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Marma Therapy is an ancient therapy from India. it was used by Kings & warriors for self healing. its a drugless therapy. there are 107 vital points in Human body these are called Marma poin…Full description
Music therapy 1
of interventions to to accomplish Music therapy is the use of interventions individ individual ual goals goals within within a therape therapeutic utic relatio relationsh nship ip by a professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. Music therapy is an allied an allied health profession and sion and one of the expressive therapies, therapies , consisting of a process in which a music therapist uses music and all of its facets—phy facets—physical, sical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients improve their physical and mental health. Music therapists therapists primarily help help clients improve their health in several domains, such as cognitive cognitive functioning, functioning, motor skills, skills, emotional development, ment, social skills, skills, and quality and quality of life, life, by using music experiences such as free improvisation, singing, and listening to, discussing, and moving to music to achieve treatmen treatmentt goals. It has a wide wide qualitati qualitative ve and quantiquantitative research literature base and incorporates clinical therapy,, psychotherapy, therapy psychotherapy, biomusicology, biomusicology, musical acoustics,, music theo tics theory ry,, psychoacoustics, psychoacoustics, embodied music cognition,, aesthetics of music, cognition music, sensory integration, integration, and comparative musicology. musicology. Referrals to music therapy service vicess may may be made made by other other heal health th care care prof profess essio ional nalss such such as physicians, psychologists, physical therapists, and occupatio cupational nal therapist therapists. s. Clients Clients can also choose choose to pursue music therapy services without a referral (i.e., selfreferral).
Appr Approa oacche hess
Approaches used in music therapy that have emerged from from the ﬁeld ﬁeld of educatio education n includ includee Orﬀ-Sch Orﬀ-Schulw ulwerk erk (Orﬀ), Dalcroze Eurhythmics, Eurhythmics, and Kodaly. Models that developed directly out of music therapy are Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT), Nordoﬀ-Robbins and the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music. Music therapists may work with individuals who have behavioral-emotional disorders. To meet the needs of this population, music therapists have taken current psychological theories and used them as a basis for diﬀerent types of music therapy. Diﬀerent models include behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. One therapy model based on neuroscience, called “neurological music therapy” (NMT), is “based on a neuroscience model of music perception and production, and the inﬂuence inﬂuence of music music on functi functional onal changes changes in non musical brain and behavior behavior functions.” functions.” In other words, NMT studies how the brain is without music, how the brain is with music, measures the diﬀerences, and uses these diﬀerences to cause changes in the brain through music that will eventually aﬀect the client non-musically. As one researche researcher, r, Dr. Thaut, Thaut, said: “The brain brain that engages in music is changed by engaging in music.” NMT trains motor responses (i.e. tapping foot or ﬁngers, head moveme movement, nt, etc.) to better help clients clients develo develop p motor skills that help “entrain the timing of muscle activation patterns”.
Music therapists are found in nearly every area of the helping professions. Some commonly found practices include developmental work (communication, motor skills, etc.) with individ individuals uals with special special needs, needs, songwriting and listening in reminiscence/orientation work with the elderl elderly, y, process processing ing and relaxa relaxation tion work, work, and rhythmi rhythmicc entrainment for entrainment for physical rehabilitation in stroke victims. Music Music therap therapyy is also also used used in some some medi medicalhosp calhospita itals ls,, cancancer centers, schools, alcohol and drug recovery programs, psychiatric hospitals, and correctional facilities. 
Music therapy comes in two diﬀerent forms: active and receptive. In active therapy, the therapist and patient activel tivelyy participa participate te in creating creating music music with instrume instruments, nts, their their voice, or other objects. This allows for the patient to be creative and expressive through the art of music. Receptive therapy takes place in a more relaxed setting where the therapist plays or makes music to the patient who is free to draw, listen or meditate. Usually the therapist determines the method unless speciﬁcally requested by the patient. 
Chiildre Ch dren
Music Music therap therapy y approac approaches hes used used with with children
Nordoﬀ-Ro Nordoﬀ-Robbin bbinss
Further info information: rmation: Nordo Nordoﬀ ﬀ-Robbins music therapy
Paul Nord Paul Nordoﬀ oﬀ,, a Juilliard School graduate graduate and Profe Professor ssor of Music, was a gifted pianist and composer who, upon seeing disabled children respond so positively to music, gave up his academic career to further investigate the possibility bility of music music as a means for therap therapy. y. Dr. Clive Robbins,, a special educator, partnered with Nordoﬀ for over bins 1
17 years in the exploration and research of music’s effects on disabled children- ﬁrst in the United Kingdom, and then in the USA in the 1950s and 60s. Their pilot projects included placements at care units for autistic children and child psychiatry departments, where they put programs in place for children with mental disorders, emotional disturbances, developmental delays, and other handicaps. Their success at establishing a means of communication and relationship with autistic children at the University of Pennsylvania gave rise to the National Institutes of Health’s ﬁrst grant given of this nature, and the 5year study “Music Therapy Project for Psychotic Children Under Seven at the Day Care Unit” involved research, publication, training and treatment. Several publications, including Therapy in Music for Handicapped Children, Creative Music Therapy , Music Therapy in Special Education, as well as instrumental and song books for children, were released during this time. Nordoﬀ and Robbins’s success became known globally in the mental health community, and they were invited to share their ﬁndings and oﬀer training on an international tour that lasted several years. Funds were granted to support the founding of the Nordoﬀ Robbins Music Therapy Centre in Great Britain in 1974, where a one-year Graduate program for students was implemented. In the early eighties, a center was opened in Australia, and various programs and institutes for Music Therapy were founded in Germany and other countries. In the United States, the Nordoﬀ-Robbins Center for Music Therapy was established at New York University in 1989.
dren. Gertrude Orﬀ was asked to develop a form of therapy based on the Orﬀ Schulwerk approach to support the emotional development of patients. Elements found in both the music therapy and education approaches include the understanding of holistic music presentation as involving word, sound and movement; the use of both music and play improvisation as providing a creative stimulus for the child to investigate and explore; Orﬀ instrumentation, including keyboard instruments and percussion instruments as a means of participation and interaction in a therapeutic setting; and lastly, the multisensory aspects of music used by the therapist to meet the particular needs of the child, such as both feeling and hearing sound.
