PH: +923157532007 This documents discuss whole process abd procedures of audit with detail, for any query reader can call Umair Ahmed on above number
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-Arun Upadhyay , M.Sc., AIFC B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001 +91-671-2304172/2304433 +91-671-2304172/2304433,, (M) +91-9437034172 +91-9437034172 Email [email protected] (Summary) Yaj ñ a is not merely a of worship or offerings in fire with mantras . It has been defined as the science ña is
of creation or production. This article describes and classifies the universal concept of production, creation and maintenance at various levels-cosmic, physical and internal. Basic foundation is the tā , chapter 3, verses 9-16 and chapter 4, verses 23-33. Yaj ñ a summary given in G ī t ña is complete
universe as a form of Brahma and and that aspect is being explained here. Procedures and rituals are not explained here which are mostly symbolic. a -Various sects have described yaj ñ as offerings in fire or procedures of worship by ña as
using certain mantras . Sectarian explanations tend to forget the basic meaning and are more concerned with highlighting their own sect and glorify that path. It surprising that an aspect of Brahma ( a (Vi ş ņ u ) has been called Yaj ñ ña-Puru -Puru ş a , which encompasses the whole universe, still nobody
has viewed it as such. This has resulted in following misconceptionsa (1) Yaj ñ -It is universal aspect of ña is offer of grains, ghee etc in fire, by reciting some mantras -It a production, creation and maintenance. All human activities involve Yaj ñ agriculture, education, ña- - agriculture, a tā , chapter 4, verses statecraft, eating, breathing, commerce described as 13 types of Yaj ñ ña in G ī t
23-33. a (2)Yaj ñ was done by Ŗ ş is only-Even only-Even Asuras were were doing it and they won because they were more ña was
sincere than devas . a (3) Yaj ñ was done in Vedic period- There is confusion that Vedic period started sometime in past ña was
estimated as 50000 years to 1500 BC and it ended long back in history. But Vedas in form of world a and its description in words-both are eternal and are not creation of a single man. Yaj ñ also has ña also tā (3/10). been created since beginning by Creator (Praj ā pati ) as per G ī t a (4) Yaj ñ is special type of work in addition to normal works of livelihood-All works are to be done ña is
as a Yaj ñ ña whose cycle needs to be maintained. To preserve it, we may consume only the residue. ā
-Brahma is is one and its unity in various terms and descriptions in Vedas
is shown by Brahma-s ū tra , called Ved ā nta-dar ś ana . But it is surprising that there are 8 varieties of Ved ā nta-dar ś ana . Though Brahma is is one, created Universe has variety and no single theory can va (Adam-eve), (2) fully describe it. There is duality in creation called variously as- (1) Ā tm ā -J ī va ti , or Aja-Aj ā (detached and active aspects of Creator-created (Khud ā -Khud ā i ), ), (3) Puru ş a-Prak ŗ ŗ ti
creator, (4) Sa ñc hara-Pratisa ñc hara (forward and backward processes etc. Due to dual destiny (Niyati ), it is called Dvi-niyati or Duniy ā . These are observed in 3 worlds-(1) Internal (within human body- Ā dhy ā tmika , (2) Physical-as seen on earth- Ā dhibhautika and (3) cosmic- Ā dhidaivika . Thus, a total of 6 views (=2x3) are taken, giving rise to 6 Dar ś ana (philosophy) and 6 Dar ś a-v ā k (visible word or script). This is also due to 10 dimensions of universe called 10 Mah ā -vidy ā , out of which 5 are needed for description of mechanical world of physics-giving 5 basic units of measurements. 5 aspects of Chetan ā (consciousness), which do chayana (ordering) give 5 more dimensions from 6 to 10. Still, we expect that at least Ved ā nta should have only one version. But, universe is created by 3 Gu ņ a s of Prak ŗ ti , whose combination can be of 2 3 = 8 types. Thus, visible universe has 8 fold theories of unity. Creator has been explained by Advaita of 2 types-one is without any attributes, whose actions and forms are beyond perception. By combination of same source, different varieties are formed. The special feature is called Vi ś e ş a and the philosophy which explains transformation by different combination of same atoms is called Vai ś e ş ika . For example, same gold can be shaped into various types of ornaments. Same wheat is used for bread, chapati, paratha etc. Vi ś e ş a aspect was explained by R ā m ā nuja and Nir-vi ś e ş a was explained by Ś ankara . Both have been made clear by Ś ukadeva in his comment after Gajendra-mok ś a , in Bh ā gavata-pur ā ņ a (8/3). Gajendra (Elephant king) had prayed Nir-vi ś e ş a aspect, so no aspect with visible form (Deha-abhim ā n ī = having body awareness) came, thinking that he was not being prayed. Finally, N ā r ā ya ņ a (living in the original water = n ā ra of universe) had to come on Garu ɖ a . Here, it appears, that Ś ukadeva is supporting formed aspects described by R ā m ā nuja , but Garu ɖ a has been called Chhando-maya (In form of Chhandas , various measures of world).
