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HW guide for a few questions from chapter 1-4 in the Project Management the managerial process 5th ed. Answers are basic, just to give you an idea on where to start.
Environmental Pollution and Its Effects One of the greatest problems that the world is facing today is that of environmental pollution, increasing with every passing year and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth.Environmental pollution consists of five basictypes of pollution, namely, namely, air, water, soil, noise and light.
How To Build Your Own Solar Panel Step-By-Step Guide Here! Save ""s Per #ont$ On Yo Your ur Electricity Bill% Air pollution is by far the most harmful form of pollution in our environment. Air pollution is cause by the injurious smoke emitted by cars, buses, trucks, trains, and factories, namely sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Even smoke from burning leaves and cigarettes are harmful to the environment causing a lot of damage to man and the atmosphere. Evidence of increasing air pollution is seen in lung cancer, asthma, allergies, and various breathing problems along with severe and irreparable damage to flora and fauna. Even the most natural phenomenon of migratory birds has been hampered, with severe air pollutionpreventing them from reaching their seasonal metropolitan destinations of centuries. Chlorofluorocarbons (CC!, released from refrigerators, air" conditioners, deodorants and insect repellents cause severe damage to the Earth#s environment. environment. $his gas has slowly damaged the atmosphere and depleted the o%one layer leading to global warming. &ater pollution caused industrial waste products released into lakes, rivers, and other water bodies, has made marine life no longer hospitable. 'umans pollute water with large scale disposal of garbage, flowers, ashes and other household waste. n m any rural areas one can still find people bathing and cooking in the same water, making it incredibly filthy filth y. Acid Acid rain further adds towater pollution in the water. n addition to these, thermal pollution and the depletion of dissolved oxygen aggravate the already worsened condition of the water bodies. &ater pollution can also indirectly occur as an offshoot of soil pollution ) through surface runoff and leaching to groundwater. *oise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution too are the damaging the environment at an alarming rate. *oise pollution include aircraft noise, noise of cars, buses, and trucks, vehicle horns, loudspeakers, and industry noise, as well as high"intensity
sonar effects which are extremely harmful for the environment.
Maximum noise pollution occurs due to one of modern science’s best discoveries – the motor vehicle, which is responsible for about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.
+oil pollution, which can also be called soil contamination, is a result of acid rain, polluted water, fertili%ers etc., which leads to bad crops. +oil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storage tank leakage which releases heavy contaminants into the soil. $hese may include hydrocarbons, heavy metals, $-E, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. ight /ollution includes light trespass, over"illumination and astronomical interference. &ant To Produce 'ree Electricity 'or Your Home( )IY 'ree Ener*y - +ead On To 'ind 'ind Out! Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse
change .012 /ollution can take the form of chemical substances or change. or energy energy,, such as noise, heat or light. /ollutants /ollutants,, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances3energies or naturally occurring contaminants. contaminants. /ollution is often classed as point source or source or nonpoint nonpoint source pollution.. pollution ,ontents
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6 orms of pollut pollution ion
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9 +ources and causes
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:.1 'um 'uman an hea health lth
:.6 Environmental health information
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=.4 /ollution control devices
11 ?reenhouse gases and global warming
14 ost polluted places in the developing world
16 +ee also
18 External links
Ancient cultures Air pollution has always accompanied civili%ations. /ollution started from prehistoric times when man created the first fires. According to a 1=;6 article in the journal Science, @sootfound on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadeuate ventilation of open [email protected] 042 etal forgingappears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in ?reenland indicate increases in pollution associated with ?reek,
Air pollution in the 5+, 1=:6
$he burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the cesspools of pollution. $he ndustrial , the sanitary conditions in -erlin were among the worst in Europe. August -ebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late 1;:>s @&aste"water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell. $here were no public toilets in the streets or suares. Disitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. n the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive....As a metropolis, -erlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civili%ation until after 1;:>[email protected] 0:2 $he primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the mperial ?erman government brought in its scientists, engineers and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies but to forge -erlin as the worlds model city. A -ritish expert in 1=>9 concluded that -erlin represented @the most complete application of science, order and
method of public life,@ adding @it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organi%ed city that there [email protected] 0;2 $he emergence of great factories and consumption of immense uantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1;;1. /ollution became a major issue in the 5nited +tates in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 6 million horses who worked in American cities in 1=>>, generating large uantities of urine and manure. As historian artin elosi notes, $he generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as @miracles of [email protected] 0=2 -y the 1=7>s, however, automobile"caused smog was a major issue in os Angeles. 01>2 Fther cities followed around the country until early in the 4>th century, when the short lived Fffice of Air /ollution was created under the Gepartment of the nterior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of os Angeles and Gonora, /ennsylvania in the late 1=7>s, serving as another public reminder. 0112 Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the ?reat +mog of 1=84. Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after &orld &ar , with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. 0142 $hen a non"nuclear event, $he ?reat +mog of 1=84 in ondon, killed at least 7>>> people. 0162 $his prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, $he Clean Air Act of 1=89. /ollution began to draw major public attention in the 5nited +tates between the mid"1=8>s and early 1=:>s, when Congress passed the *oise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, theClean &ater Act and the *ational Environmental /olicy Act.0172
+mog /ollution in $aiwan
+evere incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. /C- dumping in the 'udson . 0182 $he pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning. $he development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. ake Barachay, named by
the &orldwatch nstitute as the @most polluted [email protected] on earth, served as a disposal site for the +oviet 5nion throughout the 1=8>s and 1=9>s. +econd place may go to the area of Chelyabinsk
Forms of pollution
$he achine Canal in ontreal,Huebec, Canada.