Corresponding with the attitudes of Humanistic psychology, the developmental potential of the child- as in the acknowledgement of their strengths as well as their handicaps, and the importance of the therapist- child relationship are central factors in Orﬀ Music Therapy. Theoretical foundations are also inﬂuenced by the strong emphasis on social integration and the involvement of parents in the therapeutic process found in social paediatrics. Knowledge of developmental psychology puts into perspective how developmental disabilities inﬂuence the child, as do their social and familial environments. The basis for interaction in this method is known as responsive interaction, in which the therapist meets the child at their level and responds according to their initiatives, combining both humanistic and developmental psychology philosophies. Involving the parents in this type of interaction, The Nordoﬀ-Robbins approach, based on the belief that by having them participate directly or observe the thereveryone is capable of ﬁnding meaning in and beneﬁtting apist’s techniques, equips the parents with ideas of how from musical experience, is now practiced by hundreds of to interact appropriately with their child, thus fostering a therapists internationally. It focuses on treatment through positive parent-child relationship. the creation of music by both therapist and client together. Various techniques are used to accommodate all capabilities so that even the most low functioning individuals are 2.1.3 Bonny Method of Guided Imagery in Music (GIM) able to participate actively. Further information: Guided imagery 2.1.2
Orﬀ Music Therapy
Music educator and therapist Helen Lindquist Bonny (1921 - May 25, 2010) developed an approach inﬂuenced by humanistic and transpersonal psychological views, Developed by Gertrude Orﬀ at the Kindezentrum known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery in MuMünchen, is another approach known as Orﬀ Music sic, or GIM. Guided imagery refers to a technique used in Therapy. Both the clinical setting of social pediatrics natural and alternative medicine that involves using menas well as the Orﬀ Schulwerk (Schoolwork) approach in tal imagery to help with the physiological and psychologmusic education (developed by German composer Carl ical ailments of patients. The practitioner often sugOrﬀ) inﬂuence this method, which is used with children gests a relaxing and focusing image and through the use with developmental problems, delays and disabilities. of imagination and discussion, aims to ﬁnd constructive The area of social pediatrics was developed after the Sec- solutions to manage their problems. Bonny applied this ond World War in Germany by Theodor Hellbrügge, who psychotherapeutic method to the ﬁeld of music therapy understood that medicine alone could not meet the com- by using music as the means of guiding the patient to a plex needs of developmentally disabled children. He con- higher state of consciousness where healing and construcsulted psychologists, occupational therapists and other tive self- awareness can take place. Music is considered a mental healthcare professionals whose knowledge and “co-therapist” because of its importance. GIM with chilskills could aid in the diagnostics and treatment of chil- dren can be used in one-on-one or group settings, and inFurther information: Orﬀ Schulwerk
volves relaxation techniques, identiﬁcation and sharing of personal feeling states, and improvisation to discover the self, and foster growth. The choice of music is carefully selected for the client based on their musical preferences and the goals of the session. Usually a classical piece, it must reﬂect the age and attentional abilities of the child in length and genre, and a full explanation of the exercises must be oﬀered at their level of understanding.  The use of guided imagery with autistic children has been found to decrease stereotypical behaviours and hyperactivity, increase attention and the ability to follow instructions, as well as increase self-initiated communication, both verbal and non-verbal.
Assessment and interventions
As with any type of therapy, the practice of Music Therapy with children must uphold standards of conduct and ethics, agreed upon by national and provincial associations such as the Canadian Association for Music Therapy. In part with this, formal assessment is crucial for understanding the child – their background, limitations and needs, as well as to create appropriate goals for the process and select the means of achieving them. This serves as the starting point from which to measure the client’s progression throughout the therapeutic process and to make adjustments later, if necessary. Similarly to how assessments are conducted with adults, the music therapist obtains extensive data on the client including their full medical history, musical (ability to duplicate a melody or identify changes in rhythm, etc.) and nonmusical functioning (social, physical/motor, emotional, etc.). The assessment process is then carried out in formal, informal, and standardized ways. The following are the most common methods of assessment:  •
Interviews with Clients and/or Family Members
Structured or Unstructured Observation
Assessment and interventions
Reviewing of Client Records Standardized Assessment Tests
Information gathered at the music therapy assessment is then used to determine if music therapy is indicated for the child. The therapist then formulates a music therapytreatment plan, which includes speciﬁc short-term objectives, long-term goals, and an expected timeline for therapy. Music therapy interventions used with children can fall into two categories. The ﬁrst, Supportive active therapy, is product- oriented and can included rhythm activities such as body percussion (stomping feet, clapping hands, etc.), singing songs which re-inforce nonmusical skills, awareness and expression, or movement to music (as simple as
marching to the beat, as complex as structured dances). The second area is called Insight music therapy which is process-oriented. Activities could include song-writing, active listening and reacting, or auditory discrimination activities for sensory skill development. Music therapy for children is conducted either in a one-on-one session or in a group session. The therapist typically plays either a piano or a guitar, which allows for a wide variety of musical styles to suit the client’s preferences. The child is usually encouraged to play an instrument adapted to his or her unique abilities and needs.  These elements are designed to improve the experience and outcome of the therapy.
Prenatal music therapy
Music Therapy can play an important role during pregnancy. At just 16 weeks, a fetus is able to hear their mother’s speech as well as singing. Through technologies, such as ultrasound, health care professionals are able to observe the movements of the unborn child responding to musical stimuli. Through these fetal observations, we see that the baby is capable of expressing its needs, preferences, and interests through movements in the womb. At the beginning of the second trimester, the ear structure is fully matured. By this time, the fetus will begin to hear not only maternal sounds, but also vibrations of instruments. Prenatal music therapy has three main beneﬁts.  1. Prenatal Stress Relief : Pregnant women may experience high levels of stress which can negatively aﬀect the baby. This will cause the body will release Norepinephrine and Cortisol hormones which will increase blood pressure and weaken the immune system of both mother and child. High levels of cortisol exposure in early development can increase the likelihood of the child later having anxiety, mental retardation, autism, and depression. Music therapists use music to elevate the stress threshold of an expectant mother which helps her to maintain a relaxed state during labour and birthing process. During a music therapy session, the mother is guided to listen to her internal rhythms, as well as listing to the movements and reactions of the fetus in response to her voice and music. This technique is useful in helping reduce the mother’s level of stress, and prepare her for the birth of her child. 2. Maternal-Fetal Bonding: Communication between the mother and fetus is essential during pregnancy. One way of strengthening the bond between the two is through music therapy. Music stimulation helps to develop the fetus’s nervous system, structurally and functionally. The unborn child especially prefers the voice of their mother. The most eﬀective way to enhance communication is through singing.