ए व व
छ व ग (व त व व M ā -chhandas indicate 5 basic measures in physics. But there are many Vayah-chhandas . Vayana 5 य व व means weaving and vayas is bird also. This means 19 types of Vayah-chhandas in Yajurveda chapter व व and many other types elsewhere. 14 व व म Yajurveda V ā jasaney ī Samhit ā , Chapter 14, verses 9-10 list 19 Vayah-chhandas . Verses 18-19 list 5
प म व M व ā -chhandas and their links-(1) M ā chhanda-P ŗī thv ī (earth = compact structure), (2 ) Pram ā स व Antarik व ś a (intermediate between earth and vacant space), (3) Pratim ā -Dyau (vacant space), (4) र व न Asr ī vi =Link, (5) Sam ā =space. A total of 24 chhandas are listed there, including Mana chhanda . व Mana (mind) is one of the 9 dravya (object) which is 1 of 6 pad ā rtha (entity) in Vai ś e ş ika Dar ś ana , ग व
प ग व त व व त व
where atoms of mana also are defined. 40 chhandas are in chapter 15 verses 4-5. Vayah chhandas are explained in Ś atapatha Br ā hma ņ a (2/3/4/21, 8/5/2/6, 3/3/3/3). Maitr ā ya ņ ī Samhit ā chapter 39 which explains meaning of various chhandas . -These are indicated in G ī t ā , chapter 8 along with 3 world spaces-inner, physical, cosmic called Ā dhy ā tmika, Ā dhibhautika, Ā dhidaivika. Brahma is the whole world-It has minute and visible motions at all points. Karma is visible motion of objects relative to each other. All forces do not result in desired motion
or action-that is called Akarma . All acts or karma are not useful. Any action which produces desired object or result is called yaj ña , which occurs in cycles. It has existed since creation by Praj ā pati . At any world level, it maintains the existence, so Vi ş ņ u has been called Yaj ña -Puru ś a , as world order is maintained by that aspect of Brahma . Some part of the product is used by yaj ña process itself to continue the action, so we should consume only the residue, so that yaj ña cycle or world order does not stop.
स ह अ य व ए व Praj न व ā pati had created yaj ña along with creation of Praj ā (beings) itself and directed them at start-
ञ व produce by it and let it satisfy all your desires. (10) Those who eat only the remains of yaj ña you व व freed of all sins. (13) The cycle of yaj ña are needs to be continued, non-follower of the dictum leads व व useless life only for satisfying his organs. (16)
र व व
(3/14-15)-Its 7 parts are defined in G ī tā
र स व अ व व व क व र व व Chain of creations is-(1) Ak ś ara , (2) Brahma , (3) Karma , (4) Yaj ña , (5) Parjanya , (6) Anna , (7) Bh ū ta व व which is same as Ak ś ara (1). व म व Here, Brahma is not the ultimate creator. Rather, it is inert matter, called Brahm ā in Pur ā ņ as . य व Brahm ā k ś ara = Brahm ā + Ak ś ara as well as (Brahma + Ak ś ara ). The Great Being is called Puru ş a , व व व which means man at individual level. The whole world is a great man. Universal or individual aspects व व भ are seen at 4 levels-(1) The outer form is always decaying, so it is called K ś ara . (2) Creative or व व स र व functional identity is called Ak ś ara . That is hidden, so it is called K ū ţ astha . K ū ţ a also means hill च व व व which is named as identity of a hill. (3) Avyaya is link of change due to surroundings. Total top, व व व remains the same, so it is not spent or avyaya . (4) Par ā tpara is same for all objects-there is no व ष व , 15/16-18) व distinction at any level. (see G ī tā व व व व व व व व ऽ व भ व
Ak ś ara at grand level started material creation by its desire. At individual level also, a conscious
being is needed for action. Firstly, it arranges matter and then does work-called Karma . That involves some movement. The process of creation of desired object is called Yaj ña . It creates unnecessary things also. That creation is in an enclosed space-called Parjanya = pari + janya . Pari =surrounding, janya =creative. In agriculture, most important is rains, so parjanya =rain also. Parjanya creates Anna which means food. This is term for agriculture. In other Yaj ña s , anna means
any desired goods or services-as stated in modern economics. Finally, all beings are created or maintained by consuming that Anna , and is able to engage in another Yaj ña , as Ak ś ara . -Its sequence is given in Taittir ī ya upani ş ad (2/1)-
त व Sequence of creation is-(1) Ā tm ā = Original conscious being. It had mind living in vacuum-called Ś vo-vas ī yasa-mana , (2) Ā k ā ś a = vacant space, (3) V ā yu = motion, (4) Ā p = uniform spread of व
व matter, (5) P ŗ thiv ī = compact (= p ŗ thu ) structure, (6) O ş adhi = Plants. Normally, these are divided व 2 classes. O ş adhi is annual plant which dies after fruit. Others are vanaspati . Here both are into व included. (7) Anna = Food. In general, it means anything which is consumed for existence. (8) Puru व ş a , which is same as (1), but a local form.
