce the following words with correct pronunciation and look at the phonetic symbols.
Task 6 Match the words to the phonetic symbols.
Page - 9
Page - 10
Reading Task 1
Answer the questions orally. 1.
Have you ever visited some tourist sites in West Java? Mention
them. One of the famous tourist sites in West Java is Tangkuban Perahu. Where is it located? 3. Acc Accord ording ing the le legen gend, d, how did Tangkuba Tangkuban n Pe Perah rahu u com come e int into o existence?
Task 2 Befo Be fore re yo you u re read ad th the e le lege gend nd ab abou outt Ta Tang ngku kuba ban n Pe Pera rahu hu enti entitl tled ed "Sangkuriang", here are some words to learn. Match them to their meaning or synonyms. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Meanings/synonyms a, word from god for b. like, love C. say something d. power that can not be e. become weak f. loyal and true g. mark as the result of injury h, without end i. wa walk or travel j. throw violently/thrown
Task 3 Read the following text aloud. Pay attention to the pronunciation, stress and pause.
Sangkuriang A very long time ago in West Java, there l i v ed a king, named Ra den S un gg in g Peba Pe bang ngka kara ra.. He was a go good od ru rule ler. r. He liked hunting in the forest very much. I n t h e f or es es t , t h er e l i v ed a s he he- p i g , actually a cursed godd goddess ess.. One day, she came out of her hiding place looking for wa wate ter, r, Ther There, e, she was a coconut shell filled with water. Expecting
Page - 11
it to be coc oco onu nutt mil ilk k sh she e dru runk nk it it,, ha hav vin ing g no suspicious that it was the king's urine left there the day before when he went hunting. The T he c on s eq u en ce wa s ve ry s tr a n g e. Sh e became pregnant. In a few months later she gave birth to a very pretty girl. When the king hunting again in the forest, he saw the girl and was attracted by her beauty, He to took ok he herr to he herr pa pala lace ce,, th then en he calle called d he herr Dayang Sumbi and treated her as his own daughter. Time pass passed ed and Daya Dayang ng Sumbi grew up into beau beautifu tifull girl. She She was fond fond of weaving. weaving. One morning as she was weaving, her weaving spool flew Out of the window to the field. Because she was very tired, she mum umbl bled ed,, "whoever is willing to help me pick up the spool, I will treat her as my sister if she is a girl. If he is a man, I will treat him as my hus husban band". d". The These se words wo rds we were re he heard ard by a dog dog,, cal called led Tumang, actually a cursed god too. He immediately picked up the spool and gave it to Dayang Sumbi. Seeing the dog had helped her, she fainted. The god had decided decide d for her to undergo the fate. She became pregnant and a short time afterwards she gave birth bir th to a he heal alth thy y st stro rong ng so son n wh whom om sh she e ca call lled ed Sangkuriang. Sang Sa ngku kuri ring ng be beca came me a ha hand ndso some me yo youn ung g man, as the time by. Like his grandfather, he was fond of hunting in, the forest and Tumang was his faithful friend when roaming the woods, He didn't realize that Tumang was actually his father. One day, when the dog didn't obey him to chase the pig, Sangkurinag was very angry and killed the dog and cut up his flesh into pieces and took it home to his mother. For a moment Dayang 'Sumbi was speechless and look ' a spool and flung i t at him. This left a scar on the spot, Then Dayang Sumbi sent him away Sangkuriang left and wandered through t he woods. He walked for years. Finally he returned to his native place, but did not recognize it any longer. At the end of vast rice field, he noticed a house and saw a young girl sitting sitt ing at her we weavin aving-lo g-loom om.. He appr approac oached hed her Page - 12
and was charmed by her beauty. He was unaware that she was his own mother. Dayang Sumbi had been given eternal beauty by the god who was why she looked young forever. She looked at him and noticing his good looks, she promised to many him. T hey made plans for their wedding party, but one day she discovered 'the scar on his forehead. She knew that he was her, own son who come back to his village. She made an effort to make him understand thatt ma tha marri rriage age bet betwe ween en the them m wa was s im impos possibl sible e but Sangkuriang She had an idea and said to him "all right, you shall marry me if only you can dam up the Citarum River and build a big vessel only in one night". Sangkuriang agreed and started to work by using his magic powers and his prayer to the god for help. To prev prevent ent the marr marriage, iage, before Sangku Sangkuriang riang finished his work, she stretched the red veil which covered her head over the eastern side the plain. Through her magic powers, the red light spread over the landscape, giving impression that the sun was ti me wa was s ov over er.. An Angr gril ily, y, San Sangk gkur uria iang ng kic kicke ked d th the e vessel which was almost finished, upside down. Som So me ti tim mes la late terr th the e ve vess ssel el be beca cam me th the e mount mo untai ain n of Ta Tang ngku kuba ban n Pe Perah rahu u on th the e no nort rthe hern rn side of Bandung.
Task 4 Answer the following question based on the text. 1. Why did the she-pig drink the King's urine? 2. What did Dayang Sumbi like most? 3. Was Dayang Sumbi happy when Tumang helped her? 4. Why did Dayang Dayang Sumbi Sumbi have have to marry marry Tuman Tumang? g? 5. Wh Who o was was Tum Tuman ang? g? 6. Why was Sangkur Sangkuriang iang angry with Tum Tumang? ang? 7. Why did Dayang Dayang Sumbi Sumbi send send Sangkuriang Sangkuriang away away? ? 8. What did the the god god give give Dayan Dayang g Sumbi? Sumbi?
Page - 13
9. Did Dayang Dayang Sumbi Sumbi know that Sangkuri Sangkuriang ang was was her son? son? 10.. Wh 10 What at did did Day Dayan ang g Sum Sumbi ask ask Sa Sang ngku kuri rian ang? g? 11.. Wh 11 Why y did did Sang Sangku kuri riang ang wa want nt to to mar marry ry Day Dayan ang g Sumb Sumbi? i? 12.. Wh 12 What at is is your your imp impre ressi ssion on abo about ut the the endi ending ng of of the st stor ory? y? T ask 5 Find the paragraphs that tell you the following information. 1.Sangkuriang's father 2.Dayang sumbi's beauty 3. Tangkuban Tangkuban Perahu Perahu 4. The The king's king's charact characters ers 5.Why the she-pig became pregnant 6.Why Dayang Sumbi was angry The she-pig she-pig 7. The 8.What Sangkuriang did to fulfill Dayang Sumbi's wish? Task 6 Study the following diagram and answer the questions. 1. What would happen if Sangkuriang married Dayang Sumbi? 2. Wh What at was th the e re relat latio ions nshi hip p be betw twee een n Sa Sang ngku kuri rian ang g an and d Ra Rade den n Sungging Pebangkara? 3. Make your own narration based on the diagram! 4. Change the text of Sangkuriang into dialogue!
Raden Sungging Pebangkara +
Grammar Flash Conjunction
Using because: Because he was sleepy, he went to bed, He went to bed because he was sleepy. Page - 14
Using since : Since he is not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert. Using as : As she had nothing to do, she called up a friend and went to the movie. Using because of ; Because of the cold weather, we stayed home. (because the weather was cold, we stayed home) Using due to : Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. Using although, though, even though : Although Altho ugh it raine rained d a lot, lot, we enjoye enjoyed d our holiday holiday.. I didn't get the job though I had all the necessary qual qu alifi ifica cati tion ons. s. Ev Even en th thou ough gh I wa was s re real ally ly ti tire red, d, I couldn't sleep, Using in spite of/despite : In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday. Despite what I said last night, I still love you. In spite of the fact (that) I was tired, I couldn't sleep. Note : Because is used: express the reason reason for a statemen statement, t, or to express express the answer answer of v To express a 'why 'why'' quest questions. ions. To add a rem remark ark which which gives your reason reason for stating a factor an opinion, after you've stated it. v Because is followed by subject and verb. Because of and due to are used: v To state the reason for something. it must be followed by noun phrase. phras e. Since is used: introduce duce a reaso reason n for some something. thing. Especially Especially when this reason v To intro is something that is already known to the person you're talking to. Although, Altho ugh, though, though, even even though though is is used used : v To begin a clause to contrast a situation in the other part of a sentence (main clause). Afterr although although we use a subject subject + verb. verb. v Afte
Page - 15
Although' Altho ugh' and 'even though' are more more emphat emphatic ic than than 'though'. 'though'.
In spite of/despite : Afterr in spite spite of/despit of/despite e we use a noun, a pronou pronoun n and a gerun gerund. d. v Afte of/despite the fact (that) v You can also say in spite of/despite
Present Tense Positive Form ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥
Andi has much money They have much much money money Anty does her home work I do my home work They cook in in the kitc kitchen hen now now
Rule : S + Verb1 + O. C Negative Form ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥
Andi does not have much money They do not have much much money money Anty does not do her home work I do not do my home work They don’t cook cook in the kitche kitchen n now
Rule : S + Does/Do + Not + Verb 1 + O. C Affirmative Form ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥
Does Andi have much money ? Do they much money ? Does Anty does do her home work ? Do you do your home work ? Do they cook in the kitchen now ?
Rule : Does/Do + S + Verb1 + O. C Writing
Page - 16
Write a possible ending to the following story using your own words. Once there was a monkey who lived in a big fruit tree. The tree tre e wa was s qui quite te close close to the sea, and he could see all kin kind d fis fishes hes swimming and playing around. He made friend with one of them, a big shark that came every day to sit under the tree. He liked the shark very much. So each time the big fish sat under the tree, the monkey told him stories and all that had been happening happening on land. He even brought the shark food now and then. One day the shark sa id to the monkey, "Please come with me to my house. I would like you to see all my family. I always talk about you and they all wish to see you That's kind of you," answered the monkey, "but the troubl trouble e is I can't ca n't swim. How can I get to your house?". house?". "Oh, that's all right. You just sit on my back and I will carry you all the way to my house!". "Splendid! As you wish!" replied the monkey, and he jumped down on to the back. Then the shark swam across the sea carrying the monkey. When they were a long way from the shore the Shark said, "I'm sorry, sorry, but act actual ually ly I'm not ta taki king ng you to se see e my famil family. y. I'm taking you to our king. He is ill and the doctor says he will only get better if he eats the heart of a monkey.".......... Task 2 Write your own story. Write your main ideas in the boxes b oxes to help you create the story. Draft your story first.
example: Once there was a monkey who lived in the big fruit tree.
example: One day the shark said to the monkey to come with him to his house.
example: Finally, the monkey knew Page - 17
what friendship meant.
Page - 18
Read The Explanation of narrative Text Bellow ! Jenis Teks Teks:Nar :Narrative rative (Nara (Naratif, tif, donge dongeng) ng) 1. Ciri Ciri Umu Umum: m: (a)Tujuan (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Teks: Menghi Men ghibu burr pen penden dengar gar atau pem pembac baca a (ya (yang ng ber bertali talian an den dengan gan pengalaman nyata, khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya a khirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). penyelesaian). (b)Struktur Teks: ● Pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat: ● Pengembangan konflik; ● Penyelesaian konflik; ● Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan:
Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, misalnya, stepsisters, housework, dsb. • adjectives yang membentuk noun noun phrase phrase, misalnya, long black hair, black hair, two red apples, dsb. • time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, misalnya then, before that, soon, dsb. • adverbs dan adverbial adverbial phras phrases es untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, misalnya here, in the mountain, happily ever after,dsb. • action verbs dalam past tense tense; stayed, climbed, dsb. • saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti: said, told, promised, prom ised, dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran,
persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, misalnya thought, understood, felt, dsb. 2. Con Contoh toh dan dan Struk Struktur tur Tek Teks: s:
Pengembang an konflik 1
Snow White Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t
Page - 19
have enough money to take Snow White. Penyelesaian konflik 1
Pengembang an konflik 2 Penyelesaian konflik 2 Pengembang an konflik 3
Penyelesaian konflik 3
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away . The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
She was very tired and hungry. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “what is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.” Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.” Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
Task 3 Arrange the paragraph to from a story.
