risk management probability exam p exam 1Full description
Descripción: risk management probability exam p exam 1
Management Information System (MIS) in Banking Sector
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Template of a Risk Management procedure plan for ISO14971 related activities
altered customers preferences and demands. The main purpose of the study is to know the impact of digitations in context to e banking services. Traditionally the relationship between the bank and its customers has been on a one to one process. The go
In order to improve the customer service, book keeping and MIS reporting, the need for computerization was felt in the Indian banking sector in late 1980s. Reserve Bank of India set up a Committee headed by Dr. C. Rangarajan on computerization in ban
Risk managementDeskripsi lengkap
Performance requirements for the assessment, control, monitoring and reporting of material risks that could impact Our Purpose and business plans.
It was only in the late 1980s that Indian banks took to computer is at ion seriously. They had to improve customer service and tone up book keeping and MIS reporting. Their large customer base in terms of numbers was mostly comprised of low balance
WEL COME ALL OF YOU
Briefing session on
RISK MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL BANKS
By Malik Dilawar Vice President/Principal Senior Training Manager, North, UBL Training Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Phone: 0092-51-2820674(Off.), Fax: 0092-51-2821521
Risk management by commercial banks -- Time to hammer out the chinks
Financial markets the world over have undergone far-reaching changes in the last decade, spurred by deregulation and liberalization, as well as rapid developments in communication and Internet technologies. Banks in Pakistan have, however, generally not paid enough attention to the potential risks and to evolve mechanisms and systems to control and manage them in line with the global standards and procedures.
Risk management by commercial banks -- Time to hammer out the chinks As the banks no longer operate in a protected and regulated environment, there is an imperative need for them to develop and improve their capability to understand the changes in their economic environment and other circumstances having a critical bearing on their business activities.
Risk management by commercial banks -- Time to hammer out the chinks Risk management is a comprehensive process adopted by an organization that seeks to minimize the adverse effects it is exposed to due to various factors -economic, political or environmental, some of them inherent to the business, others unforeseen and unexpected.
Risk management by commercial banks -- Time to hammer out the chinks Present practices/situation Prevalent at commercial banks requires a hard look and call for a greater understanding by bank managements and boards of the risks involved in their operations.
What is RISK ? It is the potential that events expected or unexpected, may have an adverse effect on a financial institution’s capital or earnings. Risk is inherent in all business and financial activities. The greater the RISK associated with an activity the greater potential to generate a high return. Banks do take RISKS – The biggest RISK is Not Taking A RISK.
Definition of Risk Management Risk Management is the process of identifying, measuring, monitoring and controlling risks These four points are essential to risk management This presentation will cover the main identified risks in banks and determine how well risks are being managed.
Identifying Risks Where
Risks should be Identified
Serving the Needs of Depositor Borrowers and Banks
Commercial Bank lending/Investment involves three parties :
The suppliers of funds (The depositor) The users of funds (The borrowers) A financial intermediary (Bank) s
Challenge in Banking
“Banking is an art of striking a balance between Risk and Revenue.” [Swiss Banking Corporation’s Credit Manual]
TYPICAL BALANCE SHEET OF A BANK [Amounts in millions USD]
Balances with Other Banks
Money at Call & Short Notice
Investment [Net of Provisions]
Deferred Tax Asset
Loans and Advances [Net of Provisions] Operating Fixed Assets Capital w-i-p
TYPICAL BALANCE SHEET OF A BANK [Amounts in millions USD]
Assets as per previous slide
Deposits & Other Accounts Borrowings from other Banks, Agents
Bills Payable Other Liabilities TOTAL LIABILITIES NET ASSETS [ 1] Represented By: Share Capital Reserves
90 144 5,345 213
1.62 2.59 96.16 3.83
Other Tier 1 Capital
Surplus on revaluation of Fixed Assets NET ASSETS 
RISK MANAGEMENT ORAGNIZATION Risk
management is a decentralized process guided by centrally established policies and rules .Senior staff committees define credit culture and established overall policies and rules.Line management designs lending procedures and controls risk. There are usually five major organization groups that participate in risk management process.These groups are responsible for defining ,implementation ,and/or reviewing risk management policies,rules and procedures within the
Banking Risk Taking risks can almost be said to be the business of bank management.A bank that is run on the principle of avoiding all risks or as many of them as possible, will be a stagnant institution ,and will not adequately serve the legitimate credit needs of its society.On the other hand a bank that takes excessive risks or credit is more likely ,takes them without recognizing their extent or their existence will surely run into difficulty.
business involves some type of risk and banking is no exception. Credit risk is major category of risk of the bank.It occurs whenever there is a possibility that is the customer cannot meet contractual obligations to the bank in term of : The delivery of documents or commodities where the bank bears the whole risk OR The payment of principal ,interest ,fees or commissions.
The overall objective of Risk Management is to increase enterprise value
INCREASE VALUE BY Providing Appropriate Level and Allocation of Capital
Increasing Return on Capital
Improving Consistency of Earnings
The best way to reach this objective is to understand the full risk environment within which you operate...