व 7 stages of yaj ña cycle are called 7-fold s ā ma in Chh ā ndogya upani ş ad , chapter 2, parts 8-10. The S वā ma is of 3 types-(1) of V ā k = space, (2) of Ā ditya = initial form of world (ādi = start), (3) of
eternity beyond death. Parts 2-7 state 5-fold s ā ma of 6 types-(1) Loka = structures of space, (2)
ए Lower worlds = Micro structures of 7 levels starting with cell, atom, nucleus, (3) Var ş ā = rains. In त general, it means any radiation or outflow. The source is called V ŗş ā = male. Receiving field is व called Yo ş ā = female. (4) Jala = Uniform spread of matter at various levels. In universe it is Rasa or व nanda . In galaxy, it is Ā p . In solar system it is Mara . (5) Ŗ tu = seasons. Parallel to 6 seasons on Ā व earth surface, there are 6 Va ş a ţ kā ras (V ā k + şa ţ ) or zones in solar system having varying levels of व energy. In all cosmic structures, different levels of energy create objects and are called-Ŗ tu-pitara. व Pitara means Pit ā + m ā t ā = father and mother. (6) Pa ś u = animal. It is derived from Pa ś ya = to व see. Whatever is seen is called pa ś u = which is consumed in any process of creation. Creator is व Ka ś yapa , i.e. reverse of pa ś yaka . (7) Pr ā ŋ a = energy. For each creation some energy is needed. व - Pr ā ŋ a is stated of 7 types in Mu ŋɖ aka upani ş ad (2/1/8) from 7 types of tongues of Agni ā
म (Agri = first created). Thus, the first yaj ña farming is called agri-culture. Pr ā ŋ a of 5 types is stated न in Ś vet ā śvatara upani ş ad (1/5) etc. Out of 7 pr ā ŋ as -2 are beyond perception-(1) Paro-raj ā is beyond rajas = lokas or places of creation, (2) Ŗ şi is asat-pr ā ŋ a or invisible as it is smallest level of
creation of string (rassi ) 10-35 meters, called primordial string in string theories of physics. Tongues व व व व
are of 7 types for consuming (lel ā yam ā n ā ) and 7 types for radiating (archi ) in Mu ŋɖ aka (1/2/4) and (2/1/8). Thus, total is of 14 types as stated in Svasti-p ā ţ ha (agni-jihv ā manavah , manu = 14). -Visible levels of world are 5 corresponding to 5 chakras (nerve-junctions for control of each level of body) in central nerve of back-bone. 2 source levels are invisible, corresponding to Sahasr ā ra and Ā j ñā chakras in brain. Their sequence is called reverse tree in G ī t ā (15/1), where source is called root and up and creation types are called branches downwards. End products are leaves. Cosmic tree and human tree as its image1. Abstract source rasa -
Vindu ( invisible 4th level of ॐ)
Sahasr ā ra (top of head)
(Sahasra-bal ś ā =1000 possibilities) 2. Ś vo-vas ī yasa-mana
ॐof 3 parts A+U+M
Ā j ñā -2 parts of brain and link
(The desire which created world, mixture of matter and energy). (Behind eyebrow center) 3. Universe = Idam (This)
Ā k ā ś a (space) = almost vacant.
Vi ś uddhi in neck.
(¼ of total rasa, 1011 galaxies, Svayambh ū =self created) 4. Galaxy of 1011 stars,
V ā yu =start of motion
An ā hata (heart region)
(Parame ş ţ h ī =largest brick, Brahm ā ŋ ɖ a =1 egg of Brahma ) (center of blood and air circulation) 5. Solar system
Teja (radiation energy)
Ma ŋi p ū ra (navel region)
(Saura ma ŋɖ ala is ātm ā =soul of world as source of energy) (Center of digestion and energy) 6. Sphere of moon orbit
Ap (water, cool spread of matter) Sv ā dhi ş ţ h ā na (base of backbone)
Ch ā ndra ma ŋɖ ala is creating plant life.
7. Earth=Bh ū ma ŋɖ ala
(Discharge of mala, procreation)
Agni (agri =first created, base=pada or foot) M ū l ā dh ā ra (seat center)
Compact or dense base of world.
Center of physical body.