$he major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them •
Air pollution the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CCs! and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. /hotochemical o%one and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. /articulate matter , or fine dust is characteri%ed by their micrometre si%e /1> to /4.8. ight pollution includes light trespass, over"illumination and astronomical interference. ittering the criminal throwing of inappropriate man"made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties. *oise pollution which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high"intensity sonar . +oil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminantsare hydrocarbons, heavy metals, $-E, 01=2 herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (+ee alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.! $hermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. Disual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining!, open storage of trash, municipal solid waste or space debris.
&ater pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills! into surface watersI discharges of untreated domesticsewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewageI release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertili%ers and pesticides!I waste disposal and leaching into groundwater I eutrophication and littering. /lastic pollution involves the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.
Pollutants Main article: Pollutant
A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. $hree factors determine the severity of a pollutant its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence.
Cost of pollution Main article: Cost of pollution
/ollution has cost. anufacturing activities that cause air pollution impose health and clean" up costs on the whole society, whereas the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire" proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own houses. f external costs exist, such as pollution, the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the producer were reuired to pay all associated environmental costs. -ecause responsibility or conseuence for self"directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externali%ation is involved. f there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others.
Sources and causes
Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures.
Air pollution comes from both natural and human"made (anthropogenic! sources. 'owever, globally human"made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution euation. 04>2 otor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. 041204420462 China, 5nited +tates,
livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.!, /DCfactories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides 0492 About 7>> million metric tons of ha%ardous wastes are generated each year. 04:2 $he 5nited +tates alone produces about 48> million metric tons. 04;2 Americans constitute less than 8K of the worlds population, but produce roughly 48K of the world#s CF4,04=2 and generate approximately 6>K of world#s waste.06>20612 n 4>>:, China has overtaken the 5nited +tates as the worlds biggest producer of CF 4,0642 while still far behind based on per capita pollution " ranked :;th among the worlds nations. 0662
An industrial area, with a power plant, south of Lang%hous downtown,China
n ebruary 4>>:, a report by the ntergovernmental /anel on Climate Change (/CC!, representing the work of 4,8>> scientists, economists, and policymakers from more than 14> countries, said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1=8>. 'umans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the conseuences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. -ut to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the 5*s ntergovernmental /anel on Climate Change (/CC!. 0672 +ome of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (C'!, heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium )found in rechargeable batteries, and lead )found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline!, $-E, %inc, arsenic and ben%ene. n 4>>1 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertili%er, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Frdinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater!, emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre"1=:> landfills that may have been subject to little control in the 5.+. or E5. $here have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated diben%odioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as $CGG.0682 /ollution can also be the conseuence of a natural disaster. or example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from rupturedboats or automobiles. arger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. +ome sources of pollution, such as nuclear
power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially ha%ardous releases when accidents occur. n the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.
Effects 'uman health Further information: Soil pollution § Health effects, Toxic hotspots and Hydraulic fracturing § Health effects
Fverview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution.069206:206;2
Adverse air uality can kill many organisms including humans. F%one pollution can cause respiratory disease,cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. &ater pollution causes approximately 17,>>> deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 8>> million ndians have no access to a proper toilet, 06=207>2 Fver ten million people in ndia fell ill with waterborne illnesses in 4>16, and 1,868 people died, most of them children. 0712 *early 8>> million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water .0742 A 4>1> analysis estimated that 1.4 million people died prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. 0762 $he &'F estimated in 4>>: that air pollution causes half a million deaths per year in ndia. 0772 +tudies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the 5nited +tates could be over 8>,>>>. 0782 Fil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. *oise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, andsleep disturbance. ercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Flder people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. $hose with heart or lung disorders are at additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. ead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.
Environment /ollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. $here are a number of effects of this •
-iomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals! may pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the p' of the Earths oceans as CF 4 becomes dissolved. $he emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. nvasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. nvasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules ( allelopathy! that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness. *itrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. +mog and ha%e can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric o%one which damages plants. +oil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. $his will affect other organisms in the food web. +ulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the p' value of soil.