…and the complete set of strategies that are available to you... Financial Strategies
Hiring/Training Incentive Programs
Asset Risk Liability Risk
Internal Controls Products
Business Risk Product Mix
Event Risk Market Strategy
…and to apply this knowledge in a holistic risk management framework, to drive value
Understand Internal and External Environment
Holistically Manage Financial and Operational Risks
Optimise Financial and Operational Strategies
To accomplish all this in a consistent manner, it is necessary to implement a continual management process
Develop Best Strategie s
Monitor Performance and Environment
In summary, Enterprise Risk Management:
Allows you to determine the necessary capital level, deploy unneeded capital and improve return on capital Encourages proper allocation of capital to segments and supports performance tracking Provides a method for ensuring that enterprise owners receive proper compensation for risks assumed
Provides Competitive Advantage
RISKS MUST BE: - KNOWN - UNDERSTOOD - QUANTIFIABLE - CONTROLLABLE / ACCEPTABLE / BANKABLE
CREDIT RISK THE RISK THAT THE OBLIGOR (BORROWER) WILL NOT BE ABLE TO REPAY THE DEBT (LOAN) UNDER THE TERMS OF THE ORIGINAL AGREEMENT (LOAN AGREEMENT). • MOST CRITICAL RISK IN BANKING • REQUIRES MOST SUBJECTIVE JUDGEMENT • MUST BE MANAGED CAREFULLY
MARKET RISK CHANGES IN MARKET RATES AND PRICES WILL IMPAIR AN OBLIGOR’S ABILITY TO PERFORM UNDER THE CONTRACT NEGOTIATED BETWEEN THE PARTIES.
• NEEDS MONITORING OF CHANGES IN PRICES OF COMMODITIES, REAL ESTATE, ETC.
INTEREST RATE RISK INTEREST RATE RISK IS THE EXPOSURE OF AN INSTITUTION'S FINANCIAL CONDITION TO ADVERSE MOVEMENTS
DOMESTIC OR WORLD-WIDE. • ANOTHER CRITICAL RISK • RE-PRICING/ MISMATCHES NEED TO BE ADDRESSED
LIQUIDITY RISK THE RISK THAT A BANK WILL BE UNABLE TO ACCOMMODATE DECREASES IN LIABILITIES OR TO FUND INCREASES IN ASSETS. SUCH RISKS ARISE WHEN THE REPRICING OR MATURITIES OF ASSETS DO NOT MATCH THOSE OF LIABILITIES. • CRITICAL RISK • MATURITY MISMATCHES • BASED ON MARKET CONDITIONS & PERCEPTIONS
OPERATIONAL RISK THIS RISK ARISES FROM THE LACK OF EFFECTIVE INTERNAL CONTROLS AND AUDITING PROCEDURES. PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT IS THAT THE BANK SHOULD HAVE GOOD INTERNAL CONTROLS
Risk of a failure in the bank’s procedures whether from external causes or as a result of error or fraud within the institution.
COUNTRY RISK RISK
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE BORROWER’S COUNTRY. COUNTRY RISK IS MOST APPARENT WHEN LENDING TO FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS/ THEIR AGENCIES AND OTHER CUSTOMERS. • BANK’S HAVING GLOBAL PRESENCE
OWNERSHIP RISK THE RISK THAT OWNERS / SHAREHOLDERS, DIRECTORS OR SENIOR MANAGEMENT MIGHT BE UNFIT FOR THEIR RESPECTIVE ROLES OR THEY ARE ACTUALLY DISHONEST. • ALSO A CRITICAL RISK • ”THE BEST WAY TO ROB A BANK IS TO OWN IT”
RISK MANAGEMENT Familiarisation
of Management with
Risks Implementation of Internal Controls Sound Internal Audit System Efficient MIS in Place Competent Group of Risk Managers Prompt Action & Monitoring
Risk Quantification Risk quantification techniques becoming important to determine capital requirements More reliance on banks’ own systems for identifying and managing risk Not only quantitative; also processes and ‘culture’:
scrutiny of model design data integrity risk management resources validation independent audit management understanding
DEPOSITS IN A BANK REPRESENTS WHAT ? “Commercial Banks support a mountain of RISK on a slender capital base. The bulk of their liabilities is redeemable at PAR and on DEMAND, with depositors regarding their money as perfectly safe.” “Yet bank assets are subject to credit risk, market risk, and settlement risk. With international lending, there is foreign exchange risk and transfer risk. Also there is management risk and risk of fraud.”
Many of The Risks Overlap.
Need To Be Evaluated In The Context Of Individual Institution With On-site Presence.
Evaluation of Risks Requires An Understanding of The Bank, its Customer Mix, its Assets & Liabilities And The Economic And Competitive Environment.
INTERNAL CONTROLS RISK RATING SYSTEM FOR CREDITS CLOSE MONITORING OF OPERATIONS COMPETENT CREDIT MANAGERS DUAL CONTROLS SYSTEM TO STUDY THE INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR ESTABLISHING TARGET AREAS OF INVESTMENT
Reliance on Internal Control ? Once the management system is in place, supervisors can determine that the systems are working properly by testing the systems. If the systems are inadequate, the scope of the inspection can be expanded so that risks are properly identified,
Principles of Control •
Segregation of duties
Rotation of assignments or duties
Two weeks continuous vacation
INTERNAL AUDIT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNAL CONTROLS PROVIDES SECONDARY RISK REVIEW INDEPENDENC.
Objective of Internal Audit The
overall objective of internal auditing is to assist all members of management in the effective discharge of their responsibilities by furnishing them with objective analysis, appraisals, recommendations and pertinent comments concerning the activities reviewed. The internal auditor, therefore, should be concerned with any phase of banking activity
Inspection Procedures for Internal Auditors Work
Organizational Structure of the Audit Department
Independence of the Audit Function
Audit Staff Qualifications
Content and Utilization of the Audit Frequency and Scope Schedule
MIS AN ADEQUATE “MIS” HELPS IN TIMELY IDENTIFICATION OF RISKS REPORTS ON MATURITY OR INTEREST RATE MISMATCHES REPORTS ON PROBLEM CREDITS REPORTS ON CREDITS SHOWING DETERIORATING TREND IN RISK RATING
RISK MANAGERS QUALIFIED OBJECTIVE ENJOY ADEQUATE AUTHORITY ABILITY TO CORRECTLY ANALYSE FOR CURRENT ACTION AND FUTURE PREDICTIONS PROMPT IN ACTION