Lullabies are the most popular songs sung by mothers. Singing lullabies is a wonderful way for mothers to express their love and have the baby become familiarized with their mother’s melodies and intonations which will provide them a sense of security when they are born, because it will feel just like how they were in the womb. Electronic voice phenomena studies have shown that the father’s voice engages the fetus from feet to the abdomen - which will lead the baby to start walking at a younger age. The mother’s voice engages the fetus from waist to head which will strengthen the baby’s neck and upper limbs. Not only does prenatal singing beneﬁt the fetus, it also help produce endorphins that automatically reduce the perception of pain and help relax breathing. A fetus can show preference for music; observations have shown the fetus’s movements are gentle when listening to soothing music, and comparatively, where there are dissonances included in the music, their movements are bigger and much more rhythmic, such as rolling. The fetus would be comforted by hearing slow-pace passages of Baroque music (Vivaldi and Handel) and lullabies sung by their mother. 3. Prenatal Language Development: Music is said to be the unborn child’s beginning of language learning. It can be consider as a pre-linguistic language that prepares the Auditory Sensory System to listen, combine, and produce language sounds. The fetus learns through the voice of their mother, not only from speech but songs. The sound is received by the baby through bone conduction when the mother speaks. The singing voice is said to have a wider range of frequencies than speech. Prenatal sounds are important during the prenatal period because it forms the basis of future learning and behaviour. 2.2.2
Music therapy for premature infants
Music therapy has been shown to be very beneﬁcial in stimulating growth and development in premature infants. Premature infants are those born at 37 weeks or less gestational stage. They are subject to numerous struggles, such as abnormal breathing patterns, decreased body fat and muscle tissue, as well as feeding issues. The coordination for sucking and breathing is often not fully developed, making feeding a challenge. The improved developmental activity and behavioural status of premature infants when they are discharged from the NICU, is directly related to the stimulation programs and interventions they beneﬁted from during hospitalization, such as music therapy. Music is typically conducted by a musical therapist in Neonatal Intensive Care (NICU), with ﬁve main techniques designed to beneﬁt premature infants; 1. Live or Recorded Music : Live or recorded music
has been eﬀective in promoting respiratory regularity and oxygen saturation levels, as well as decreasing signs of neonatal distress. Since premature infants have sensitive and immature sensory modalities, music is often performed in a gentle and control environment, either in the form of audio recordings or live vocalization, although live singing has been shown to have a greater aﬀect. Live music also reduces the physiological responses in parents. Studies have shown that by combining live music, such as harp music, with the Kangaroo Care, maternal anxiety is reduced. This allows for parents, especially mothers to spend important time bonding with their premature infants. Female singing voices are also more aﬀective at soothing premature infants. Despite being born premature, infants show a preference for the sound of a female singing voice, making it more beneﬁcial than instrumental music. 2. Promote Healthy Sucking Reﬂex : By using a Paciﬁer-Actived Lullaby Device, music therapists can help promote stronger sucking reﬂexes, while also reducing pain perception for the infant. The Gato Box is a small rectangular instrument that stimulates a prenatal heartbeat sound in a soft and rhythmic manner that has also been eﬀective in aiding sucking behaviours. The music therapist uses their ﬁngers to tap on the drum, rather than using a mallet. The rhythm supports movement when feeding and promotes healthy sucking patterns. By increasing sucking patterns, babies are able to coordinate the important dual mechanisms of breathing, sucking and swallowing needed to feed, thus promoting growth and weight gain. When this treatment proves eﬀective, infants are able to leave the hospital earlier. 3. Multimodal Stimulation and Music : By combining music, such as lullabies, and multimodal stimulation, premature infants were discharged from the NICU sooner, than those infants who did not receive therapy. Multimodal stimulation includes the applications of auditory, tactile, vestibular, and visual stimulation that helps aid in premature infant development. The combination of music and MMS helps premature infants sleep and conserve vital energy required to gain weight more rapidly. Studies have shown that girls respond more positively than boys during multimodal stimulation. While the voice is a popular choice for parents looking to bond with their premature infants, other eﬀective instruments include the Remo Ocean Disk and the Gato Box. Both are used to stimulate the sounds of the womb. The Remo Ocean Disk, a round musical instrument that mimics the ﬂuid sounds of the womb, has been shown to beneﬁt decreased heart rate after therapeutic uses, as well as promoting healthy sleep patterns, lower respiratory rates and improve sucking behavior.
Assessment and interventions
4. Infant Stimulation : This type of intervention uses musical stimulation to compensate for the lack of normal environmental sensory stimulation found in the NICU. The sound environment the NICU provides can be disruptive; however, music therapy can mask unwanted auditory stimuli and promote a calm environment that reduces the complications for high-risk or failure-to-thrive infants. Parent-infant bonding can also be aﬀected by the noise of the NICU, which in turn can delay the interactions between parents and their premature infants. But music therapy creates a relaxed and peaceful environment for parents to speak and spend time with their babies while incubated.
times chosen by the client, or by the music therapist based on the clients reciprocation to the music. Music has many calming and soothing properties that can be used as a sedative in rehabilitation. For example, a patient with chronic pain may decrease the physiological result of stress, and draw attention away from the pain by focusing on music. Music has the ability to associate physiological changes in the body and elicit physiological responses such as pulse rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension. Music may also stimulate a calming eﬀect of the cardiovascular system.