On the day of the feast Lebai dressed himself in his best, in made for his boat. b oat. But befo before re he reached reached the boat, boat, an idea came to his mind. The north village was delicious, but they slaughtered only one buffalo. Besides, the people there did not know him very well so that they wouldn't pay much respect to him. When he was about to reach the village, he passed people in boats rowin rowing g to the no nort rth. h. "W "Whe here re are yo you u ro rowi wing ng to to?" ?" th they ey Page - 20
asked. "The feast there is over." When has was only halfway to the village he saw many people c. rowing their boats on the same direction, the north village, "Why shou sh ould ld I go to th the e no nort rth h vi vill llag age? e? Th The ey on only ly sl slau augh ghte tere red d on one e buffalo," he thought. d. Many years ago on. a bank of a river in West Sumatra, there lived liv ed a po poor or ma man n cal calle led d Le Leba bai. i. He made made a li livi ving ng by teachi teaching ng people to read the Koran. His house lied between two big villages. villages. One village was to the north and other to the south of the river. e. On the contrary, the people in the south village knew him very well, and they slaughtered two buffaloes. But it was a little farthe far ther, r, For a mo mome ment nt he kept thinkin thinking, g, the north or the south, Finally, he decided to go to the nearer village first and then to 'the south village. Therefore he could get three buffalo heads, f. Lebai turned his boat and rowed to the other direction, to the south village where the family slaughtered two buffaloes. g. One day two two rich familie families s in the two two villages villages were were holding holding a big party at the same time. And both families had invited this poor man. CHAPTER II EXPLANATION
What will you get in chapter II ? Listening Responding to expression of admission • Responding to expression of • promise Responding to expression of desire • • Responding to expression of blame and accusation Responding to monologue in an explanation form • • Understanding the use of Passive Voice Speaking • Expressing an expression of admission • Expressing an expression of promise Expressing an expression of desire • Expressing an expression of blame and • accusation
Page - 21
Reading • Reading the text in an explanation form aloud in a good intonation Understanding the meaning of new words • • Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details in an explanation text • Understanding the use of so, too, either and neither (Elliptical Construction) Writing Writing paragraph in an explanation form with correct • structure Arranging information information given to form in an • explanation • Using visual elements to support paragraphs
Listening Expressions of admission
You can can admit admit to a fault before before you'r you're e accused. accused. A : I'm sorry. I'm the one who deleted the files. B : It's good, you admitted that. We'll find a way to restore it. At other times you may be given the opportunity to admit to something. A : Somebody spill, coffee on the table B : All right, I have to admit that I accidentally spilt it. I'll clean it up. Here, one is denying the truth of the statement. A : So. It's not true, is it, that you wrote you the answers in your palm? Page - 22
B : I am afraid that isn't true. Expressions of Promise Natalie : What shall we do on Saturday? Mrs. Mr s. Lo Lope pes s : Le Lett m me e just just say say th that at we we wil willl go to Chic Chicago ago.. We ca can n go to the Lincoln Park Zoo if you like. Th T h er es a : Oh , n o! ! T ha t' s b or in g ! Ho w a b ou t g oi ng to a horror movie in stead? There is a special showing of the night of the living dead at the Rialto. Ca Can n we we go, Mum? Mrs. Mr s. Lop Lopes es : th thin ink, k, it it's 's Pr Pret etty ty is sc scar ary, y, yo you u kno know w. Theresa : oh, please please Mrs. Lo Lope pes s : I suppo pose se but you'd be bettter keep your pro rom mise not scaring. Theresa : I promise, but there is one possibility, possibility, screaming screaming (they laugh) Natalie : Great !. Theresa : Thanks! Oh Mum. Mum. Could Could you you turn turn off the the light light on stairs? stairs? Mrs. Mr s. Lop Lopes es : Al Alll righ right, t, Goo Good d nigh night, t, you you tw two o ! sle sleep ep wel elll Theresa : Night Mrs. Mr s. Lope Lopes s : An And d don don't 't hav have e a ni nigh ghtm tmar are e abo about ut th the e 'Li 'Livi ving ng De Dead ad'' Expressions of Desire Desire Des ire me means ans som somethi ething ng that we wan wantt pass passion ionate ately. ly. Thus we express our desire for something that we really want. Mostly, the response res ponse is not hel helping ping to satis satisfy fy our des desire ire si sinc nce e we year yearn n for something that is hard or almost impossible or that is high above our expectation. A : / long for meeting my cousin in the USA. I have never met him again since were ten years old. B : I hope you can meet him again someday. He must have changed a lot.
A : Sir, we're dying to know which hotel II Divo personels stay while they're in Jakarta? B : I'm Sorry, but it's strictly prohibited to avoid their inconvenience. A : Oh Good, I crave for that doughnuts. They' They're re so deliciou delicious s You must must try it. B : You’re so convincing that I want to try it. Why don’t we go buying the doughnuts now ? Expressions of Blame and accusation
Page - 23
Expres Expr essi sion on of bl blam ame e ar are e th the e expr expre ess ssio ions ns of ho how w to co cons nsid ider er som so meb ebod ody y or so som met ethi hing ng to be re resp spon onsi sibl ble e fo forr so som met ethi hing ng ba bad, d, responsibility for something bad. A : Andi has broken your computer B : it's my fault Task 1 Answer the questions orally. 1. If you borrow something and your sister breaks it, should you pay for the repair? 2. Does it depend on what the thing is? 3. Should you apologies for it? 4. Will you get angry to your sister? Task 2 Listen the dialogue and answer the questions. 1. What's wrong with Adi? 2. What happened to his CD? 3. Does Rifki admit that it is his fault at first? 4. Will he pay for it? 5. Does Rifki say sorry for it? Task 3 You are going to listen to the same dialo dialogue. gue. Complete the text while you are listen listening. ing. Com Compare pare your your answer answer with your your friends. friends.
Nadia Adi Nadia Adi
: : : :
Nadia Nadi a : Adi : Nadia : Adi : Nadia Nadi a : Adi : Nadi Na dia a :
What's 1…………, Adi? You don't look very happy. I'm not. It's not 2 Look at this. What's that? It's my favorite CD. I 3 it to Rifki and this is what happened to it. Wha hat' t' What di did d he he do to it? he didn't do do anything. Hi His si sister's dog 4 it. It's completely destroyed. So? What’s the 5 ……………? Rifki can buy you a new CD. That's wh what I think, bu but he he say ays s it it's no not hi his 6 He says he won't pay for it. Wha hat' t' He ha has s to to pay pay fo forr it, it, Well ll,, hw won't pay fo forr it it.. It It's not fa faiir. Com Co me on, on, let let's 's go go and and tal talk k to to him him..
Page - 24
Nadia and Adi come to Rifki. Nadia Nad ia : Hi Hi,, Rifk Rifki. i. Adi Adi has has jus justt told told me me abou aboutt his his CD. CD. 7 Rifki : Oh yes, It's isn't it/ It's my sister's fault. Adi : it was your 8. ., Rifk Rifki. i. Rifk Ri fkii : Yo You u hav have e to to tal talk k to to my my sis siste terr abo about ut it it.. Adi : I lent it to you, Rif if,, not to your sister. Nadia Nad ia : Th That at's 's rig right ht,, Rif. Rif. You You sho should uld bu buy y Adi Adi a new new CD CD.. 9 Rifki : Look, …………………. of it. Nadia. It's none of your business. Nadia Nad ia : Ye Yes, s, it is, Ri Rifk fki, i, Ad Adi' i's s my my fri frien end. d. Rifl flii : OK. It It's my my fau faullt, is isn't it it? I must 10 ………………. Adi : It's good you 11……………. that at.. Apolo log gy 12 …………….
Task 4 Discuss the answer to the questions 1. What phrases does Rifki use to deny Nadia and Adi's accusation? 2. What phrases does Rifki use to admit his fault? 3. What phrases does Adi use to respond Rifki's regret? 4. What phrases does Rifki use to say sorry? Task 5 You ar are e go goin ing g to li list sten en to so some me sh short ort di dial alog ogues ues.. Cho Choos ose e th the e be best st resp ons onses es to the ex expre pressio ssions ns you you hear. hear. 1. a. I do apologies, Sir. b. Really? 2. a. I don't think so. b. I promise. c. You'd better keep your promise. 3. a. I have to admit it. b. It's good for you admitted that. c. Apology accepted. Task 6 You are going to li list sten en to a te text xt.. Di Disc scus uss s th the e an answ swer ers s to th the ese questions. 1. What causes the evaporation of water from the world's oceans, lakes, and rivers? 2. What happens to the moistures-laden air as it rises? 3. What forms as the amount of water vapor grows in the air? 4. How is the water returned to Earth? 5. What are the forms of precipitation? 6. Where does the water flow back to?
Page - 25
Task 7 Decide whether each of the statement is true or false, 1, The moon causes the evaporation of water 2. Evaporated water gathers in the atmosphere. 3. Cl Clou ouds ds are formed formed as th the e wa wate terr va vapo porr be beco come mes s a li liqui quid d as it becomes cooler. 4. Rain clouds form as the amount of water vapor decreases. 5. The water is returned to Earth as rain, hail or snow.
Task 8 Match these picture to the explanation you hear.
S + tobe Present (is, am, are) + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) Examples The new newspa spape pers rs are re read ad by he herr eve every ry mo morni rning ng ♣ ♣ The boo book k is is bou bought ght by he herr the the boo book k sho shop p Page - 26
The letter is written by him for his parents
2. Past Tense
S + tobe Past (were, was) + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) examples The new newspa spape pers rs we were re re read ad by he herr yes yeste terda rday y ♣ ♣ The boo book k was was bo bough ughtt by by he herr at at the the bo book ok sho shop p ♣ The let lette terr was was wr writt itten en by him for his par paren ents ts 3. Present Continuous Tense
S + tobe Present (is, am, are) + Being + Verb (Past Perticiple)
Examples The new newspa spape pers rs are be being ing re read ad by he her. r. The boo book k is is bei being ng bou bought ght by he herr at at the the bo book ok sho shop p The let lette terr is is bei being ng wr writt itten en by him fo forr his his par paren ents ts
♣ ♣ ♣
4. Past Continuous Tense
S + tobe Past (were, was) + Being + Verb (Past Perticiple)
Examples The new newspa spape pers rs wer were e bei being ng re read ad by he herr yest yester erday day.. The boo book k was was be being ing bou bought ght by he herr at at the the boo book k shop shop The let lette terr was was be being ing wr writt itten en by him for hi his s pare parents nts
♣ ♣ ♣
5. Past Perfect Tense
S + had + been + Verb 3 (Past Perticiple) Examples ♣ ♣ ♣
The new newspa spape pers rs had be been en re read ad by my fat fathe her. r. The boo book k had had be been en bou bought ght by he herr at at the the boo book k shop shop The let lette terr had had be been en wr writt itten en by him for his par paren ents ts
6. Simple Future Tense
S + will / shall + be + Verb
Page - 27
Examples ♣ ♣ ♣
The hom homew ework ork wi will ll be fin finish ished ed by he herr tom tomorr orrow ow.. The par paren ents ts sha shall ll be inv invite ited d by by the the he headm admast aster er to tomo morro rrow. w. The let lette terr wil willl be be sent sent by he her. r.