-All the visible stages 3-7 are called Agni in general. Last 3 stages-sun-moon-earth have visible effect on us and are called 3 eyes of Ś iva . 5 visible stages of world are indicated by 5 basic vowels-A, I, U, Ŗ , Ļ . Thus, Ś iva is expressed as U+ Ŗ + Ļ = Hulhuli (continuous chanting of these sounds) or Holi . Corresponding 5 chakras of back-bone are indicated by 5 internal letters called B ī ja =seed of chakras -h, y, v, r, l. These are in sequence of M ā he ś vara-s ū tra which is basis of
Sanskrit grammar of P ā ŋ ini . Last letters in each s ū tra are markers.
अ इ These s ū tras are also described as sequence of creation in Nandike ś vara-K ā ś ik ā . ऊ Ā
-3 Ā dityas or initial forms of world are-Aryam ā , Varu ŋa , Mitra in 3 dh ā ma or spaces of
व Universe, galaxy and solar system, called upper, middle and lower dh ā ma . They are now visible in व intermediate regions (antarik ś a ) between 3 dh ā ma as sky and last base earth. Uniform source all over is Parama -dh ā ma. Parallel to that, there are 4 dh ā ma on earth. There are 3 earths, defined
। ऋ व
by zones lighted by sun and moon in Vi ş ŋ u pur ā ŋ a (2/7/3-4)-(1) Earth planet lighted by both sunmoon. (2) Earth of solar system which is exclusive zone lighted by sun. Zones formed around earth by motion of planets up to Uranus are named as Dv ī pa (continents) and oceans as named on earth surface. Loka (lighted part) of 50 crore yojana diameter and. Aloka (dark) zone of double size-are 2 steps of Vi ş ņ u -third step is up to end of solar system. (3) Galaxy is the largest earth, last limit of visibility of sun as a point, called K ā ś yap ī . The central rotating disc is called a river-āk ā ś a-gang ā . Sky for these 3 earths are-solar system, galaxy and universe. -4 spheres and 3 intermediate spaces are 7 lokas-Bh ū (Earth), Bhuvar (planetary system of sun), Svar (solar system of 1575 million sun diameters, or 2 30 of earth size), Mahar (sphere of width of spiral arm of galaxy near sun = 240 earth size), Janah (Galaxy). It is Par ā rdha = half of 1017 yojana as in Ka ţ ha upani ş ad (1/3/1) etc. = 97000 light years. Yojana here is 1/20 circumference of earth), Tapah (visible universe of 864 billion light years diameter), Satya (Infinite universe which is same = satya in all directions, places and times). ā
-Uniform spread is water, compact structure is earth-in between is mixed called Var ā ha
or cloud. On earth, it means boar which is an animal of land and water both. Creative intermediate form of universe was vague forms of galactic clouds-that is Ā di-Var ā ha (initial). Creation process or Yaj ña started with formation of galaxies-that is called Yaj ña -Var ā ha . Formation of solar system started with radiation of light, which is white, so its formative shape was Ś veta-Var ā ha . Earth was created by scattered rocks spread near its orbit in zone of 10 sun-diameters as per V ā yu pur ā ŋ a (6/12). It contains earth of 1/109 sun diameters, thus it is a mere dot on white teeth of that boar called Bh ū -Var ā ha , that may be lighted zone called Goj ā (born of go = sun rays). All life forms on earth are maintained by atmosphere of width of 1/24 radius of earth, that is adjacent or Em ū ş a- Var ā ha . Cycles of creation and destruction of each level of world is maintained in time cycles of Brahm ā , Vi ş ŋ u, Ś iva, Ś akti . Yajna of last Em ū ş a-Var ā ha is maintenance of our atmospheres, i.e. avoiding pollution of gases,
heat etc. ī tā ī ā -G (4/23-30)
describe 13 types of yaj ña s . Worship by yaj ñ a has been called
Bh ā va yaj ña (3/11). These are in G ī tā
(1) Brahma-yaj ña - That is basic attitude of considering everything as Brahma . That is indicated by example of tree in many ways- (a) Brahma is unattached, un-involved observer like a static tree. (b) Brahma is the creator like creation of life forms by a tree. (c) Brahma is the material for creation
like wood of tree is made into furniture. (d) Brahma is chain of creation like parts of tree-root = source, branch = many directions of creation, leaf = end structure, which decays. (e) Brahma is
forest, i.e. collection of various chains of creation and also the place for that. (f) All chains of action and reaction.