Environmental health information $he $oxicology and Environmental 'ealth nformation /rogram ($E'/! 0792 at the 5nited +tates *ational ibrary of edicine (*! maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by $E'/ and by other government agencies and organi%ations. $his web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer"oriented resources. $E'/ also is responsible for the $oxicology Gata *etwork ($FM*E$! 07:2 an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web. $FMA/ is a ?eographic nformation +ystem (?+! that is part of $FM*E$. $FMA/ uses maps of the 5nited +tates to help users visually explore data from the 5nited +tates Environmental /rotection Agencys (E/A! $oxics
Regulation and monitoring Main article: egulation and monitoring of pollution
$o protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.
A litter trap catches floating waste in the Larra
A dust collector in /ristina, Bosovo
?as no%%le with vapor recovery
A obile /ollution Check Dehicle inndia.
/ollution control is a term used in environmental management. t means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. &ithout pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. n the hierarchy of controls, pollution preventionand waste minimi%ation are more desirable than pollution control. n the field of land development, low impact development is a similar techniue for the prevention of urban runoff .
/ollution control devices •
Gust collection systems •
-affle spray scrubber
Cyclonic spray scrubber
Ejector venturi scrubber
echanically aided scrubber
+edimentation (/rimary treatment! Activated sludge biotreaters (+econdary treatmentI also used for industrial wastewater! Aerated lagoons Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff!
ndustrial wastewater treatment •
A/ oil"water separators 048207;2
Gissolved air flotation (GA!
/owdered activated carbon treatment
Dapor recovery systems
Perspectives $he earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence. $he attendant conseuences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. $hese would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately, species extinction. /rocesses that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes, for any form of life, consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival. or humankind, the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration, both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. +hort of survival, human concerns include the range from uality of life to health ha%ards. +ince science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive, modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control, industrial exposure (e.g. Fccupational +afety and 'ealth Administration (F+'A! /Es!, toxicology (e.g. G8>!, and medicine (e.g. medication and radiation doses!. @$he solution to pollution is dilution@, is a dictum which summari%es a traditional approach to pollution management whereby sufficiently diluted pollution is not harmful. 07=208>2 t is well"suited to some other modern, locally scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and ha%ardous material release emergency management. -ut it assumes that the dilutant is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases.
+uch simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative, human population and densities were lower, technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. -ut these are often no longer the case. urthermore, advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. $he use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or infeasible. n addition, consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence. Let in the absence of a superseding principle, this older approach predominates practices throughout the world. t is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release, exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. Fne such superseding principle is contained in modern ha%ardous waste laws in developed countries, as the process of diluting ha%ardous waste to make it non"ha%ardous is usually a regulated treatment process. 0812 igration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases can be confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers.
Greenhouse gases and global warming Main article: !lo"al #arming
'istorical and projected CF4 emissions by country (as of 4>>8!. +ource Energy nformation Administration.08420862
Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earths climate. Gisruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air.
Most polluted places in the developing world $he -lacksmith nstitute, an international non"for"profit organi%ation dedicated to eliminating life"threatening pollution in the developing world, issues an annual list of some of the worlds
worst polluted places. n the 4>>: issues the ten top nominees, already industriali%ed countries excluded, are located in A%erbaijan, China, ndia, /eru,
See also Book: Pollution Environment portal
'a%ardous +ubstances Gata -ank
Air dispersion modeling
Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases links to freely available data.
Environmental soil science List of solid !aste treatment technologies List of !aste management companies List of !aste management topics
Cruise ship polluti
$aste!ater %uali indicators
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ump up . /atrick Allitt, ( Climate of Crisis: (merica in the (ge of *nvironmentalism (4>17! p 4>9
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ump up . 1=84 ondon fog clears after days of chaos (--C *ews!
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ump up . +haron . riedman, @$hree ile slan d, Chernobyl, and ukushima An analysis of traditional and new media coverage of nuclear accidents and radiation.@ )ulletin of the atomic scientists 9:.8 (4>11! 88"98.
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Eternal lin!s edia related to /ollution at &ikimedia Commons Look up pollution in $iktionary& the free dictionary.
FE''A proposition 98 list *ational $oxicology /rogram ) from 5+A *ational nstitutes of 'ealth.
$FMA/ ) ?eographic nformation +ystem (?+! that uses maps of the 5nited +tates to help users visually explore data from the 5nited +tates Environmental /rotection Agency (E/A! $oxics pollutants, how they affect people, what 5+A industries use them and the products in which they are found $oxicology $utorials from the *ational ibrary of edicine ) resources to review human toxicology.
&orlds &orst /olluted /laces 4>>:, according to the -lacksmith nstitute
$he &orlds ost /olluted /laces at $ime.com (a division of $ime aga%ine!
Chelyabinsk $he ost Contaminated +pot on the /lanet Gocumentary ilm by +lawomir ?rSnberg (1==9! Bids ower H +cores inked $o /renatal /ollution by indsey $anner, The Huffington Post , July 4>, 4>>= *ieman
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