Speaking Task 1 1. Your teacher teacher gave gave an assignme assignment nt to write write an essay on a particular particular topic. You were too busy to write the essay. Then, you copied an article from a magazine. Your teacher knew you did not write the essay. What might he say? 2. How did did you respond respond to your your teacher's teacher's accusatio accusation? n? Would Would you admit that you copied the article? 3. Woul Would d you apologies apologies to your your teacher? teacher? Would Would you regret regret it? How How did you express it? Task 2 Read the following dialogue and answer the questions.
Mrs. Rita : Dadi ……. ……. did you you write write the essay? essay? Dadi : Yes, mom. Mrs. Mr s. Rit Rita a : Yo You u di did d no nott wr writ ite e it, di did d you? I th thin ink k you copie copied d it from a journal or somewhere else. Dadi : I'm afraid that wasn't true. Mrs. Mr s. Rit Rita a : Rea Really lly? ? I'v I've e re read ad thi this s art articl icle. e. It' It's s Mr. Kamarud Kamaruddin din's 's ess essay, ay, isn't it? Dad adii : Th That at''s rig right. mo mom. 1 ha have to to ad admit 1 do dow wnl nlo oad ade ed it it fr from the Internet. I regret it. Mrs. Rita : It’s good good that that you you admitted admitted it. Dadi : I do apologize, mom. Mrs.. Rit Mrs Rita a : Apo Apolog logy y accepte accepted d but you have have to be punish punished ed.. You have to write two essays on different social phenomena. Dad adii : Ye Yes, s, mom mom.. I hone honest stlly re regr gre et doin doing g thi this s sham shame efu full thi thing ng.. I Page - 28
promise I won't do so next time. Mrs. Mr s. Rit Rita a : You You'd 'd better better kee keep p you yourr pro promi mise, se, or els else e you'll you'll fail on my subject. 1. Did Dadi write the essay by himself? 2. How does Mrs. Rita know that the essay Dadi submitted is
someone else’s writing? 3. Does Dadi admit that the essay is not his at first? 4. How does Dadi tell his teacher that he is sorry because of doing something wrong? 5. What does Dadi have to do as a punishment for cheating? Task 3 Look back at the dialogue in task 2 . Then, answer the questions. 1.What 2.What 3.What 4.What 5.What
phrases does Mrs. Rita use to accuse Dadi? phrases does Dadi use to deny and admit it? phrases does Dadi use to express his regret? phrases does Dadi use to apology? phrases does Dadi use to promise that he won't do the shameful deed again? Task 4 Write a suitable response to admitting and denying statements. 1. A B. 2. A B. 3. A B. 4. A B. 5. A B.
: I’m I’m sor sorry ry.. I’m I’m the the on one e who who loo look k you yourr boo book. k. : : So, So, you you saw saw the the pe pers rson on who who too took k the the bicy bicycl cle e : : You You ar are e th the e one one wh who o bro broke ke th the e gla glass ss : : Thi This s isn isn’t ’t th the e re reci cipe pe I ask aske ed for for : : I’m I’m afra afraid. id. I’m th the e one one wh who o forgo forgott to lo lock ck the doo door. r. :
Task 5 Answer the questions? 1. 2. 3. 4.
Do you know how plants get their food? What do plants need 'to get their food? Is light part of the process? Can you explain the process of how plants get their food? Page - 29
What do you call the process?
Task 6 On your own, write five questions based on the text. Then interview your partner using the questions.
What is Ph What Phot otos osyn ynth thes esis is? ? Ph Phot otos osyn ynth the esi sis s is a fo food od-making process that occurs in green plants. it is the chief function of 'leaves. The word photosynthesis means pitting togeth tog ether er wi with th lig light. ht. Gre Green en pla plants nts use ene energy rgy fro from m lig light ht to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compound& How is the light used in photosynthesis? The light used in ph phot otos osyn ynth the esi sis s is ab abso sorb rbed ed by gr gree een n pi pigm gmen entt ca call lled ed chloro chl orophy phyll. ll. Eac Each h foo food-m d-maki aking ng ce cell ll in a pla plant nt lea leaff co contai ntains ns chlorophyll in small bodies called chloroplast. In chloroplasts, light energy causes water drawn from the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen. What are the steps of photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process. From sugar-together with nitrogen, Sulphur, and phosphorus from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life, Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is needed to produce these compounds. Task 7 Task Find Indonesian meaning for these words taken from the text in task 6. Then The n pro pronou nounce nce th these ese wo words rds.. Stud Study y the their ir tr trans anscr cript iption ion..
Page - 30
Task 8 Task Look at the picture. Then, describe the process of photosynthesis using your own words.
Reading Task 1 Read the following text and Answer the Questions
Acid Rain Acid rai ain n is ra rain in tha hatt is hi high ghly ly ac acid idic ic because becau se of oxid oxides, es, nitrogen nitrogen oxi oxides des,, and other air po poll lluta utants nts dis dissol solve ved d in it it.. No Norm rmal al rai rain n is General Statement
Page - 31
slight slig htly ly ac acid idic ic,, wi with th a pH of 6. Ac Acid id ra rain in may have a pH values as low as 2.8. Acid rain can severely damage both plant and an d an anim imal al li life fe.. Ce Cert rtai ain n la lake kes, s, fo forr ex exam ampl ple, e, have lost all fish and plant life because of acid rain. Acid rain comes from Sulphur in coal and oil. When they bum, they make make Sulph Sulphur ur dioxid dioxide e (SO (S O2). Mo Most st Sulphur leaves leaves factory chimneys chimneys as the gaseo gaseous us Sulph Sulphur ur di diox oxid ide e (S (SO O2) and almost nitr ni trog ogen en is al also so emitt emitted ed as on one e of the nitrogen oxides (NO or NO2), bot both h of wh whic ich h gas gases es.. Th The e gases gase s may be dry depo deposite sited-abs d-absorbe orbed d dire directly ctly by the land, by lakes or by the surface vege ve geta tatio tion. n. If the they y are in the atm atmosp ospher here e for any time, the gases will oxide (gain an oxygen atom) and go into solution as acids. Sulphur acid (H2S02) and th the e ni nitr trog ogen en ox oxide ides s wi will ll be beco come me nitric acid (HN (HN0 02) The acids usually dissolve in cloud clo ud dro drople plets ts and ma may y tra trave vell gre great at dis distan tance ces s before being precipitated as acid rain. Catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and ammonium help promote the formation of acid in clouds. More ammonium (NH4) can be form fo rmed ed wh when en so som me of th the e ac acid id ar are e pa part rtia iall lly y neutralized by airborne ammonia (NH3). Acid idiifi fic cat atio ion n in inc cre reas ase es with the num umbe berr of acti ac tive ve hy hydr drog ogen en (H (H+) +) io ions ns di disso ssolv lved ed in a c id . Hyd Hydroc rocarbo arbons ns emitted emitted by for example, example, car exh xhau aust sts s wil illl re reac actt in su sunl nlig ight ht wi with th ni nitr trog ogen en oxides to produce ozone. Although it is invaluable invalu able in the atmo atmospher sphere, e, low leve levell oz ozone one causes cau ses re respir spirato atory ry pro proble blems ms and als also o has haste tens ns the formation of acid rain. When acid rain fails on the ground it dissolves dissolves and libe liberate rates s heav heavy y metals and aluminium (Al). When it is washed into lakes, aluminium irritates the outer &j-faces of many fish. As acid rain falls or drains, into the lake la ke pH oh th the e la lake ke fa fall lls. s. Fo Fore rest st su suffe ffers rs th the e effec ef fectt of aci acid d rain through through dam damage age to lea leave ves s through the loss of vital nutrients, and through the increas ase ed amounts of toxic metals Page - 32
liberated by acid, which damage roots and soil micro organism. 1. What What is aci acid d rai rain? n? 2. Wha Whatt is the the pH pH of norm normal al rain rain? ? 3. How is Sulphur dioxide formed? 4. What will happen to Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide if they are in the atmosphere for any time? 5. What subs substance tances s react react to form nitric acid? 6. What help help promote promote the formation formation of acids in clouds? clouds? 7. What influ influences ences the increase increase in acidifica acidification? tion? 8. How is ozo ozone ne pro produc duced? ed? 9. Does low low level level ozone ozone harm harm respirato respiratory ry organs organs? ? 10.How does acid rain affect forest? Task 2 Read the passage on "Down Syndrome" and answer the questions.
Down Syndrome General Statement
If you have Down's syndrome, you have an extra chromoso som me in eac ach h of your cells, Chro Ch romo mosom somes es ca carr rry y al alll th the e in infor form mati ation on wa was s inherit from our parents, which affect how we look, grow and feel. Humans usually have 23 pairs of chromosomes, but people with Down's Syndrome have an extra copy of one chro ch romo moso some me.. It do does esn't n't so soun und d li like ke mu much ch of a differe diff erence nce.. But that ext extra ra chr chrom omoso osome me affe affects cts how ho w th the e bo body dy an and d mi mind nd de deve velo lop. p. Th That at's 's wh why y people like Stacey, Richie, Maria and Jack may take longer than other children to learn to walk, speak, read and write. At birth, babies with Down's syndrome tend to be sm smal alll an and d th thei eirr mus uscl cles es may be wea eak. k. Prop Pr opel el wi with th Do Down wn's 's sy synd ndro rome me are al also so mo more re defect ects, s, and ma many ny babe like li kely ly to hav have e he hear artt def problems proble ms with their eye eyesight sight or heari hearing, ng, They also tend to have skin problems and may have a lot of coughs and colds, so they need to take extra care of themselves. One On e in ev ever ery y 1, 1,00 000 0 ba babi bie es is bo born rn wi with th Page - 33
Down's syndro Down's syndrome. me. It happe happens ns all over the world. Women of all ages can have babies with Down's syndrome, but it is more likely if a woman has a baby when she is in her late thirties or forties. Sta St acey has Down' n's s Syndrome, Every morning, her older sister, Jo and Stacey walk to their school. It's just down the road from where they th ey li live ve.. St Stac acey ey ne need eds s ex extr tra a he help lp wi with th he herr read re ading ing an and d wr writi iting, ng, bu butt no nott wi with th he herr fav favor orit ite e less le sson on,, ar art. t. Sh She e of ofte ten n dr draw aws s pi pict ctur ures es of th the e family pets, especially of the dog. Richie is five years old and he has Down's synd sy ndro rome me to too. o. He lo love ves s pl play ayin ing g wi with th hi his s bi biggsister, Megan. When Mum and Dad first brought Richie home from the hospital, they were very worried about him, but Megan thought the new baby was great. Now none of them can imagine life without Richie. Mari Ma ria a is 22 years years ol old d an and d sh she e sh shar ares es flat with three other young women, Sandy, Tina and Rachel. They all have learning difficulties, Sandy is de deaf, af, Ma Mari ria a ha has s Do Down wn's 's Sy Synd ndro rome me.. Th The e fo four ur flat mates do their own shopping and look after thems the mselv elves, es, with a litt little le hel help p fro from m Liz and Jim who wh o li live ve ne next xt do door or.. Ma Mari ria a has job at th the e lo loca call library. Jack catch catches es a bus each mor morning ning to take him to a spec special ial school for child children ren with learning difficu diff icultie lties. s. The sch school ool is in ano anothe therr tow town, n, and the journey takes about an hour. Jack likes the other children children at the school, but they don't live near him so he can only see them at school. He wish wi shes es he co cold ld go to th the e sa sam me sc scho hool ol as hi his s brother, brothe r, Ben, so that he could make friends friends with those who live nearer his home.