य व व =There in none other beyond Him. There is neither smaller nor greater than Him. That one Puru ş a oversees whole world in space, standing like a static tree. व complete
अ व ष व =The knowledge starts with enquiry about Brahma . That is from which this (world) is born etc. व (grows, decays and merges in it after death)
इ व व प म व व (व व ऋ व व (Question)-What was that forest and the tree out of which sky and earth were formed. Thinkers = व व व questioned within mind as to who held this world. त व र व व व ,व म व प व व (व र १व र म व व (Answer)-Brahma was the forest and Brahma was that tree from whose cutting sky and earth = ०व म म व व were formed. Thinkers reasoned within mind that it was Brahma only which held all the worlds. / व व न व म व ८ व व व य १व व व व व / व What was the foundation, starting point, and source matter from which the creator (Vi ś vakarm ā ) = व व व ४ व created earth and set them in space. व क व , म व ऊ व व न व छ व उ व व य व व =The eternal tree has roots upwards and branches downwards. All structures enclosed in a व व व boundary (Chhanda ) are its leaves (transient products). Knower of this (reverse) tree only knows स व व छ र ।व व व Vedas. व १व व व व ठ व / व व व verse of G ī tā is recited at start of food, though its meaning is much general- Brahma is all This १व म ज व व र व offering process and material. That is consumed by Brahma by fire in form of Brahma . That reaches / व न व द व Brahma व only by unity of Brahma and all actions. १व स र य व ल व ष For creation of world, Puru ş a (Brahma ) itself is used as material also, so it has been called Pa ś u य ।व त य व म य व (वPuru ş a-s ū kta, Ŗ k 10/90/9). Puru ş a-medha is also called Sarva-medha . Creation needs calm or क ५ व व आ व ज व व / व व स व व ६ व व (व य व / व य व व व म १व
steady state, that is termed as R ā tri (night). 10 cycles of day-night are needed for complete creation called Da ś a -r ā tra . See-Ś atapatha Br ā hma ņ a (12/1/3/20), Gopatha Br ā hma ņ a p ū rva (5/7),Taittir ī ya Br ā hma ņ a (2/3/1/11), T ā ņ ɖ ya Mah ā -Br ā hma ņ a (4/8/6). Man as image of world is produced in 10
cycles of moon in about 273 days. Pitar body is of moon, it is created in 10 revolution of earth. Atharva-veda , chapter 18 is only for rites of Pitars . (2) Daiva-yaj ña - Deva is the creative energy or Pr ā ŋ a. Non-productive in called Asura. Jagat
(dynamic world) has been created by Devas only, not from Asuras. Rasa has the root Pr ā ŋ a Ŗ şi , which creates Pitar Pr ā ŋ a. That is proto-type giving Deva and D ā nava (Asura ) both. Only Deva creates Jagat .
ऋ व As व Devas create us, we have to maintain them. By caring for each-other, deva and men-both groups will achieve ultimate good व
व व व Good is of 2 types-śreya (which gives lasting good and fame) and preya (pleasant). A thoughtful व man व व discriminates and selects śreya while dull men care only for sensory needs. व य व व व The व people who try creative work are Devas , while Asuras do not try to produce, but loot others
त व and व destroy. Ultimate Creator Deva is only the Brahma . Creative energy of 33 regions of solar य व system (3 within earth and 30 outside-each double of previous starting with earth) are 33 Devas . व व व each zone, there are 3 types of Asuras which are forms of ‘water’ of galaxy ruled by Varu ŋa In - (1) V ज य वŗ tra -This encloses body in a v ŗ tta = circle. This restricts contact with others, preventing creation. व च ग व Namuchi -This is like foam which is opaque boundary between water, air and some mud. (3) (2) व Bala व -This bends (Balana ) or obstructs motion-that is definition of force in Newton’s laws of motion व व also. Thus there are 33x3 = 99 Asuras. Devas being one fourth, the created world in only one out व स व 4 parts of Puru ş a (Puru ş a-s ū kta , 3, 4). 33 Devas are in 3 groups-8 Vasus which are forms of agni of व न व compact matter/energy. 11 Rudras which are form of V ā yu =motion, and 12 Ā dityas , called Ravi = व व =field of sun’s radiation. At 2 junctions of the 3 groups, there are 2 Aśvins (formed by Aśva = व य व व driving energy of sunrays). Beyond solar system Devas are called Vi ś vedeva . Outside galaxy are व ऽ व Vair व ā ja-devas . व व There are physical and internal forms of these Devas . Solar system is indicated by chakra at navel व च व region, controlling digestion. There are 30 dh ā mas of solar system beyond earth. By creation, व व original source Rasa or Ā nanda is depleted. It is minimum on earth-which is densest in solar system, म व व वव वव व वव न ववव । व व व व
It increases by 100 times in successive dh ā mas as per Taittir ī ya upani ş ad (2/8). Whole solar system is floating in ocean of galaxy which is mostly ethyl alcohol (Ŗ k 1/154/4,5)- it is also called V ā ru ņ ī or soma . Thus, medicines are dissolved in alcohol and diluted 100 times at each step giving 1 power.
30 power is related to most deceases related to digestive system. Parallel to 33 dh ā mas , there are 33 joints in back-bone. Solar system is separated in dense zones like curd (dadhi ), so it is Dadh ī chi zone. Orbit of solid planets is called ocean of dadhi n Bh ā gavata pur ā ņ a , part 5. Inner space of solar system is filled with glucose ( madhu ) and outer zone is with fat (ghrita ) molecules. Thus, dadhi, madhu, ghrita are offered in fire in yaj ña rituals.