Music therapy used in child rehabilitation has had a substantial emphasis on sensorimotor development including; balance and position, locomotion, agility, mobility, 5. Parent-Infant Bonding: Therapists work with par- range of motion, strength, laterality and directionality. ents so they may perform infant-directed singing By using music during senorimotor rehabilitation, it altechniques, as well as home care. Singing lullabies lows clients to express themselves and motivates them to therapeutically can promote relaxation and decrease learn the active joint range of motion and motor coordiheart rate in premature infants. By calming prema- nation in which they are aiming to acquire. For example, ture babies, it allows for them to preserve their en- clients with a brain injury may lack the ability to initiate ergy, which creates a stable environment for growth. movement. The intensely captivating and attention enLullabies, such as “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star”, or hancing quality of music motivates clients to participate other culturally relevant lullabies, have been shown in physical activity or exercise by easing the discomfort to greatly soothe babies. These techniques can also and strenuousness of the physical rehabilitation and helps improve overall sleep quality, caloric intake and the client persevere without being conscious of the diffeeding behaviours, which aids in development of ﬁculty. Music can be an element of distraction, allowthebaby while they arestill in theNICU. Singing has ing the client to transcend into a positive, aestheticallyalso shown greater results on oxygen saturation lev- pleasing state that is beneﬁcial to achieving their goals. els for infants while incubated, more than mothers Research suggests a strong connection between motor acspeech alone. This technique promoted high levels tivation and the cueing of musical rhythm. Rhythmic of oxygen for longer periods of time. stimuli has been found to help balance training for those with a brain injury. Repetition of proﬁcient rhythmic qualities will stimulate participants so that the abrasive 2.2.3 Music therapy in child rehabilitation beats will synchronize with neural activity during a rhythmic motor task. For example, clients with hemiplegia Music therapy has multiple beneﬁts which contribute gain improvement of posture stability, and consistency of to the maintenance of health and the drive toward symmetrical strides and regularity in step lengths when rehabilitation for children. Advanced technology that listening to music with strong rhythmic beats. can monitor cortical activity oﬀers a look at how music engages and produces changes in the brain during Music therapy rehabilitation sessions that incorporate acthe perception and production of musical stimuli. Mu- tive techniques involve the client producing the music sic therapy, when used with other rehabilitation methods, themselves. This may include the client making a musical has increased the success rate of sensorimotor, cognitive, composition, or performing by singing or chanting, play Singing is and communication rehabilitation. Music therapy in- ing instruments, or musically improvising. a form of rehabilitation for neurological impairments. tervention programs can include an average of 18 sessions of treatment. The achievement of a physical rehabilita- Neurological impairments following a brain injury can tion goal relies on the child’s existing motivation and feel- be in the form of apraxia – loss to perform purposeful ings towards music and their commitment to engage in movements, dysarthria –muscle control disturbances due meaningful, rewarding eﬀorts. Regaining full function- to damage of the central nervous system), aphasia (defect ing also conﬁdes in the prognosis of recovery, the condi- in expression causing distorted speech), or language comtion of the client, and the environmental resources avail- prehension. Singing training has been found to improve able. Sessions may consist of either active techniques, lung, speech clarity, and coordination of speech muscles, where the client creates music, or receptive techniques, thus, accelerating rehabilitation of such neurological imwhere the client listens to, analyze, move and respond pairments. For example, melodic intonation therapy is to music. Both techniques use systematic processes the practice of communicating with others by singing to where the therapists assist the client by using musical ex- enhance speech or increase speech production by promot periences and connections that collaborate as a dynamic ing socialization, and emotional expression. force of change toward rehabilitation. The music is at
When having the child actively participate with an instrument, it is especially important for the therapist to provide them with an instrument that they can readily and easily use. Clients with limited physical abilities may express frustration when they are not able to control their environment. The ability to employ and operate a musical instrument provides them a sense of relaxation and accomplishment. Instruments must be selected to provide immediately successful experiences. Certain adaptions of the instruments may be required in order for the people to manipulate them. For example, a drumstick’s handle should be manipulated to be more prominent for those clients that may have a weak grip. Electric music-making devices have been adapted to ﬁt the clients limited but existing movements, strength, and abilities. Electronic devices, such as the SoundBeam and the Wave Rider-reada variety of small movements made by the clients and converts the movements into electronic musical information. The devices are programmed to create easy, yet pleasing notes and sounds in coordination to the participants’ movements. It is also crucial for the client to be aware that music making is simply a modality for rehabilitation and that their wellness is not dependent on their existing musical skills. It provides children with an outlet of expression that they may have lacked in the past or due to present circumstances. By accomplishing the production of musical sounds despite their weaknesses and disabilities, it encourages the client and relieves their anxiety that they may acquire at the thought of playing musical instrument without experience. By using such adaptive music devices, it grants client’s the ability to create sounds that are originally expressive and allows them to experience aﬃrmation –a feeling of capability to control ones own environment- an ability they may not be familiar with.
to also increase communication attempts, increase focus and attention, reduce anxiety, and improve body awareness and coordination. Since up to 30 per cent of children with autism are nonverbal and many have diﬃculty understanding verbal commands music therapy becomes very useful as it has been found that music can improve the mapping of sounds to actions. So by pairing music with actions, and with many hours of training the neural pathways for speech can be improved. Child-appropriate action songs would be like playing the game “peek-ka-boo” or “eeny meeny miney mo” with a musical accompaniment, usually a piano or guitar. Children with autism are also prone to more bouts of anxiety than the average child. Short sessions (15 – 20 mins) of listening to percussive music or classical music with a steady rhythm have been shown to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and temporarily decrease anxiety-related behaviour. Music with a steady 4/4 beat is thought to work best due to the predictability of the beat. Target behaviours such as restlessness, aggression and noisiness can also be aﬀected by the use of music therapy. Weekly sessions ranging for ½ hour to 1 hour during which a therapist plays child-preferred melodies such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star and engages the child in quiet singing increases socially acceptable behaviour such as using an appropriate volume when speaking. Studies also suggest that playing one of the child’s favorite songs while the child and therapist both play the piano or strum chords on a guitar can increase a child’s ability to hold eye contact and share in an experience due to their enjoyment of the therapy.