1. Which of these statements below best explains the condition of people people w with ith Down's Down's syndrome syndrome? ? a. They could coul d not walk, speak s peak and write. Page - 34
b. They always have problems with their eyesight and skin. c. They are unproduc unproductive tive people. peop le. d. They need longer times and extra help to learn things. 2. What do these words refer to? a. You paragraph pa ragraph 1 line 1 b. Their paragraph pa ragraph 3 line 2 c. She paragraph 4 line 4 d. They paragraph para graph 5 line 3 3. Decide whether the statements below are true (T) or false (F). a. Liz and Jim do the shopping for Mara. Sandy, Tina and Rachel. Jack hates ha tes his present school. b. c. Any woman can have babies with Dawn's syndrome. d. Jo often draws pictures of the family pets, especially the dog. 4. Pick out two sentences which mention 'chromosomes". a. b.
5. Find out the new words in the text !
Page - 35
Grammar Flash Elliptical Construction
Observe the following sentences. 1. Eva does does not have any any big pets, pets, and neither neither does does Santy. Santy. 2. Eva will come to to the festival festival at night night and so will her her cousin. 3. Eva prefers prefers to do the Biology Biology assignment assignment first and Santy does too. too. 4. Sant Santy y does not understan understand d the theory theory of relativit relativity y and Eva does not either. The se sente ntenc nces es abo above ve can als also o be be rew rewrit ritte ten n as as fol follow lows. s. 1. Eva does does not have any any big pets, pets, and Santy Santy does not not have any any big pets. 2. Eva will will come come to the festival festival at night night and her cousin cousin will will come to the festival. 3. Eva prefers prefers to do the Biology Biology assignment assignment first and Santy prefer prefers s to do Biology assignment first. 4. Sant Santy y does not understan understand d the theory theory of r6iativit r6iativity y and Eva does does not understand the theory of relativity. The clause clauses s in italics italics are are called called elliptic elliptic,, elliptical elliptical constr constructio uction n or reduced clauses. Elliptical Construction ♣ Negative sentences, and + subject + aux. verb + not + either ♣ Negative sentences, and + neither+ aux. verb + subject ♣ Positive sentences, and + subject + aux. verb + too ♣ Positive sentences, and + so + aux. verb + subject We often use auxiliary verbs when we do not want to repeat Auxiliary Verbs something. do, does, did have, has, has to be (is, am, are, was, were) modal (will, - 36 shall, Page can, may, must).
Task 9 Complete the following sentences with elliptical construction use your own words.
1. She's never never been been to to the Neth Netherlan erlands, ds, and ……….. ……….. 2. I’ll go hom home e at four o'cloc o'clock, k, and ……….. 3. My little little brother brother event event to bed very very late last night, night, and ……….. 4. Ryan and and Elma Elma study English English three three days days a week, week, and and ……….. 5. We didn't didn't watch watch TV on last Satur Saturday day night, night, and 6. Her son son used to visit visit her once a month, month, and ……….. 7. I'm waiti waiting ng for for him, him, and ………. ………... 8. Hendr Hendry y has never never stayed stayed at at a hotel, hotel, and....... and....... 9. Syahru Syahrull and Ryan Ryan are very very good good in astronom astronomy, y, and …………… …………… 10. Nirina can speak French well, and ……….. 11. The se sec cretary did no nott come on tim ime e, and ……… ………. …... 12. Mr. Waw awan an wil illl be an angr gry y be bec cau ause se yo you u bro brok ke th the e gla lass sse es, and …………… 13. The man is is a familiar to me me, an and. …… ………………
Writing Task 1 Look at the picture and answer the question.
Page - 37
1. What What is the pic pictur ture e of? of? 2. Wha Whatt is the func functio tion n of this orga organ? n? 3. Can you you e expl xplain ain how how it wo works rks? ? Task 2 Put the sentences into right order to explain how your heart works.
1. Aft After er this, the blood blood containi containing ng fresh oxyge oxygen n flo flows ws into the left part of your heart to be pumped round your body once again. 2. The left part part pumps pumps blood through through arterie arteries s into your your body. 3. This blood blood contains contains fresh fresh oxygen oxygen from from your lungs. 4. This blood blood contains contains carbon dioxide dioxide,, which is the the waste gas gas that your cells give out after they have used up the oxygen. 5. Th The e ri righ ghtt pa part rt of yo your ur he hear artt ta take kes s in bl bloo ood d fr from om your your bo body dy through the veins. 6. Your heart heart has two two main parts parts that have have different different pumpin pumping g jobs to do. 7. The blood blood is then then pu pump mped ed into your your lu lung ngs, s, wh wher ere e th the e ca carb rbon on dioxide is exchanged for oxygen,
Task 3 Work Wo rk in pai pairs. rs. Mat Match ch eac each h of the explanat explanation ions s wit with h the their ir suit suitable able corresponding pictures
Page - 38
How a fuse works a. Connect a thin strand of steel wool to the two free ends of wire. This is now your fuse. Place the bare ends of the fourth piece of wire on the two screws of the bulb holder. You have now made a short circuit. The bulb will go out. The steel wool quickly heats up and melts. This breaks the circuit and the current stops following b. Connect the second piece of wire to the other side of the bulb holder. Connect the third piece of wire to the other terminal of the battery. c. Test your apparatus by taking th the free end of of each wire either hand. Touch the bare ends together and It he bulb should light up. Separate the two ends and the bulb should go out d. You will nee need d 6aur piec pieces es of plasti plastic-coa c-coated ted wire wire,, 20 cm lo long, ng, with with ba bate te en ends, ds, some some fin fine e st stee eell wo wool ol,, a 4. 4.5 5 vo volt lt battery, a 4.5 volt bulb in a bulb holder and a screwdriver. e. Connect one piece of wire to one terminal of the battery. Connect the other end of the wire to one side of the bulb holder. Task 4 How to make a rainbow a. Rest the mirror in the water at an angle, using modelling clay to make it stand up. Move the tray until sunlight falls directly on the mirror. b. Move the card around between the tray and the window until you see a rainbow appears on it. You may have to move the mirror to get this just right.
Page - 39
c. Fill the tray with the water to a depth of about two centimetres. Place the tray by a window, Draw the curtains so that only a narrow shaft of sunlight enters the room. d. You will need wate water, r, mod modelling elling clay, a piece of white card or thick paper, a shallow tray, a small mirror. Jenis Teks : Expla Explanati nation on (Penjela (Penjelasan) san)
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menerangkan Proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan at-au at -au ke kegi giat atan an ya yang ng te terk rkai aitt de deng ngan an fe feno nome mena na ala alam, m, du duni nia a ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. (b) Struktur Teks: Penjelasan umum; ∗ Penjelasan proses; ∗ Penutup. ∗ (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan ∗ genera gen erall dan abst abstrac ractt nou nouns, ns, mi misaln salnya, ya, wo word rd cho choppi pping, ng, earthquakes; ∗ action verbs; ∗ simple present tense; ∗ passive voice ∗ Conjunctions of time dan cause. ∗ noun phrase, misalnya the large cloud: ∗ abstract nouns, misalnya the th e temperature; ∗ adverbial phrases; ∗ complex sentences; ∗ bahasa teks; ∗ kalimat pasif
Penjelasan 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks Umum Making Paper from Woodchips
Wood chipping process used to obtain pulp and paper Penjelasan product from forest trees. Proses
Page - 40
The wood chippi chipping ng proc process ess begin begins s when the tree trees s are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them 'Into small pieces called woodchips. The woodc woodchips hips are then scre screened ened to rem remove ove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleac bleached hed and the wate waterr cont content ent is removed. Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper, Task 5 Write paragraph based on the following picture. Write your draft in the boxes that you copy in your workbook.
General The m moon oon gives gives off off no light light of its its own explanation The moon moon shi shines nes by refle reflecting cting sunlig sunlight ht Next, __________________________ Then, ____ _______ _______ _______ _______ ________ ________ ____ Finally, ________ _________________ ________________ _______
Process explanation Closing
Task 6 Complete the text with words using the diagram.
Page - 41
Page - 42
CHAPTER III DISCUSSION
What will will you get in chapter III ? Listening ♣
Responding to expression of saying curiosity, hope and
wish ♣ ♣
Responding to monologue in discussion form Respond to the use of modality
Expressing an expression of saying curiosity, hope and
wish. ♣ ♣
Identifying a text in a discussion form. Perform a monologue of discussion texts.
Reading the text in a discussion form aloud in a good intonation ♣ Understanding the meaning of new words ♣ Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and details in a discussion text. ♣ Understanding the use of preferences ♣
Writing paragraph in a discussion form with correct structure. Arranging information given to form in discussion ♣ Using visual elements to support paragraphs ♣
Page - 43
Page - 44
Listening Task 1 Answer the following questions.
1. Do you you watc watch h TV eve every ry day? day? 2. What progr programm amme e do you usually usually watc watch? h? 3. What are are advantages advantages and disadv disadvantage antages s of watching watching TV every every day? Task 2 Look at the pictures. Then listen and answer the following questions.
Task 3 List Li ste en to the st stat ate ement nts. s. Th The en, de dec cid ide e whe heth the er eac ach h of the statements you heard is true (T) or (false) Task 4 Listen to the activities and opinions. Rewrite them in the following column based on the text you heard. Do it in your workbook.
Page - 45
Task 5 Listen to the dialogue and complete the following.
Man Man : Woman: Wom an: Man : Woman Wo man:: Man : Woman: Wom an: Man Man : Woman Wo man:: Man
Woman: Woman: Man : Woman: Wom an:
I won wonde derr wha whatt you you th thin ink k abo about ut wat atch chin ing g tel telev evis isio ion. n. Hmm .... frankly, frankly, I love love it. it. You do? Why do you say that? I'll tell tell you this. By watchi watching ng 1 …… we’ll l know up to date 2 …… Broad 3 ………and not to mention it's fun. How about sh shopping on on th the 4…….. ? It can save our time. time. All we have to do is simple, simple, just make make a 5 ………….. …..call. Wel ell, l, I th thin ink k the the pr prod oduc uctt mak makes es yo you u spe spend a lo lott of of mon money ey.. Whatt ma Wha make kes s you think think like that? I nev never er thought thought of it that way. It's not true, Wha hatt I'm I'm say sayin ing g is true true.. You You will will buy buy thi thing ngs s that that you you do don' n'tt need. I don't think think so. I never never buy things things I don't need. need. I just tell you not to readily believe the commercial advertisements. OK. Thanks Thanks I'll remem remember ber that. that.
Task 6 Listen to the dialogue and then answer the questions.