(3) Brahm ā gni - yaj ña - That is chain of yaj ña s , i.e. product of one yaj ña is used for next yaj ña . Within man, physical body (k ś ara ) is under control of Ak ś ara , i.e. intellect and personality. That is consumed by Avyaya -i.e. surrounding of family, society, house etc. Finally all is consumed by Par ā tpara -or the Universe. That is sacrifice of self in Kur ā n by 4-footed Bakar -each part is
consumed by next level. In society, man is used or consumed by family, family by village, village by district and state. Product of basic yaj ña agriculture is grains, which is used by next yaj ña s of trade, food-processing industries. Crust of earth is an ocean of soil, its churning gives minerals-called samudra-manthana . Product of that yaj ña is used for next yaj ña of metal and then machines etc.
That is called offer yaj ña of in next yaj ña . व
य व र व Devas , it was period of S ā dhyas (before 29102 BC) who worshipped yaj ña व Before by yajña only and
व reached the top. It was maintaining chain of yaj ña . But one chain should not obstruct the others.
ह व grand co-ordination was arrived at by Brahm ā , one of the S ā dhyas . That न व Sanyama-yaj ña (4) - In all actions, we are diverted from main path due to desires of senses.
व व Withdrawal from unnecessary and irrelevant acts is called Praty ā h ā ra . Concentration on main व य व object is Dh ā ra ŋā , and its continuation is Dhy ā na . Their joining with Sam ā dhi = equanimity is व व न Yoga-s ū tra (2/54, 3/1-4). Chapter 3 describes 52 types of sanyama for called Sanyama in P ā t ñ jala व व व 52 achievements called Vibh ū ti . All the sense organs are merged into fire of sanyama for working
ञ प in co-ordination. That is related to the next yaj ña . म म व Indriya- yajña -All sense organs are withdrawn from their senses of 5 types-śabda (sound), spar ś a (5) व
य tvach ā ), r ū pa (form), rasa (taste), gandha (smell). व (touch-by व
ज (6) Pr ā ņ a-karma-yaj ña - There are 5 pr ā ņ a and 5 upa- pr ā ņ a –related to functions of organs of व य व body. By knowledge of their functions, they are consumed by fire of self-control ( Ā tma -sanyama-
व व ). We maintain co-ordination among organs and their pr ā ņ a for their optimum use yoga व त व व व व व
(7) Dravya-yaj ña -This is investment of dravya (materials and money) for production and earning more dravya . Some part of earning is used to maintain cycle of production or tread, remaining (ucchi ş ţ a) is consumed. (8) Tapo - yaj ña - Tapa means labour, expenditure of energy for desired work. As every energy finally becomes heat, t ā pa (=by tapa ) means heat. Original zone in space is Tapah-loka , whose radiation reaches other parts. No light comes to us from beyond that zone. For us, nothing beyond that exists-it is called visible universe. In nation, collection and use of energy sources is tapa . By that tapa, Asuras had defeated Devas . For individual, regular hard work increases physical and mental
capacity. (9) Yoga-yaj ña - Yoga means adding, it is co-ordination between two things. At physical level, it is co-ordination of breath and motion. It has 8 stages described in works of Yoga -(1) Yama , (2) Niyama , (3) Ā sana , (4) Pr ā ņ ā y ā ma , (5) Praty ā h ā ra , (6) Dh ā ra ņ ā , (7) Dhy ā na , (8) Sam ā dhi .
(10) Sv ā dhy ā ya-yaj ña - It is improvement and maintenance of mental strength by regular study and thinking. (11) J ñā na-yaj ña - This is of society. Treasure of knowledge is passed on to next generation by chain of guru (teacher) and śi ş ya (disciple), to keep it perpetually and improve it. (12) Pr ā ņ ā y ā ma-yaj ña -As control of breadth, it is fourth stage of yoga. Here, the process is used to improve health and capacity of body with minimum resources and effort. We control input of energy (pr ā ņ a ) and its output (ap ā na ). At physical level, intake of food is to be done at regular times as per need only-not for taste only. Sense of taste is to check quality of food. Essence of food is to be spent at regular intervals for profession and exercise. It is to be done at breathing, mental levels also. (13) Pr ā ņ a-yaj ña - That is ascent of pr ā ņ a at 7 levels starting with food. As per B ŗ had ā ra ņ yaka upani ş ad (1/5/1) we take 7 types of food-(1) Mana or j ñā na (knowledge), (2) Pr ā ņ a (energy), (3) P ŗ thiv ī (solid), (4) Jala (liquid), (5) Teja (light), (6) V ā yu (breath), (7) Ā k ā ś a (space). Vai ś e ş ika
philosophy adds K ā la (time) and Ā tm ā (soul) to count 9 dravyas . Chh ā ndogya upani ş ad (6/5/1) tells that Anna is digested in 3 parts-solid waste is expelled, medium
is used for nourishing body and finer part becomes mind. Ā yurveda indicates digestion at 7 levels(1) Rasa (liquid)-It nourishes body, mala (useless) is expelled from body. (2) As ŗ k (solid particles in liquid)-Blood-Its mala is pitta (bile). (3) M ā nsa (muscles, flesh, skin)-This fills and covers. Its mala is wax of ear etc. (4) Meda (fat) It lubricates body. Its mala is sweating. (5) Asthi (bones)-It is frame of body. Its mala is nail and hairs. (6) Majj ā (inner marrow of bones, nerves and brain)-It fills. Secretion of glands is excreta. (7) Ś ukra (Raja, V ī rya =seminal fluids of woman, man)-It gives Ojas (shine, inner strength). These combine in womb to produce child.