Musical improvisation during a one on one session has also been shown to be highly eﬀective with increasing 2.2.4 Music therapy and children with autism joint attention. Some noted improvisation techniques are using a welcome song that includes the child’s name, Music therapy can be a particularly useful when work- which allows the child to get used to their surroundings; ing with children with autism due to the nonverbal, non- an adult-led song followed by a child led song and then threatening nature of the medium. Studies have shown conclude with a goodbye song. During such sessions that children with autism have diﬃculty with joint atten- the child would most likely sit across from the therapist tion, symbolic communication and sharing of positive af- on the ﬂoor or beside the therapist on the piano bench. fect. Use of music therapy has demonstrated improve- Composing original music that incorporates the child’s ments of socially acceptable behaviors. Wan, Demaine, day-to-day life with actions and words is also a part of Zipse, Norton, & Schlaug (2010) found singing and mu- improvisation. The shared music making experience alsic making may engage areas of the brain related to lan- lows for spontaneous interpersonal responses from the guage abilities, and that music facilitated the language, child and may motivate the child to increase positive sosocial, and motor skills.  Successful therapy involves cial behaviour and initiate further interaction with the long-term individual intervention tailored to each child’s therapist.  needs. Passing and sharing instruments, music and moveSome common instruments in music therapy for children ment games, learning to listen and singing greetings and are: improvised stories are just a few ways music therapy can improve a child’s social interaction. For example, passing • Upright piano, Guitar, Xylophone, Small guiro, a ball back and forth to percussive music or playing sticks Paddle drums, Egg shakers, Finger cymbals, Birdand cymbals with another person might help foster the calls, Whistles, & Toy hand bells. child’s ability to follow directions when passing the ball and learn to share the cymbals and sticks. In addition to improved social behaviors music therapy has been shown
Music therapy has also been recognized as a method
for children with autism. Music therapy helps stabilize moods, increase frustration tolerance, identify a range of emotions, and improve self-expression along with much more. The visual and auditory sensory system is responsible for interpreting sounds and images. With autistic children, if a sound or image is unpleasant the child may not have the ability to express itself, which makes it diﬃcult for a therapist, parent, etc. to interpret. Music engages the brain in both sub-coritcal and neo-cortical levels, which means it is not critical to ‘think’ while listening to music when hearing the notes and sounds. Music therapy, in the topic of austism’s sensory interpretation, provides repetitive stimuli which aim to “teach” the brain other possible ways to respond that might be more useful as they grow older.
Referrals and assessments
Adolescents Mood disorders
Referrals and assessments
While many adolescents may listen to music for its therapeutic qualities, it does not mean every adolescent needs music therapy. Many adolescents go through a period of teenage angst characterized by intense feelings of strife that are caused by the development of their brains and bodies. Some adolescents develop more serious mood disorders such as major clinical depression and bipolar disorder. Adolescents diagnosed with a mood disorder may be referred to a music therapist by a physician, therapist, or school counselor/teacher. When a music therapist gets a referral, he or she must ﬁrst assess the patient and then create goals and objectives before beginning the actual therapy. According to the American Music Therapy Association Standards of Clinical Practice assessments should include the “general categories of psychological, cognitive, communicative, social, and physiological functioning focusing on the client’s needs and strengths…and will also determine the client’s response to music, music skills, and musical preferences”  The result of the assessment is used to create an individualized music therapy intervention plan.
According to the Mayo Health Clinic, two to three thousand out of every 100,000 adolescents will have mood disorders, and out of those two to three thousand, eight to ten will commit suicide. Two prevalent mood disor- 3.3 Treatment techniques ders in the adolescent population are clinical depression and bipolar disorder. There are many diﬀerent music therapy techniques used On average, American adolescents listen to approxi- with adolescents. The music therapy model is based on mately 4.5 hours of music per day and are responsible various theoretical backgrounds such as psychodynamic, for 70% of pop music sales. Now, with the invention of behavioral, and humanistic approaches. Techniques can new technologies such as the iPod and digital downloads, be classiﬁed as active vs. receptive and improvisational access to music has become easier than ever. As chil- vs. structured. The most common techniques in use dren make the transition into adolescence they become with adolescents are musical improvisation, the use of less likely to sit and watch TV, an activity associated with precomposed songs or music, receptive listening to mufamily, and spend more of their leisure time listening to sic, verbal discussion about the music, and incorporatmusic, an activity associated with friends. ing creative media outlets into the therapy. Research also showed that improvisation and the use of other meAdolescents obtain many beneﬁts from listening to mudia were the two techniques most often used by the music, including emotional, social, and daily life beneﬁts, sic therapists. The overall research showed that adolesalong with help in forming their identity. Music can procents in music therapy “change more when disciplinevide a sense of independence and individuality, which speciﬁc music therapy techniques, such as improvisation in turn contributes to an adolescent’s self-discovery and and verbal reﬂection of the music, are used.” The results sense of identity. Music also oﬀers adolescents relatable of this study showed that music therapists should put caremessages that allow them to take comfort in knowing that ful thought into their choice of technique with each inothers feel the same way they do. It can also serve as dividual client. In the end, those choices can aﬀect the a creative outlet to release or control emotions and ﬁnd outcome of the treatment. ways of coping with diﬃcult situations. Music can improve an adolescent’s mood by reducing stress and low- To those unfamiliar with music therapy the idea may ering anxiety levels, which can help counteract or pre- seem a little strange, but music therapy has been found vent depression. Music education programs provide to be as eﬀective as traditional forms of therapy. In a adolescents with a safe place to express themselves and meta-analysis of the eﬀects of music therapy for children learn life skills such as self-discipline, diligence, and pa- and adolescents with psychopathology, Gold, Voracek, tience. These programs also promote conﬁdence and self- and Wigram (2004) looked at ten studies conducted beesteem. Ethnomusicologist Alan Merriam (1964) once tween 1970 and 1998 to examine the overall eﬃcacy of stated that music is a universal behavior – it is something music therapy on children and adolescents with behavwith which everyone can identify. Among adolescents, ioral, emotional, and developmental disorders. The remusic is a unifying force, bringing people of diﬀerent sults of the meta-analysis found that “music therapy with backgrounds, age groups, and social groups together. these clients has a highly signiﬁcant, medium to large ef-
fect on clinically relevant outcomes.” More speciﬁcally, music therapy was most eﬀective on subjects with mixed diagnoses. Another important result was that “the eﬀects of music therapy are more enduring when more sessions are provided.” One example of clinical work is that done by music therapists who work with adolescents to increase their emotional and cognitive stability, identify factors contributing to distress and initiate changes to alleviate that distress. Music therapy may also focus on improving quality of life and building self-esteem, a sense self-worth, and conﬁdence. Improvements in these areas can be measured by a number of tests, including qualitative questionnaires like Beck’s Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Relationship Change Scale.  Eﬀects of music therapy can also be observed in the patient’s demeanor, body language, and changes in awareness of mood.
According to a 2009 Cochrane review some music may reduce heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in those with coronary heart disease. Music does not appear to have much eﬀect on psychological distress. “The quality of the evidence is not strong and theclinical significance unclear”. Research indicates that listening to music, whether a Mozart concerto or a song from the popular music charts, has been found to lower blood pressure, improve heart rate variability and can help to de-stress. 