1. what do Nadia and Adi talk about? 2. Wh What at do does es Nadia Nadia want want to to know? know? 3. What is Adi's Adi's opinion opinion about the issue issue? ? Page - 46
4. What phrase does he he use to expre express ss it? 5. What does Adi hope hope for for the gover governme nment? nt?
Page - 47
Task 7 You are going to liste listen n to the dialog dialogue ue again. Com Complete plete it while you are listening. listening. Compare your answer with you friend's.
Nadia : 1 ………… what your opinion on abortion is. Adi : 2 ……………… I oppose it, for any reasons. Nadi Na dia a : So, So, is it why you you vo vote ted d fo forr th the e pre resi side dent nt cand candid idat ate e who campaigns pro-life? Adi : Yeah. 3 …… ……… ….. … Th The e go gove verrnm nme ent won' n'tt pa pass ss a la law w legalizing abortion. Nadia : But I hear ard d the House the the ho hou use is disc scus ussi sin ng a bi bill ll to legalize abortion for medical reasons. Adi : Really? 4 the law won't be misused by some irresponsible people. Study the following expressions! Saying you are curious ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣
I wonder....? I'd be very interested to know..... I wish I know..... I'd like to know.... What I'd really like to find out is.... I'd love to know.... What's on your mind? I've been meaning to ask you.
Saying What You Hope Will Happen ♣ I hope.... ♣ I wish..... ♣ I'd like..... ♣ I'm hoping ♣ I'm hoping for..... ♣ Hopefully.... ♣ …….., I hope. ♣ I do hope. ♣ I do hope for.... Expressing wishes
Page - 48
♣ ♣ ♣ ♣
I wish to speak to the president I wish that I could fly an airplane I wish I were a pilot I wish I were a Superman Grammar Flash Modals
Modal auxiliary verbs ♣ Can Can is used for saying ability, possibility and permission. Examples I can sing a song → ability dog can bite bite you you if you you disturb disturb it. → possibility The dog Can I help you? → permission ♣ May May is used for asking permission and possibility in the present. Examples May I come to your home? → permission She may be at library → possibility Shall ♣ Shall is used for saying suggestions and offering. Examples Shall we do the homework? → Suggestion Shall I buy you some flower? → Offering ♣ Will Will means "akan" (future). Examples He will come tomorrow → future He will be angry if you leave him → future Must ♣ Must is used for saying necessity and certainty (present form). Must does not have past form, f orm, past form from must we can use "had to" and the present form is 'have to". Examples She must go now → necessity must tidy tidy your your house house before before your your mother mother com comes es → certainty You must ♣ Ought to Ought to is used for saying necessity but it is different with must because we are able not to do. Examples Page - 49
Y He ought ought to to do the the homewo homework rk → necessity She ought to go hoe early → necessity ♣ Could Could is for saying ability (past form and present form) and request (present) Examples He could buy every thing when he was rich → ability Could I borrow your pen, please? → request Might ♣ Might is for saying permission, possibility (present) wish and hope. Examples She said that he might go to the dentist → permission Might I find you next day! → wish might help help me me do my my homewor homework k → hope You might Risna might be unhappy with your attitude → possibility Should Should is used for saying obligation and advice. Examples We should study hard for examination → obligation better, we should should obey obey our paren parent’s t’s advices advices → advice The better, ♣
Would Would is used for predicting, request, and preference. Examples It would be better for you to take a nap for a while → predicting Would you open the window, please! → Request I'd rather go to the mountain than to the beach → preference ♣
Used to Used to/Get used + Verb ing is used for saying habitual at the present. Used to + V 1 is used for saying habitual that is done in the past and it is not done again. Examples He used to play piano when he was young.→ habitual in the past g etting fat every time → habitual at the present. Sonny is use to getting ♣
Need Need/needn't is used for saying that something needs to do but it can be done if we want it. ♣
Page - 50
Examples She need irons her clothes. They need a new ball.
Speaking Task 1 Read the dialogue and find out what expression is used.
1. A : Wh What's at's on you yourr mind? mind? B : I want to buy diamond. 2. A : I hope hope the they y work work well well.. B : I hope so. 3. A : I do not hope hope they they get some probl problems. ems. B : I hope not. 4. A : I hope hope that that economi economic c crises crises stop earlier earlier.. B : I am still hoping, too. 5. A : I real really ly wish wish I kne knew w him. him. B : Okay, let me just tell you that he is a bank manager. 6. A : Where Where is he now? now? I wish wish he were here here.. B : Okay, let's wait him few minutes. Task 2 Read the following dialogue and practice it with your friend!
Bill John Bill Bi ll John Bill
: : : : :
Good morning, John. Morning, Mor ning, Bill. Bill. How are you you today? today? I'm I' m fi fine ne,, but but I hav have e a li litt ttle le pr pro obl ble em. So, tell tell me, me, Bill. What's What's the the problem problem? ? Well, I'm hoping to get a new job in a big automobile company; I want to try to earn living better. John : That sounds sounds great. great.
Page - 51
Bill Bi ll
: I wish wish you you cou could ld he help me me to con conta tact ct the the pe pers rson onal al man manag ager er of of the company because I know he is your best friend. John : I see, see, Bill. But, I want want you you to see see him your yourself. self. Bill Bi ll : Ok Okay ay,, I wi will ll do my myse self. lf. I hope hope I cou could ld se see e him him to tomo morr rrow ow.. John : I hope that every everything thing works works out well well for you. Bill Bi ll : Ye Yeah ah,, I ho hope pe so so,, too too.. Tha Thank nks, s, Jo John hn.. See See yo you. u. John : You're welc welcome ome.. See you, you, Bill. Bill. Task 3 Write your own expressions based on the information below.
Your wish is having having a lot of money money deposited deposited in a bank. Suppose that someone needs your help. He/she does not have anything to eat. Answer the following questions honestly. What do you want him/her to do? Do you really want to lend or to give him/her some money? What do you hope if you lend him/her some money?
Page - 52
Task 4 Arrange the following sentences into a dialogue!
The volcano volcano erupt erupted ed again again yesterda yesterday, y, didn't didn't it? Yes, that's that's right. right. We We are in trouble. trouble. ♣ That's very dange dangerous. rous. ♣ I can't go to the rice field. Lava flows rapidly in the river. ♣ I hope that it will not move to our village. ♣ I can't go to work because the ashes forced out into the ♣ air and made the air pollution. ♣ I’m still hoping, too. ♣ I hope that the volcano explosion stops. ♣ Yes, I hope so. Let's pray to God. We wish this natur natural al disaster did not collapse all the things in our surrounding. ♣
1. Do you you like like wat watchi ching ng TV? TV? 2. What kind kind of televis television ion programm programmes es do you you like? like? 3. Do yo you u think think televisio television n is import important? ant? Why? Why?
Page - 53
4. Can you you live live without without telev television? ision? Why? Task 6 Read the text aloud.
Many people who are alive today know what it's like to live in a world without television. Television as we know is only about forty years old. Yet seems as if had it always existed. Some So me pe peop ople le th thin ink k tha thatt th the e ye year ars s be befor fore e te tele levi visi sion on we were re a better time. They claim that families talked more and did more things together. More books were read. People used their imaginations more fully. People get more outdoor exercise. But others disagree. They claim that television is a powerful educational tool. It informs us of what goes on in the world, from a famine in Africa to a local politics to fashion. It helps us understand how people live, work, and struggle. In 1961, Newton Minnow, a government official, called primetime schedules "a vast wastelands". Even though Minnow that over thirty years ago, many feel that it is still true today. Television is credited with being a great teacher. It is also blamed for the poor reading and writing skills of our population. Television gets praised for help he lpin ing g us un unde derst rstand and th the e pe peop ople le of the world. world. Bu Butt it ha has s be been en accused of helping to destroy family life. Television keeps us informed about the political issues of the day. But it an also make us lazy by giving us only "news briefs" that are too short to tell the whole story. Experts will probably continue to argue about television's value. But everyone agrees that it is one of the most significant inventions of the th e tw twen enti tiet eth h ce centu ntury ry.. Ev Even en pe peop ople le wh who o lo love ve te tele levi visio sion n lo love ve to criticise it, as one writer puts it. Television influences everyone and it pleases no one fully. Task 7 Read the following text
Characters : 1. Rita : a housewife with two children Anderson : a primary school teacher 2. Al Alic ice e Wo Wood ods s : a senior police officer 3. Joe : a manager of a major broadcasting Simmonds company 4. Ph Phil ilip ip Reg Regen entt : a senator 5. Na Nanc ncy y Mea ead d : a senator Page - 54
6. Si Sim mon Ro Roac ach h
I can't play with my children all the time. I have to go shopping do cleaning and so on. When the kids are watching TV, they are quiet. They enjoy it and they learn a lot
The TV companies say if you don't like it, switch it off. Well, by the time you realise you don't like it, it's too late to switch it off. Anyway, most people are passive viewers-they don't care what they watch. They worst problem is the effect on children. They are easily influenced by TV because they enjoy it, but they can't judge what's true or false and so they tend to believe everything they see. In fact, television programmes are full of lies. If children believe that the violence and debauchery they see on TV is typical of the world, they will become indifferent to it, or worse, they will copy it. If teachers and parents taught their children that violence and crime were exciting, we'd call them irresponsible. But that's exactly what the TV companies are doing all the time. The government report just shows the tip of the iceberg. The moral level of society is failing. Of course, I blame parents as well as TV. They use television as a cheap babysitters while they are out drinking. Parent don't bother to teach kids what is right and what is wrong these days.
We don't society, we only report it, Our job is to show live as it really is. If we broadcast fairy stories and church sermons every night, how many people would watch? We have to give people what they want. If their taste is bad, that not our fault. Our function is to entertain, not to educate. Page - 55
I propose to establish a Television Censorship Board with powers to revoke broadcasting licensees. This board would investigate all complaints received from the public and would judge programmes based on a fixed standard. In each case where a programme was judged to be violence on pornographic, a $10.000 fine would be imposed. If any company commits such offences five times in any one year, their license will be cancelled
Page - 56
Any kind of Government control over the mass media is a step towards a police state. Who has the right to tell people what to watch and what not to watch?. Certainly not a few prudes in a non elected Censorship Board.
Task 8 Study the text again and complete the following sentences.