-S ū rya Siddh ā nta (1/10) defines 2 types of time-Nitya K ā la (eternal time) decays objects and is also called death. Janya (creative time) is time of yaj ña cycle which measures time. Time is perception of change. Perception part of Brahma is Ś iva , so it is also called Mah ā -k ā la and in form of yaj ña . Change is of 3 types-(1) Irreversible change -what has been done cannot be reversed. A man can become old, old can never become young. That is called Thermodynamic arrow of time-a system always moves from order to disorder. (2) Some changes are in cyclic order. All our cycles match natural time-cycles-day-night, month, year. Its measure is janya k ā la . Measurable time is used in equations of physics. This is different for observers in mechanics, but same in electromagnetic theory-where speed of light is same for all observers. But we are using same concept in both equations. This contradiction has not been resolved so far, so K ā la is called most difficult in all calculations. (3) There is no change for a system as a whole due to 5 types of conservation laws in classical and quantum physics. That is called Ak ś aya-k ā la.That is source only at 3 places-they are (mukha ) and upholder (Dh ā t ā ) of world. K ā la word has been used in G ī tā
as per 3 meanings indicated aboveव व
अ व ह व times are related to 3 types of Puru ş a 3 Puru व ş a - K ś ara ऽ
Ak ś ara,
K वā la
Avyaya Ak ś aya
क व our cyclic works of production are related to natural time cyclesAll ल व Axial rotation of earth-That is day-night circle. Daily routine is called Agnihotra as earth itself is (1) य Agni व called व य व व There are 2 natural fire cycles in a day-digestion within human body-that is by fire of stomach. ष व Cooking of food by fire of hearth is also called digestion. म व व Corresponding to 5 stages (parva ) of world from Sv ā yambhuva (Universe) to P ŗ thiv ī (earth), 5 daily क ह व
rituals are prescribed in Rudra-y ā mala-tantra . That is followed as 5 Nam ā ja in Islam each day. व व व There are 4 junction points of day or year for 4 quadrants of circle. In day, these areव व व morning/evening-junctions of day and night, noon/midnight-junctions of up and down motion of व व ष ।sun. व One Namaj is for whole day. As we sleep at midnight, that is substituted by pre-sleep Namaj . ग य For whole day, that is done just after awakening. In day time, there are only 3 Sandhy ā -morning, व व ( व noon and evening. Daily acts involve 5 Mah ā -yaj ña s indicated in Ś atapatha Br ā hma ņ a (11/5/6/1व व etc.-(1) Deva-yaj ña 3) , (2) Bh ū ta-yaj ña , (3) Manu ş ya-yaj ña , (4) Pit ŗ -yaj ña , (5) Brahma-yaj ña . That व व व वव १० / ३० ) व व व व व
can be taken as images of 5 stages of universe-Brahma is whole universe, galaxy is Pitar seen at night time with moon, Devas are Pr ā ņ a of solar system-zones, Plant and thereby animal life is maintained by moon, and finally man lives on earth. These are explained as removal of 5 types of sins in daily acts-by killings with hearth, grinder, broom, water-pot and knife. But it is actually repaying loans from 3 sources- Deva, Ŗ şi and Pitar . Two loans are in day-today dependence on men (manu ş ya ) and other plant animals (Bh ū ta ). Deva-yaj ña is paying loans to energy of surroundings. Brahma-yaj ña is to repay loan of Ŗ şi by continuing chain of knowledge-that is self study and teaching. Pitar yaj ña is paying loan of different forms of pitars or production sourcesDeva, Ŗ şi Ŗ tu (season) and human parents and our source of soul in space (moon, Saturn = yama- loka ).