The use of music therapy in treating mental and neurological disorders is on the rise. Music therapy has shown eﬀectiveness in treating symptoms of many disorders, including schizophrenia, amnesia, dementia and Two main methods for music therapy are group meetings Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, mood disorders such and one-one sessions. Group music therapy can include as depression, aphasia and similar speech disorders, and  group discussions concerning moods and emotions in or Tourette’s syndrome, among others. toward music, songwriting, and musical improvisation. While music therapy has been used for many years, up Groups emphasizing mood recognition and awareness, until the mid-1980s little empirical research had been group cohesion, and improvement in self-esteem can be done to support the eﬃcacy of the treatment. Since eﬀective in working with adolescents. Group ther- then, more research has focused on determining both apy, however, is not always the best choice for the client. the eﬀectiveness and the underlying physiological mechOngoing one-on-one music therapy has also been shown anisms leading to symptom improvement. For example, to be eﬀective. One-on-one music therapy provides a one meta-study covering 177 patients (over 9 studies) non-invasive, non-judgmental environment, encouraging showed a signiﬁcant eﬀect on many negative symptoms clients to show capacities that may be hidden in group of psychopathologies, particularly in developmental and situations. behavioral disorders. Music therapy was especially eﬀecMusic Therapy in which clients play musical instruments directly, show very promising results. Speciﬁcally, playing wind instruments strengthens oral and respiratory muscles, sound vocalization, articulation, and improves breath support. Symbolic Communication Training Through Music is also an important technique in playing instruments in music therapy, because this makes communication (verbally and non verbally) improved in social situations. Most importantly, is that music provides a time cue for the body to remain regulated.  Making music is also important for people of all ages because it causes motivation, increases “psychomotor” activity, causes an individual to identify with a group (in group music), regulates breathing, improves organizational skills, and increases coordination. Though more research needs to be done to ascertain the eﬀect of music therapy on adolescents with mood disorders, most research has shown positive eﬀects.
tive in improving focus and attention, and in decreasing negative symptoms like anxiety and isolation. The following sections will discuss the uses and eﬀectiveness of music therapy in the treatment of speciﬁc pathologies. 4.2.1
Music has been shown to aﬀect portions of the brain. One reason for the eﬀectiveness of music therapy for stroke victims is the capacity of music to aﬀect emotions and social interactions. Research by Nayak et al. showed that music therapy is associated with a decrease in depression, improved mood, and a reduction in state anxiety. Both descriptive and experimental studies have documented eﬀects of music on quality of life, involvement with the environment, expression of feelings, awareness and responsiveness, positive associations, and socialization.  Additionally, Nayak et al. found that music therapy had a positive eﬀect on social and behavioral outcomes and showed some encouraging trends with respect to mood. More recent research suggests that music can increase a patient’s motivation and positive emotions. Current research also suggests that when music therapy is
used in conjunction with traditional therapy it improves success rates signiﬁcantly. Therefore, it is hypothesized that music therapy helps a victim of stroke recover faster and with more success by increasing the patient’s positive emotions and motivation, allowing him or her to be more successful and feel more driven to participate in traditional therapies. Recent studies have examined the eﬀect of music therapy on stroke patients when combined with traditional therapy. One study found the incorporation of music with therapeutic upper extremity exercises gave patients more positive emotional eﬀects than exercise alone.  In another study, Nayak et al. found that rehabilitation staﬀ rated participants in the music therapy group more actively involved and cooperative in therapy than those in the control group. Their ﬁndings gave preliminary support to the eﬃcacy of music therapy as a complementary therapy for social functioning and participation in rehabilitation with a trend toward improvement in mood during acute rehabilitation.
ing program that occurred ﬁfteen times over three weeks, in addition to traditional treatment. These participants were trained to use both ﬁne and gross motor movements by learning how to use the piano and drums. The other half of the patients received only traditional treatment over the course of the three weeks. Three-dimensional movement analysis and clinical motor tests showed participants who received the additional music therapy had signiﬁcantly better speed, precision, and smoothness of movement as compared to the control subjects. Participants who received music therapy also showed a signiﬁcant improvement in every-day motor activities as compared to the control group. Wilson, Parsons, & Reutens looked at the eﬀect of melodic intonation therapy (MIT) on speech production in a male singer with severe Broca’s aphasia. In this study, thirty novel phrases were taught in three conditions: unrehearsed, rehearsed verbal production (repetition), or rehearsed verbal production with melody (MIT). Results showed that phrases taught in the MIT condition had superior production, and that compared to rehearsal, eﬀects of MIT lasted longer.
Current research shows that when music therapy is used in conjunction with traditional therapy, it improves rates of recovery and emotional and social deﬁcits resulting from stroke. A study by Jeong & Kim examined the impact of music therapy when combined with traditional stroke therapy in a community-based rehabilitation program. Thirty-three stroke survivors were randomized into one of two groups: the experimental group, which combined rhythmic music and specialized rehabilitation movement for eight weeks; and a control group that sought and received traditional therapy. The results of this study showed that participants in the experimental group gained not only more ﬂexibility and wider range of motion, but an increased frequency and quality of social interactions and positive mood.
Another study examined the incorporation of music with therapeutic upper extremity exercises on pain perception in stroke victims. Over the course of eight weeks, stroke victims participated in upper extremity exercises (of the hand, wrist, and shoulder joints) in conjunction with one of the three conditions: song, karaoke accompaniment, and no music. Patients participated in each condition once, according to a randomized order, and rated their perceived pain immediately after the session. Results showed that although there was no signiﬁcant diﬀerence in pain rating across the conditions, video observations revealed more positive aﬀect and verbal responses while performing upper extremity exercises with both music and karaoke accompaniment. Nayak et al. examined the combination of music therapy with tradiMusic has proven useful in the recovery of motor skills. tional stroke rehabilitation and also found that the addiRhythmical auditory stimulation in a musical context tion of music therapy improved mood and social interacin combination with traditional gait therapy improved tion. Participants who had suﬀered traumatic brain inthe ability of stroke patients to walk. The study con- jury or stroke were placed in one of two conditions: stansisted of two treatment conditions, one which received dard rehabilitation or standard rehabilitation along with traditional gait therapy and another which received the music therapy. Participants received three treatments per gait therapy in combination with the rhythmical auditory week for up to ten treatments. Therapists found that parstimulation. During the rhythmical auditory stimulation, ticipants who received music therapy in conjunction with stimulation was played back measure by measure, and traditional methods had improved social interaction and was initiated by the patient’s heel-strikes. Each condition mood. received ﬁfteen sessions of therapy. The results revealed that the rhythmical auditory stimulation group showed more improvement in stride length, symmetry deviation, 4.2.2 Dementia walking speed and rollover path length (all indicators for improved walking gait) than the group that received tra- Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia are ditional therapy alone. among the disorders most commonly treated with music Schneider et al. also studied the eﬀects of combining music therapy with standard motor rehabilitation methods.  In this experiment, researchers recruited stroke patients without prior musical experience and trained half of them in an intensive step by step train-
therapy. Like many of the other disorders mentioned, some of the most common signiﬁcant eﬀects are seen in social behaviors, leading to improvements in interaction, conversation, and other such skills. A meta-study of over 330 subjects showed music therapy produces highly signiﬁcant improvements to social behaviors, overt be-
haviors like wandering and restlessness, reductions in agitated behaviors, and improvements to cognitive defects, measured with reality orientation and face recognition tests. As with many studies of MT’s eﬀectiveness, these positive eﬀects on Alzheimer’s and other dementias are not homogeneous among all studies. The eﬀectiveness of the treatment seems to be strongly dependent on the patient, the quality and length of treatment, and other similar factors.