1. Rita thinks TV can help her when she is busy because _______ ___ ________ ________ ________ ______ __ 2. Alice sa say ys that most people ar are e pas ass sive viewers because _______ ___ ________ ________ ________ ____ 3. The worst problem of watching TV according to Alice is _______ ___ ________ ________ ________ _____ _ 4. Bad effects effects of TV that that will probably probably influenc influence e children children are _____ _____ and _______ ___ _______ ___ 5. Lies presen presented ted on TV is said said to be bad for for children, children, ___ ___ and ____ ____ or _______ ___ _______ ___ 6. Joe would call teacher and parents irresponsible _______ ___ ________ ________ ________ ________ _______ ___ 7. Joe blam ame es par are ents as well as TV because he thin ink ks that _______ ___ ________ ________ ________ ____ 8. "They use TV as a cheap babysitter" means _______ ___ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ______ __ 9. Ph Philip ilip says says that that their their main jobs jobs are _____ ______, _, _____ ________ ___,, and ____ ____ but not ______ 10.. The powe 10 powers rs of Telev Televis isio ion n Censo Censors rshi hip p Board Board are ____ ______ ___, _, ____ _____, _, and _________ Task 9
Page - 57
Wor ork k in gr grou oups ps of fo four ur.. Ea Each ch gr grou oup p ch choo oose ses s on one e of th thes ese e five five stat st atem emen ents ts.. On One e pa pair ir of st stud uden ents ts pr prep epar are e ar argu gum men ents ts fo forr th the e statements; the other three prepare arguments against it. Issue is hurting 1. Tele Television vision hurting our our young young people people.. 2. The violence violence on on TV and in movies movies causes causes violence violence in real real life. life. 3. Arguments There shofor, uld be government censorship (control) of TV programmes point 1 and movies. 4. Watc Watching hing TV is too passive passive.. Children Children should be doing doing more more creative creative and active things. 5. Publi Public c television television has better better programmes programmes than the other other networks. networks. Elaboration
Task 1 ReadArguments the text and answer the following question against,
Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don't need to own car. ca r. Al Also so,, th ther ere e ar are e a lo lott of in inte tere rest stin ing g things to do and places to see. Forr exampl Fo ple e, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored. How Ho weve ver, r, fo forr every plu lus s the here re is a minutes. For one thing, you might have a job, but unles unless s it is very well paid, you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do, because living in a city is often very expensive. It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public Page - 58
transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city dweller is looking for some open space and gre gr een gr gras ass s las astt of al all, l, de desp spit ite e al alll th the e crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city. In conclusion, I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who wh o li like ke th the e ex exci cite tem men entt of th the e ci city ty an and d don't mind the noise and pollution. Howe Ho weve ver, r, man any y pe peop ople le,, whe hen n th they ey ge gett olde ol der, r, an and d pa part rtic icul ular arly ly wh when en th they ey ha hav ve young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Who prefer Who prefer to to live live in citie cities? s? Who find it it difficult difficult to live live in the city? city? Why do people people like like getting getting out out into the park? park? Name Nam e two intere interesting sting things things to do in the city. city. Who can afford afford living in the city? Why?
Task 2 Answer the questions based on your knowledge.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Do you think think all program programmes mes on on TV are good ? Why? Why? Can TV influence us, especially teenagers? Do you agree agree if if children children watch watch all progra programm mmes es on TV? Do you think think TV has advantage advantages s and disadvantage disadvantages? s? Explain. Explain.
Task 3 Look at the picture, then read the following text!
Page - 59
The governm government ent has has just published published a report report which suggests that TV is partly responsible for the serious increase in crime over the last ten tears. The report stressed in particular the harmful effects of television on children, who are being exposed to increasing violence or pornography on television.
Task 4 Now, list the pros and the cons of television with you friend
Task 5 Work in pairs. Discuss the following text and report your conclusion to your teacher. Television Ads Need of 'Quality Control'.
Commercial breaks during television shows generally generate one of two reactions: viewer will reach for the remote and switch channe cha nnels, ls, or the they y wil willl sit thr throug ough h the ads. Tha Thatt re react action ion dep depend ends s largely on the quality and entertainment value of the ads. "TV ads can be amusing sometimes, especially those with cute children," said Yesi, a 28 year-old English tutor who spends about six hours a day watching TV. " But some ads can be considered insulting to our intelligence." Page - 60
Yesi said most of the time she autom automatical atically ly swit switched ched the channel during commercial breaks. In a recent survey by Marketing Research Indonesia (MRI), some 47 pe perc rcen entt of re resp spon onde dent nts s sa said id th they ey sw swit itch ched ed ch chan anne nell du duri ring ng commercial breaks, while 37 percent said they sat through the ads. “The adverti advertising sing industry industry nee needs ds to loo look k at the quality quality of its output because "consumer tends to avoid TV ads," said MRI managing director Harry Puspito. In the survey survey of 711 people people in Jak Jakart arta, a, Ban Bandun dung, g, Sur Suraba abaya, ya, Medan, and Makassar, 83 percent of respondents suggested that the government strictly regulate the content of TV ads. "Actually, some of the TV ads have improved, "Yesi said" but there are still a lot of advertisers who cut the duration and repeat their jargon more than three tomes in one spot" "OK, we got the message already the first time, she said". Those kinds of ads don't stimulate us to buy the products". There has been a tende tendency ncy for adve advertise rtiserr to maxi maximize mize their mon oney ey whi hile le cu cutt ttin ing g pr prod oduc ucti tion on co cost sts s by re repe peat atin ing g th the e sa sam me commercials commerc ials three times. This strategy seems to have failed since the surve survey y found that 67 percent of respondents agreed on the limitations of repeating TV commercials. Desp De spite ite al alll the cr crit itic icism ism,, mo most st re respo sponde ndent nts s ag agre reed ed on th the e impo im port rtan ance ce of TV ad ads s to su supp ppor orts ts br broa oadc dcast ast pro progr gram ams. s. So Some me 80 percent saw the necessity of ads for the survival of TV stations. "We already have a code of ethics for advertising, "Association Chairm Cha irman an RTS Mas Mash h said said,, "bu "butt the sta stakeh kehold older ers s in the adv adver ertis tising ing business are not only the professionals". "Beside the advertiser and the advertising industry, "he said, "television stations should also take part in filtering quality ads to show audiences". He added that media, especially television stations, should take a stand in rejecting advertisements considered to be of low quality. Despite an increase in expenditures on TV ads, as reported in a surv su rve ey by Nie iellse sen n Medi dia a re rese sear arc ch, Mas aslli sa said id th the e qu qual alit ity y of advertisements in Indonesia still trailed other countries in the Asia Pacific. "In Th Thai aila land nd,, fo forr ex exam ampl ple, e, th the e ad adve vert rtis ising ing in indu dustr stry y al alwa ways ys considers the consumers", Masli said. "Meanwhile, our importance of this kind of cultural communication”. Task 6
Page - 61
Read the text ad decide if each of the following sentences is true (T) or false (F) Today, there there is a TV set in nearly every home. home. People People watch TV every every day, and some people watch it from morning until night. Americans watch TV about 35 hours a week. But is TV good or bad for you? People have different opinions. Average TV is viewing time in a week for adults. Age 18-34 35-54 55+
Men 24 hours 28 hours 39 hours
Women 29 hours 32 hours 44 hours
1. TV is a powe powerfu rfull educat education ional al too! too! 2. Fami Families lies will will talk more more and do more more things things together, together, if there there is no TV. 3. More books weren weren't 't read becaus because e there there was a TV. TV. 4. TV helps helps us understand understand how how people people live, work, work, and struggle struggle.. 5. We are ent entert ertain ained ed by by TV, TV, 6. Peo People ple got got more more exerc exercise ise from from TV. 7. TV informs informs us us about what what is going going on in the the world. world. 8. Peo People ple use their imagi imaginatio nations ns more more fully. fully. 9. Prog Programs rams on on the radio radio are bette betterr than that that on TV. 10. There There's 's a lot lot of crime crime and and violence violence on TV today today.. The programmers programme rs are a re terrible. Task 7 Judge Complete the following sentences using the words. Tend Bother Fairy Fine Impose commitsblame indifferent offence sermon fault prude 1. I can’t _______ ____ _______ ________ _______ ___ wheatea wheatearr he was right or wrong. wrong. 2. Princ Princes es are _______ ___________ ________ ______ __ to upwards upwards this year. year. 3. How can can you be so ______ _________ _______ ____ to to the sufferings sufferings of these these children?
Page - 62
4. Bad workm workman an often _____ _________ _______ _____ them tools tools 5. I’m sorry sorry to _________ ___________ you, but could could you tell way to the station? station? 6. We has to listen listen to along _______ __________ ___ about about not wasting wasting money. money. 7. Whose ____ ________ ______ __ is it? it? Mine, Mine, I’m afraid. 8. Offen Offenders ders may may be liable liable to a heavy heavy _____ _________ _____ _ 9. ____ ________ _______ ___ a fine is one of TV Censor Censorships ships Board’s Board’s job. job. 10.. Bec 10 Because ause it was was his his first first __ _____ ______ _____ __ the pun punishm ishment ent was not too severe. Task 8 Study the following words with their meanings ♣ ♣
♣ ♣ ♣ ♣
Judge = give a decision; decision; decide decide.. Blam Bl ame e = fix fi x on so som mebo body dy re resp spo ons nsib ibiili lity ty fo forr so som meth thin ing g do done ne or not done Tend = be inclined inclined to to move. move. Fairy = small imaginary being with magical powers. Sermons = talk on moral or religious su subjects. Fault = mistake or offence; an error, especially in calculation. Imposed = lay down something compulsory, such as a tax or a punishment or a sentence. s entence. Commits = do something wrong or illegal Grammar Flash Preference
Prefer (verb) and preference (noun) is used to state choices. 1. Lik Like e …………. …………..be .bette tterr than than a. Bentuk pr preference Examples ♥She likes ice cream better than juice ♥ They like coffee better than tea. b.
Bentuk Ben tuk pre prefer ferenc ence e yang yang me memi milik likii obje objek k kata kata ke kerja rja S + like + verb
+ better than + verb
Examples ♥She likes swimming better than cycling ♥ They like singing better than dancing
Page - 63
2. Pre Prefe ferr ……… ………to to a. Be Bent ntuk uk pre prefe fere renc nce e “pref “prefer er ….t ….to” o” deng dengan an obje object ct.. Examples ♥She prefe prefers rs study to play outside. ♥ prefer r vegetable to fruit They prefe b.
Bentuk Ben tuk pre prefer ferenc ence e yang yang me memi milik likii obje objek k kata kata ke kerja rja S + prefer + verb
+ to + verb
Examples She prefe prefers rs playing badminton to playing chess They prefe ♥ prefer r taking a taxi to riding motorcycle S + prefer + to infinite + rather than + bare infinite Examples ♥ prefers rs to play chess rather than watch TV She prefe ♥ prefer r to study English rather than study They prefe biology ♥
S + would prefer + to infinite + rather than + bare infinite Examples ♥
prefer r to play chess rather than watch She would prefe
prefer r to eat chicken rather than cook the She’d prefe
soup 3. Wo Would uld rat rather her ………… …………….t ….than han S + would rather + verb 1 ....... than + verb Examples ♥ She would rather tidy her house than do nothing ♥ They would rather go picnic than work hard
Page - 64
Writing Task 1 Analyze the schematic structure of the following text!
Issue Argumen t againts
Argumen t for
There was a lot of discus discussion sion about whet whether her boxing should be banned. The peopl people e who agre agree e with this idea, such as Sarah, claim that if they do carry on boxing they also argue that people who do boxing could have brain damage and get seriously hurt. A further point they make is that most of the people that have died did have families. Howe Ho weve ver, r, th ther ere e ar are e al also so st stro rong ng ar argum gumen ents ts against this point of view. Another group of people believe that boxing should not be banned. They say that why they invent it if it is a dangerous sport. They say that that boxing boxing it will will ruin ruin people's people's career careers. s. After looking at the different points of view and the th e ev evid iden ence ce fo forr the them m I th thin ink k bo boxi xing ng sho shoul uld d be banned because five hundred people have died in boxing since 1884.