(2) Month- That is cycle of phases of moon formed by differential motion of moon relative to sun. Its 2 parts are called Dar ś a-p ū r ņ a-m ā sa , i.e. from Dar ś a (start of visibility-new moon) to P ū r ņ a (full moon) and from P ū r ņ a to Dar ś a -each in about 15 days. In general, it indicates any cycle of micro or mega size which can be viewed in 2 halves. Time is measured by cycle of yaj ña , so month is called-M ā sa (=measured). Combination of these cycles tallying with seasons is named reverseSam ā (year). More specifically, sam ā means equalized year of 12 months each equal to 30 days.
Moon revolution is linked to cycle of menses in young women. Moon creates fluctuation in field of mind which is an image of galaxy-both have same number of particles-1011. So mind is said to born from moon-
च All व worship is done by Mana (mind) or masti ş ka (brain), so its place is called mandira (temple) or
maszid व (mosque). All our festivals and fasting are linked to lunar cycle-usually on 11th day of
व fortnight-its later part joining 12th is more proper, followed in Vai ş ņ ava ek ā da ś ī or Idd . व Year-That is cycle of earth round sun. Cycle of seasons is slightly shorter by about 50 second (3)
र motion as earth axis is rotating in reverse direction in cycle of 26000 years. In Taittir ī ya Br ā hma ņ a Dev ī -bh ā gavata pur ā ņ a (9/12/47)-that has been called grand R ā sa in space from व (3/1/1/11-12), K ŗ ttik ā star, so K ā rttika P ū r ņ im ā is called R ā sa-P ū r ņ im ā . व Samvatsara has been called yaj ña in 2 senses-(1) We move (sara ) in tune with year (sam-vat ), so it
म is called samvatsara . Annual days are called Samavasara ņ a in Jain tradition. All agriculture, trade, न education and industry is in annual cycle. It is apparent motion of sun around earth. Seasonal cycle व is motion of sun from 240 degree north to 240 south. (2) Samvatsara is energy field of sun in space व divided into 6 zones called Va ş a ţ k ā ras (zones of 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, 33 aharga ņ as , measured with earth as standard in powers of 2, n aharga ņ a = earth radius x 2 n-3). Correspondingly, there are 6 seasons व in1 year. व व व
Different levels of sun energy and its aspects are called animals of 5 kinds- Vai ś v ā nara (man as image of world), Aśva (Driving force), Gau (place of creation-that receives energy and uses it), Avi (motion of light in straight line like a Ram), Aja (Avyaya puru ş a -chain of transformation). Similarly, year is divided into various parts whose actions are termed as Pa ś u-bandhas (tying of animals). All the seasonal acts related to Sankr ā nti (entry of sun in signs of zodiac), festivals linked with farming come under it. -(1) Aś vamedha -In space, it is action driven by sun rays. A part of that is seen on earth as trade winds which are also called Aśva (horse). The place where winds are mild (Bhadra ) is called Bhadr ā ś va-Var ş a , north of Yama-ko ţ i-pattana , 900 east of Ujjain-i.e. Korea-Japan region. In a country, it is shown as free movement of horse in epics. It means that transport and communication should not be blocked, which is duty of a king. Within human body, it is free flow of pr ā ņ a , i.e. air, blood and nervous system. For birth of son to king Da ś aratha , a yaj ña was done. It was Putra-k ā me ş ţ i (= with desire of son), but has been called in V ā lm ī ki R ā m ā ya ņ a . At that time Da ś aratha, was 67 years. When R ā ma had gone with Vi ś v ā mitra , he was 15 years and Da ś aratha
was 60000 years or day-nights = 82 years. Mother Kau ś aly ā also was about 60 years of age. At this age, rejuvenation was needed for child birth, which has been called Aśvamedha here. (2) R ā jas ū ya -Raja = loka . In space, they are created by matter and energy radiated by sun-like stars. On earth, a country is maintained by a king called R ā j ā (king) in 2 senses-it maintains rajas =earth, or he is popular among people (ranjana ). For maintaining people and country, revenue needs to be collected and it is put back to them for defense, communication, education, trade etc. That had been called Ko ş a in Indian political thought and surplus revenue in Economics. But western political theories do not consider it an element of state, even by Marx who is concerned only with wealth. That incompleteness is reason of failure of these theories. ī (3) V ā japeya -R ā ja -soma maintains lokas (men and world). V ā ja -soma strengthens. V ā jasaney yajurveda was meant for those yaj ña s . For inner body, it is regular exercise for strengthening body
which is done by athletes. Improving mental strength also may be included in that. In a country, it means increase of financial, industry and military power. (4) Chayana -That is selection of proper person for proper job. Each group and region may also be given their specialized jobs. Mineral region only will do mining industry, coastal regions do shipping and plain irrigated areas can do farming etc. Each man can do his job as per his branch of specialization and degree of efficiency. (5) Ś ī rş a -King has to become head and controller. Sovereignty has been defined of 8 types in Vedas