tion, amnesiacs with damage to this area can show a loss of episodic memory accompanied by (partially) intact semantic memory.
Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a commonly used method of treating aphasias, particularly those involving speech deﬁcits (as opposed to reading or writing). MIT Another meta-study examined the proposed neurological is a multi-stage treatment that involves committing words mechanisms behind music therapy’s eﬀects on these paand speech rhythm to memory by incorporating them into tients. Many authors suspect that music has a soothing song. The musical and rhythmic aspects are then sepaeﬀect on the patient by aﬀecting how noise is perceived: rated from the speech and phased out, until the patient music renders noise familiar, or buﬀers the patient from can speak normally. This method has slight variations overwhelming or extraneous noise in their environment. between adult patients and child patients, but both follow Others suggest that music serves as a sort of mediator the same basic structure. for social interactions, providing a vessel through which to interact with others without requiring much cognitive While MIT is a commonly used therapy, research supload. Because Music has the ability to access multi- porting its eﬀectiveness is lacking. Some recent research ple parts of the brain, music therapy is highly eﬀective suggests that the therapy’s eﬃcacy may stem more from in providing therapeutic support for individuals with all the rhythmic components of the treatment rather than t he  types of dementia. Research indicates that the sections melodic aspects. of the brain weakened by dementia can be supported and in some cases strengthened by other areas of the brain through musical activities. Musical ability and awareness 5 Psychiatric disorders is also one of the last functions to be compromised in an individual with dementia, which makes it an especially eﬀective intervention, even in people with very late stage 5.1 Schizophrenia forms of the disease. Music therapy is more than simply listening to or playing music. Through the use of evi- Music therapy is used with schizophrenic patients to amedence based interventions and clinical assessments, a mu- liorate many of the symptoms of the disorder. Individsic therapist works to improve the lives and abilities of in- ual studies of patients undergoing music therapy showed dividuals. These interventions can decrease anxiety, im- diminished negative symptoms such as ﬂattened aﬀect, prove speech and self- expression, and a decrease in neg- speech issues, and anhedonia and improved social sympative behaviors and isolation which are commonly found toms such as increased conversation ability, reduced social isolation, and increased interest in external events.  in individuals with dementia.  Meta-studies have conﬁrmed many of these results, showing that music therapy in conjunction with standard care 4.2.3 Amnesia to be superior to standard care alone. Improvements were seen in negative symptoms, general mental state, deSome symptoms of amnesia have been shown to be alpression, anxiety, and even cognitive functioning. These leviated through various interactions with music, includmeta-studies have also shown, however, that these results ing playing and listening. One such case is that of Clive can be inconsistent and that they depend heavily on both Wearing, whose severe retrograde and anterograde amthe quality and number of therapy sessions.  nesia have been detailed in the documentaries Prisoner of Consciousness and The Man with the 7 Second Memory. Though unable to recall past memories or form new 5.2 Depression ones, Wearing is still able to play, conduct, and sing along with music learned prior to the onset of his amnesia, and Music therapy has been found to have numerous signifeven add improvisations and ﬂourishes. icant outcomes for patients with major depressive disWearing’s case reinforces the theory that episodic mem- order. A systematic review of ﬁve randomized trials ory fundamentally diﬀers from procedural or semantic found that people with depression generally accepted mumemory. Sacks suggests that while Wearing is completely sic therapy and was found to produce improvements in unable to recall events or episodes, musical performance mood when compared to standard therapy. Another (and the muscle memory involved) are a form of pro- study showed that MDD patients were better able to excedural memory that is not typically hindered in amne- press their emotional states while listening to sad musia cases [Sacks]. Indeed, there is evidence that while sic than while listening to no music or to happy, anepisodic memory is reliant on the hippocampal forma- gry, or scary music. The authors found that this ther-
apy helped patients overcome verbal barriers to expressing emotion, which can assist therapists in successfully guiding treatment. Other studies have provided insight into the physiological interactions between music therapy and depression. Music has been shown to decrease signiﬁcantly the levels of the stress hormone cortisol, leading to improved aﬀect, mood and cognitive functioning. A study also found that music led to a shift in frontal lobe activity (as measured by EEG) in depressed adolescents. Music was shown to shift activity from the right frontal lobe to the left, a phenomenon associated with positive aﬀect and mood.
Usage by region Africa
Research has shown that in many parts of Africa during male and female circumcision, bone setting, or traditional surgery and bloodletting, lyrical music related to endurance has been used to reduce anticipated pain, therapeutically. In 1999, the ﬁrst program for music therapy in Africa opened in Pretoria, South Africa. Research has shown that in Tanzania patients can receive palliative care for life-threatening illnesses directly after the diagnosis of these illnesses. This is diﬀerent from many Western countries, because they reserve palliative care for patients who have an incurable illness. Music is also viewed differently between Africa and Western countries. In Western countries and a majority of other countries throughout the world, music is traditionally seen as entertainment whereas in many African cultures, music is used in recounting stories, celebrating life events, or sending messages. 
in Bergen includes 3 professors and 2 associate professors, as well as lecturers and PhD students. The centre in Bergen has18 staﬀ, including 2 professors and 4 associate professors, as well as lecturers and PhD students. Two of the ﬁeld’s major international research journals are based in Bergen: Nordic Journal for Music Therapy and Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy. Norway’s main contribution to the ﬁeld is mostly in the area of “community music therapy”, which tends to be as much oriented toward social work as individual psychotherapy, and music therapy research from this country uses a wide variety of methods to examine diverse methods across an array of social contexts, including community centres, medical clinics, retirement homes, and prisons.