Page - 65
Find out the meaning of the following words As based with ith on tele televi the visi sio text! on, 1, the to argue Inte Intern rnet et has has an effe effect cts s on our our 1. argument = lives, bad effe ffects and and good 2. to ban = effec fects. The advantages of 3. to discuss = Inte Intern rnet et are are peop people le can can send send 4. discussion = personal messages through the Internet, as if, they were talking to one another. Messages Task 3 Identify the sentences with modals inmthe aybtext e aabove! few few words or long 1. Box Boxing ing sho should uld be bann banned. ed. letters or reports. These 2. …… ………… ………… ………… ………… ………. …... message messages s are called called electroni electronic c The Internet Inter………… net………… has………… information inform ation 3. …… ………… ………. …... on mail or e-mail. People use an just about every ever y subject. subje ct.. You Inte 4. …… ………… ………… ………… ………… ………. ….. Intern rnet et addr addres ess s to send send and and ca5. n …… se………… arch………… t………… hrou………. gh …..m ………… . any rec receive ive mail ail. Othe ther uses ses of sou sources. Some infor formati ation Inte Intern rne et inc include lude get gettin ting the the maybe mayb in collections collections of data latest news and playing games. Task 4e called theafollowing databa se. Other One part of the internet is Answer questions informa info tion nWh isatshared sha small sm 1. rmatio is tred he Inon tern etall ? known as the World Wide Web, elec le tronic nic Wh"abull bu lle tin boar bo ards 2.ctro ta reetin advan ant ta gds" es"an and pdro dv isa sadv iddvan es,anttagepsicotfutrhe es,Interne net an t?d 3. Do you know what an e-mail is? 4. Have you ever written an e-mail? 5. Do you think it is nice to keep in touch by e-mail?
Page - 66
Task 6 Computers Read Re ad the fol follow lowing ing par paragr agraph aph about abo ut com comput puters ers.. It con contai tains ns som some e mistakes. Then, correct the mistakes. I love oves a computers. They make my life so many b easier than it was when I had to used c a typewriter every time d I wanted to type something. Back then I had to start all over again whenever I make e a mistake. I really don't understand computers very well. Whenever I have a problems f , I have to get someone else to helping g me. I'm always afraid to try to fix it myself I guess I'm computer phobic. My mind just just went went blank. blank. Just like my computer computer screen screen do h when I have a problem. And I have so much i problems with my computer. There are always technical problems with computers. The whole world world worry worry j about technical problems. They are so unpredictabl unpredictable e and unreliable unreliable.. What else can I k said about computers? I only use them for word process l and e-mail. I enjoy communicate m with my friends by e-mailing n. That’s all. I know there is o lots of other uses but I’ll never got p involved in them. I don't understand computers. Task 7 Taken From Ready to Write More, 2004 Work in pairs. What is your opinion about the Internet? Choose the following ideas that you agree with and give your reasons why.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Using the Intern Internet et is very relax relaxing. ing. Using the Intern Internet et all all day long is is boring. boring. Playing Play ing the the Interne Internett is nonse nonsensical nsical.. Letting Lett ing children children play play games games on the the Internet Internet is good. good. Shopping Shopp ing on on the the Interne Internett is exc exciting. iting. Agree
Jenis Teks : Discuss Discussion ion (Pemb (Pembahasa ahasan) n) 1. Ci Cirri Umum Umum::
Page - 67
(a) Tujuan Ko Komun uniikatif Te Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari da ri 2 (d (dua ua)) su sudu dutt pa pand ndan ang, g, se sebe belu lum m sa sam mpa paii pa pada da su suat atu u kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. (b) ♣ ♣
Struktur Teks: Isu; Pendapat yang mendukung: ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
Pendapat yang menentang:
♣ ∗ ∗
Gagasan Pokok 1, Elaborasi (uraian), Gagasan Pokok 2, Elaborasi (uraian). Gagasan Pokok, Elaborasi (uraian),
(c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol, dsb, relating relatin g verb verbs s untuk memberi informasi informasi tentang isu ♣ yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, dsb. ♣ thin th inki king ng ve verb rbs s un untu tuk k me meng ngun ungk gkap apka kan n pa pand ndan anga gan n pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe. hope, dsb. ♣ additives, additi ves, contra contrastiv stive e dan causa causall conn connectiv ectives es untu untuk k meng me nghu hubu bung ngka kan n arg argum umen en,, mi misa saln lnya ya si simi mila larl rly, y, on th the e ha hand nd,, however, dsb. detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi ♣ ♣
secara padu, secara padu, mis misaln alnya ya the dum dumpin ping g of unw unwante anted d kit kitten tens, s, dsb. ♣ modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be. dsb. ♣ adve ad verbi rbials als of ma mann nner er,, mi misa saln lnya ya de deli libe bera rate tely ly.. hopefully, dsb. 2. Con Contoh toh dan dan Struk Struktur tur Tek Teks: s: Homework Isu
I have been wondering if homework is necessary.
Page - 68
Pendapat yang mendukung
I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren't very smart to remem rem ember ber wha whatt the they y hav have e lea learne rned. d. Hom Homew ework ork is really good because it helps with our education.
Pendapat yang menentang
But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn't have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movie mo vies. s. Som Someti etime mes s hom homewo ework rk is bor boring ing and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.
Task 8 Write Wri te a dis discus cussio sion n tex textt ent entitle itled d "Po "Positi sitive ve and Ne Negat gative ive Effe Effects cts of Smoking on Our Health". Use the following clues below!
Generic Gene ric human human participant participants s Many people people,, parents, parents, teachers, buyers, sellers, smokers, non-smokers, Non No n hum human an pa part rtic icip ipan antts
Cigare Ciga rett ttes es,, sm smog og,, pub publi lic c transportation, public place, school, hospital, Smoke, disturb, sit, buy, sell, instruct,
Page - 69
Feel, argue, don't like, think, don't think,
Transitions Transi tions
Moreover,, furthermo Moreover furthermore, re, in addition, in fact, as a matter of fact, however, on the contrary, on the other hand, But, yet, and so
Use the following steps of writing discussion text! Step 1
An ope openin ning g para paragra graph ph tha thatt int introd roduce uces s the top topic ic bei being ng discussed. It can contain a question about the topic. It can state the view of the author of the text. ♣
Argument or point of view for with supporting evidence or elaboration (more details) Anot An othe herr ar argu gume ment nts s fo forr with with su supp ppor orti ting ng ev evid iden ence ce or ♣ elaboration (more details) ♣ Arg rgum umen entt or po poin intt of vie iew w ag agai ains nstt wi with th su supp ppor orti ting ng evidence. ♣
A conclusion that sums up the discussion and gives a recommendation recomm endation or opinion. ♣
CHAPTER IV ADDITION
Page - 70
1. Condition Conditional al Sentence Sentence (Bentuk (Bentuk Pengandaian) Pengandaian) a. Type I Type I adalah bent bentuk uk pengan pengandaian daian dima dimana na induk kalim kalimatnya atnya dalam dal am be bent ntuk uk sim simple ple fut futur ure e te tense nse dan an anak ak ka kali lima matt da dala lam m bentuk simple present tense. Bentuk ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau kejad ke jadia ian n ya yang ng ak akan an di dilak lakuk ukan an at atau au te terj rjad adii bi bila lama mana na sua suatu tu syarat dipenuhi.
Sentence pattern: If + Subject + Verb I + Object; Subject + will + verb 1 + Object Examples: ♣ If the rain stops today, I will go to the meeting ♣ If he has much money, he will buy me a motorcycle. ♣ If study hard, you will pass the exam. b. Type II Type II ialah bentu bentuk k penga pengandaian ndaian yang diguna digunakan kan jika kita menghayalkan/ mengandaikan suatu keadaan yang bert be rten enta tang ngan an de deng ngan an ke kead adaan aan ya yang ng ad ada. a. Da Dala lam m be bent ntuk uk in inii indu in duk k ka kali lim mat da dala lam m be bent ntuk uk pa past st fu futu ture re se seda dang ngka kan n an anak ak kalimat dalam bentuk past tense. Sentence pattern: If + Subject + Verb 11 + Object; Subject + Would + Verb I + Object Examples : ♣ ♣ ♣
If I were a doctor, 1 would take care them. If she studied hard, she could pass the exam. If he gave the money, I would buy some books.
Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam of clause adalah kata kerja bentuk past (V-ll) kemudian kita dapat mempergunakan would atau could + V-1. Di dalam if clause tidak pernah digunakan would atau could + V-1. c. Type III Bentuk pengandaian ini digunakan apabila kita membayangkan suatu kemungkinan yang lain dari suatu peristiwa yang sudah lewat atau sudah terjadi (past) dan tidak mungkin terjadi lagi. Dibentuk dengan Cara : Page - 71
Induk kalimat dalam bentuk : past future future perfe perfect ct Anak kalimat dalam bentuk : past perfect perfect tense
Sentence pattern: If + Subject + had + Verb III + Object; I + would have + Verb III + Object Examples : ♣ If he had been there, I would have explained the matter. ♣ If they had told me the problem, I would have helped them. ♣ If my mother had asked me to do the home work, I would have done it. Penggu Peng guna naan an ka kata ta ke kerj rja a ha has s + VV-II IIII da dala lam m if cl clau ause se un untu tuk k men enya yata taka kan n ha hall-ha hall yan ang g su suda dah h te terj rjad adii da dan n pe peng nggu guna naan an woul wo uld/ d/co coul uld d + ha have ve + V-I -III II + O da dala lam m mai ain n cl clau ause se da dapa patt diletakkan di depan atau di belakang untuk semua type balk type I, II atau III. Jika if clause diletakkan di depan maka setelah if clause diletakkan tanda koma. 2. Caus Causat ativ ive e Ve Verbs rbs a. Ca Caus usat ativ ive e Have Have Causative have ini dapat digunakan dalam dua bentuk, yaitu pasif dan aktif Struktur kalimat : S + has/have/had + object + Verb 1 + Verb 3 Verb 1 = Jika objeknya manusia Verb 3 = Jika objeknya bukan manusia Examples : ♣
The teacher teachers s have Linda do her home homework work S + have + O + Verb 1 His father has his car washed S + has + O + Verb 3
Untuk soal yang bersifat analisis, maka suatu pengertian sangat diperlukan, contohnya adalah sebagai berikut : Page - 72
1) S + has/havelhad + pronoun object manusia + Verb 1 Artinya/means : S + ask/asked + pronoun object manusia + to — Verb 1 Example : They have their studen studentt bring bring the books books.. Means : They ask their their student student to bring bring the book books. s.
S 2) + has/have/had + object bukan manusia + Verb 3 Artinya/means : S + ask/asked + some/body + to - Verb 1 + object Example : Tuti has has her broth brother's er's book book returned returned Means : Tuti asks asks some/bod some/body y to return return her her brother's brother's book book b. Cau Causat sative ive Get Causative get pada dasarnya mempunyai struktur kalimat yang sam sa ma de deng ngan an ca caus usat ativ ive e ha have ve,, te teta tapi pi ad ada a pe pena nam mba baha han n to sebelum Verb 1 dalam causative get. g et.
Struktur kalimat : S 1) + get/got + pronoun object manusia + to - Verb 1 Artinya/means: S + ask/asked + pronoun object manusia + to - Verb 1 Example : Mother gets her daughter to study diligently. Means : Mother asks her daughter to study diligently
Page - 73
2) S + get/got + pronoun object bukan manusia + Verb 3 Artinya/means: S + ask/asked + someone/somebody + to - Verb 1 + O
Example: Sister got S + got +
her wall pa painted O + Verb 3
Means : Sister asked somebody/body to paint her wall S + asked + somebody/body + to -Verb 1 + O
Jenis Teks Teks:: Descri Descriptio ption n (Deskrip (Deskripsi) si) 1.
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mend Me ndes eskr krip ipsi sika kan n ci ciri ri-c -cir irii se sese seor oran ang, g, tertentu. (b) ● ●
bend be nda a
atau at au
Struktur Teks: Pengenalan subjek; Ciri-ciri subjek, misalnya tampilan fisik, kualitas, perilaku umum, sifat-sifat.
Menggunakan: • •
tem te mpa patt
nouns tertentu, misalnya teacher, house,my cat, dsb. simple present tense.
Page - 74
detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large open rowboat , a sweet young lady, dsb. berb be rbag agai ai mac acam am adjectives, yang bersifa fatt describing, numbering, numbe ring, classi classifying, fying, misalnya, tw two o st stro rong ng le legs gs,, sh shar arp p white fangs, dsb. relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool, It has very thick fur, dsb. thinkin thi nking g ver verbs bs dan fee feelin ling g ver verbs bs untuk men mengungkap gungkapkan kan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed , I think it is a clever animal, dsb. action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb. abverbials untuk mem memberik berikan an inform informasi asi tamb tambahan ahan tenta tentang ng perilaku tersebut, misalnya fast, at the tree house, dsb. bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is ,dsb white as chalk, sat tight ,dsb
Page - 75
3. Con Contoh toh dan dan Struk Struktur tur Teks Teks::
Macquarie University Subyek
Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40 th anniversary.
The univers university ity is locate located d at the the North Ryde Greenb Greenbelt, elt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets asid as ide e 13 135 5 he hect ctar ares es fo forr th the e in inst stit itut utio ion. n. In 19 1964 64,, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but tod today ay the cam campus pus and its sur surrou round nding ings s hav have e evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has ha s gr grow own n in into to a di dist stri rict ct of in inten tensi sive ve oc occu cupa pati tion on anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Blesse Bles sed d wi with th a fo fort rtun unat ate e lo loca cati tion on an and d ro room om to brea br eath the, e, Ma Macq cqua uari rie e can be pr prou oud d of th that at ca care refu full planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attr at trac acti tive ve na natu tura rall fe feat atu ure res. s. A pl plea easi sin ng ba bala lanc nce e between buildings and plating is evident across the cam ca mpu pus. s. Th This is em emph phas asiis on th the e im impo porrta tan nce of landsc lan dscape ape has crea created ted im image ages s of Mac Macqu quari arie e as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… lak e… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railwa Today, railway y station is under cons constructi truction. on. In thre th ree e ye year ars1 s1 ti time me,, Ma Macq cqua uari rie e wi will ll be th the e on only ly university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site.
Jenis Teks Teks:: Analyti Analytical cal Expo Expositi sition on (Ekspo (Eksposisi sisi Anal Analitis itis))
Page - 76
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memaparkan Mem aparkan dan mem mempengar pengaruhi uhi audience (pend (pendengar engar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. (b) Struktur Teks: • Pernyataan pendapat; rgum ume en, te terd rdir irii at atas as “ point ” yang dik ike emukak akan an dan • Arg “elaborasi”; • Penguatan pernyataan. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns, misalnya car pollution, ion, leaded leaded petrol petrol car, dsb. dsb. , pollut • Abstr Abstract act nouns nouns, misalnya polic policy y , government, dsb. • Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb. • Relating verbs , misalnya It is important, dsb. • Actio Action n verbs verbs, misalnya She must save, dsb. • Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb • Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve , dsb. • Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, we, dsb. • Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly ,dsb. ,dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, dsb. * Kalimat pasif Contoh dan Struktur Teks:
Cars should be banned in the city Pernyataan pendapat penda pat Argumentas Argumentas i
Cars sh Cars shou ould ld be ba bann nned ed in th the e ci city ty.. As we al alll know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as br bron onch chit itis is,, lu lung ng ca canc ncer er,, an and d ‘t ‘trig rigge gers rs’’ of off f asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that Page - 77
people can die from them. Second Seco ndly ly,, th the e ci city ty is ve very ry bu busy sy.. Pe Pede dest stri rian ans s wan ande derr ev ever eryw ywhe here re an and d ca cars rs co com mmon only ly hi hitt pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.
Penguatan pernyataan perny ataan
Thirdly, cars are Thirdly, are very very noisy. noisy. If you live in the the city, city, you may fin ind d it har ard d to sl sle eep at night ht,, or concentrate conce ntrate on your homework, homework, and espe especially cially talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memaparkan Mem aparkan dan mem mempengar pengaruhi uhi audience (pend (pendengar engar atau pemb pe mbac aca) a) ba bahw hwa a se sesua suatu tu se seha haru rusn snya ya de demi miki kian an at atau au tid tidak ak demikian. (b) Struktur Teks: • Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan; Argu gume men: n: be beru rupa pa ala alasan san me menga ngapa pa ad ada a ke kepr prih ihat atin inan, an, da dan n • Ar mengarah ke rekomendasi • Re Rekom komend endasi: asi: per pernya nyataa taan n ten tentang tang bag bagaim aimana ana seh seharus arusnya nya atau tidak seharusnya. (d) Ciri Ke Kebahasaan: • Terfo Terfokus kus ke pem pembicara bicara / penulis penulis yang yang mengangk mengangkat at isu. Menggunakan: ,dsb. • Abstr Abstract act nouns nouns, misalnya polic policy y , government ,dsb. • Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb. misalnya lnya sho • Relat Relating ing verb verbs s, misa should uld be, doesn’t doesn’t see seem m to hav have e been,dsb. • Actio Action n verbs verbs, misalnya We must act , dsb. • Thinking verbs, misalnya I believe, dsb Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve, dsb ♣ Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, wem dsb. , dsb ♣ Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly ♣ Simple present tense ♣ Kalimat pasif Bah has asa a eval ev alu uat atif if,, mis isal aln nya ♣ Ba impo im port rtan ant, t, trustworthy, dsb. ♣
Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Argumen Argum en
Argumen Argum en
valua val uabl ble, e,
Country Concern In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference diff erence between driving in the city and in the country. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on
Page - 79
city roads. Those who want want to penali penalise se older, older, leaded leaded petrol petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehcle is the only way to get about. I feel that counrty people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.
Jenis Teks: Report Report (Laporan (Laporan Hasil Pengamatan)
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala gejala-geja -gejala la sosial sosial.. Desk Deskripsi ripsi sebuah teks report dapat beru be rupa pa si sim mpu pula lan n um umum um,, mis isal alny nya, a, ik ikan an pa paus us te term rmas asuk uk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama. Siswa Sisw a da dapa patt menc nco oba membu buat at te tek ks la lapo pora ran n ten enttan ang, g, misaln mi salnya, ya, rum rumah ah san sangat gat sed seder erhan hana, a, wa warun rung g teg tegal, al, sek sekola olah, h, ruma ru mah h sa saki kitt dsb dsb.. de deng ngan an me mend ndek ekri ripsi psika kan n ci ciri ri-c -cir irii subye subyek k tersebut sehingga disebut rumah sederhana, dsb. (b)
Struktur Teks: • Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya. • Deskripsi
Menggunakan: Page - 80
general nouns, seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’, dsb. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia), dsb. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards cannot fly, dsb. present pres ent tense tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg, dsb. istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen, dsb. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi.
Contoh dan Struktur Teks: THE PELICAN REPORT
Pernyataan tentang subjek laporan Deskripsi
The white pelic pelican an is one of the most successful fish-eating birds. The succe success ss is largel largely y due to its comm command and huntin hun ting g beh behavi aviour our.. A gro group, up, per perhap haps s tw two o doze do zen n bi bird rds, s, wi will ll ga gath the er in a cu curv rved ed ar arc c som so me di dist stan ance ce of offs fsho hore re.. Th The e bi bird rds s th then en begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Page - 81
Pelica Peli cans ns ar are e am amon ong g th the e ol olde dest st gr grou oup p of birds, Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Membe Me mberit ritakan akan ke kepada pada pem pembac baca, a, pe pende ndenga ngarr ata atau u pen penont onton on tent te ntang ang pe peri rist stiw iwaa-pe peri rist stiw iwa a at atau au ke kejad jadia iann-ke keja jadi dian an ya yang ng dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. (b) Struktur Teks: • Kejadian inti; • La Lata tarr be belak lakan ang: g: el elabo abora rasi si ke keja jadi dian an,, or oran ang g ya yang ng te terl rlib ibat at,, tempat kejadian dsb. • Sumbe Sumberr infor informasi: masi: komentas komentas saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli, dsb. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: • Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline • Menggunakan action verbs • Menggunakan saying verbs, misalnya say, tell, dsb . injured, d, • Mengg Menggunakan unakan kata kete keterangan rangan,, misa misalnya lnya badly injure the most beautiful bride in the world , dsb.
Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Town ‘Contaminated ‘Contaminated’’ Kejadian Inti
Moscow Mosco w – A Ru Russi ssian an jo jour urna nali list st has uncov uncovere ered d evidence evide nce of anoth another er Sovie Soviett nucle nuclear ar catast catastrophe rophe,, which killed 10 sa sail ilor ors s an and d contaminated an entire town. Yelena Yele na Vazr Vazrshavsk shavskya ya is the first journ journalist alist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a Page - 82
nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accid accident, ent, whic which h occurred 13 months before the Cher Chernobyl nobyl disaste disaster, r, spread radio radioactive active falloutt ov ou over er th the e ba base se an and d ne near arby by to town wn,, bu butt was cove co vere red d up by offic officia ials ls of the Sovie Soviett Union. Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Vict Victor-cla or-class ss submarine during a refit had been bee n a ‘th ‘therm ermal’ al’ and not a nuc nuclea learr exp explosi losion. on. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove rem ove mo more re tha than n 60 600 0 ton tones es of co contam ntaminat inated ed material were sworn to secrecy. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.
Jenis Teks Teks:: Rec Recount ount (Lap (Laporan oran peri peristiw stiwa, a, kejad kejadian ian atau atau kegiatan masa lampau) 1.
Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melapo Me laporka rkan n per perist istiw iwa, a, ke kejad jadian ian ata atau u ke kegiat giatan an de dengan ngan tuj tujuan uan memberitakan atau menghibur. (b) Struktur Teks: Penge ngenala nalan, n, yai yaitu tu me memb mberi erikan kan inf inform ormasi asi ten tentan tang g siap siapa, a, di ● Pe mana dan kapan; Rekaman peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi, ● yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis; ● Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian; Penge ngena nalan lan ul ulang ang ya yang ng me mera rang ngku kum m re rent ntet etan an pe peri rist stiw iwa, a, ● Pe kejadian atau kegiatan. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: •
nouns dan prono pronouns uns sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan atau benda yang terlibat, misalnya David, the monkey , we dsb. • action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan, misalnya go, sleep, run dsb.
Page - 83
past tense, misalnya We went past tense went to to the zoo; She was happy dsb. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan, misalnya and, but, then, after that, dsb. adverbs dan adverb adverb phrase phrases s untuk mengungkap tempat, waktu dan cara, misalnya yeste yesterday rday , at my house, slowly dsb. nouns,, mis isa aln lnya ya adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns beautiful,, funny, dsb. beautiful
Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Our trip to the Blue Mountain Pengenalan (Orientasi)
Rangkaian peristiwa peris tiwa
On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colorful flowers and a tennis court. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the sc sce eni nic c rai ailw lway ay.. It was sc scar ary y. Th The en, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon we went home.