Music therapy has existed in its current form in the United States since 1944 when the ﬁrst undergraduate degree program in the world was begun at Michigan State University and the ﬁrst graduate degree program was established at the University of Kansas. The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) was founded in 1998 as a merger between the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT, founded in 1950) and the American Association for Music Therapy (AAMT, founded in 1971). Numerous other national organizations exist, such as the Institute for Music and Neurologic Function, NordoﬀRobbins Center For Music Therapy, and the Association for Music and Imagery. Music therapists use ideas from diﬀerent disciplines such as speech and language, physical therapy, medicine, nursing, and education.
A music therapy degree candidate can earn an undergraduate, master’s or doctoral degree in music therapy. Many AMTA approved programs oﬀer equivalency and certiﬁcate degrees in music therapy for students that have completed a degree in a related ﬁeld. Some practicing music therapists have held PhDs in ﬁelds other than, 6.2 Australia but usually related to, music therapy. Recently, Temple In Australia in 1949, music therapy (not clinical music University established a PhD program in music therapy. therapy as understood today) was started through con- A music therapist typically incorporates music therapy certs organized by the Australian Red Cross along with techniques with broader clinical practices such as psya Red Cross Music Therapy Committee. The key Aus- chotherapy, rehabilitation, and other practices depending tralian body, AMTA, the Australian Music Therapy As- on client needs. Music therapy services rendered within the context of a social service, educational, or health care sociation, was founded in 1975. agency are often reimbursable by insurance and sources of funding for individuals with certain needs. Music therapy services have been identiﬁed as reimbursable under 6.3 Norway Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance plans and federal and state government programs. Norway is widely recognised as an important country for music therapy research. Its two major research cen- A degree in music therapy requires proﬁciency in guitres are the Center for Music and Health with the tar, piano, voice, music theory, music history, reading Norwegian Academy of Music in Oslo, and the Grieg music, improvisation, as well as varying levels of skill Academy Centre for Music Therapy (GAMUT), at in assessment, documentation, and other counseling and University of Bergen. The former was mostly developed health care skills depending on the focus of the particuby professor Even Ruud, while professor Brynjulf Stige lar university’s program. A music therapist may hold the is largely responsible for cultivating the latter. The centre designations CMT (Certiﬁed Music Therapist), ACMT
(Advanced Certiﬁed Music Therapist), or RMT (Registered Music Therapist) – credentials previously conferred by the former national organizations AAMT and NAMT ; these credentials remain in force through 2020 and have not been available since 1998. The current credential available is MT-BC. To become board certiﬁed, a music therapist must complete a music therapy degree from an accredited AMTA program at a college or university, successfully complete a music therapy internship, and pass the Board Certiﬁcation Examination in Music Therapy, administered through The Certiﬁcation Board for Music Therapists. To maintain the credential, either 100 units of continuing education must be completed every ﬁve years, or the board exam must be retaken near the end of the ﬁve-year cycle. The units claimed for credit fall under the purview of The Certiﬁcation Board for Music Therapists. North Dakota, Nevada and Georgia have established licenses for music therapists. In the State of New York, the License for Creative Arts Therapies (LCAT) incorporates the music therapy credentials within their licensure.
the Indian context. Her books NadalayasindhuRagachikilsamrutam (2008), Music Therapy in Management Education and Administration (2008) and Ragachikitsa (2008) are accepted textbooks on music therapy and Indian arts. The“Music Therapy Trust of India” is yet another venture in the country. It was started by Margaret Lobo
Music has been used as a healing implement for centuries.  Apollo is the ancient Greek god of music and of medicine. Aesculapius was said to cure diseases of the mind by using song and music, and music therapy was used in Egyptian temples. Plato said that music aﬀected the emotions and could inﬂuence the character of an individual. Aristotle taught that music aﬀects the soul and described music as a force that puriﬁed the emotions. Aulus Cornelius Celsus advocated the sound of cymbals and running water for the treatment of mental disorders. Music therapy was practiced in biblical times, when David 6.5 United Kingdom played the harp to rid King Saul of a bad spirit. As early as 400 B.C., Hippocrates played music for mental Live music was used in hospitals after both World Wars patients. In the thirteenth century, Arab hospitals conas part of the treatment program for recovering soldiers. tained music-rooms for the beneﬁt of the patients.  Clinical music therapy in Britain as it is understood today In the United States, Native American medicine men ofwas pioneered in the 1960s and 1970s by French cellist ten employed chants and dances as a method of healing Juliette Alvin whose inﬂuence on the current generation patients. The Turco-Persian psychologist and music of British music therapy lecturers remains strong. Mary theorist al-Farabi (872–950), known as Alpharabius in Priestley, one of Juliette Alvin’s students, created “ana- Europe, dealt with music therapy in his treatise Meanlytical music therapy”. The Nordoﬀ-Robbins approach ings of the Intellect , in which he discussed the therapeuto music therapy developed from the work of Paul Nord- tic eﬀects of music on the soul. Robert Burton wrote oﬀ and Clive Robbins in the 1950/60s. in the 17th century in his classic work, The Anatomy of critical in treating Practitioners are registered with the Health Profes- Melancholy , that music and dance were Music sions Council and, starting from 2007, new registrants mental illness, especially melancholia. must normally hold a master’s degree in music ther- therapy as we know it began in the aftermath of World apy. There are master’s level programs in music ther- Wars I and II, when, particularly in the United Kingdom, apy in Manchester, Bristol, Cambridge, South Wales, musicians would travel to hospitals and play music for solfrom war-related emotional and physical Edinburgh and London, and there are therapists through- diers suﬀering  out the UK. The professional bodyin the UK is the British trauma. Association for Music Therapy In 2002, the World Congress of Music Therapy, coordinated and promoted See also by the World Federation of Music Therapy, was held 8  in Oxford on the theme of Dialogue and Debate. In November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford and his col• Aﬀective neuroscience leagues again found that music therapy helped the out• Biomusicology comes of schizophrenic patients.
The roots of musical therapy in India, can be traced back to ancient Hindu mythology, Vedic texts, and local folk traditions. It is very possible that music therapy has been used for hundreds of years in the Indian culture. Suvarna Nalapat
studied music therapy
Eloise (psychiatric hospital)
Embodied music cognition
Melodic intonation therapy
Music as a coping strategy
Music Therapy in Canada
Psychoanalysis and music
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