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Index Acknowledgement Certificate Introduction AIM Apparatus Chemicals Required Test for Carbonate Test for Calcium Test for Phosphate Test for Acetate Test for Magnesium Conclusion Bibliography
Acknowledgement I would like to express my sincerest thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Poonam Sharma. She has always been helpful to me and also acted as my project guide with her able guidance throughout the duration of my project work despite our busy schedule. She was always there for me whenever I needed her help. Then I would like to thank the laboratory assistant of chemistry lab for his assistance and co-operation. Finally I would like to thank my parents and my friends without whom I would not been able to complete my project. ANURAG MEHRA XII- A
Certificate This is to clarify that the project report on the topic “presence of ions in toothpaste” submitted by Anurag Mehra of “XII- A” of St. Mary’s Christian School is an original one authentic and is done in fulfillment of C.B.S.E SYLLABUS for all India senior school secondary examination to be held in the year 2015-16.
Signature of Subject Teacher ___________ Signature of Examiner _______________
Introduction Every toothpaste contains the following ingredients: Binders, abrasives, flavors, sweeteners, fluorides, tooth whiteners, a preservative and water. Binders thicken toothpaste- they prevent separation of the solid and liquid component, especially storage. They also effect the speed and volume of foam production, rate of flavor release and product dispersal, the appearance of toothpaste ribbon on the toothbrush. Some binders are gum methyl cellulose, carrageen and magnesium aluminum silicate.
AIM TO CHECK THE IONS PRESENT IN THE TOOTH PASTE OF VARIOUS BRANDS.
Apparatus and Chemicals Required Test Tubes Test Tube Holder Glass Rod Lime water [Ca(OH)2] Dilute H2SO4 Ammonium Oxalate [(NH4)2C2O4] Dilute and Conc. HNO3 Ammonium Molybdate Ferric chloride [FeCl3] Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Ammonium Chloride [NH4Cl] Ammonium Hydroxide [NH4OH]
Test for Carbonate Experiment Add dilute H2SO4 to test tube containing toothpaste. Pass the evolved gas through lime water. It will turn milky.
Test for Calcium Experiment To 1 ml of O.S. directly add 1 ml of ammonium oxalate solution. Add a little ammonium hydroxide and scratch the sides. White precipitate will appear.
S.No Name of the toothpaste 1. Pepsodent 2.
Conclusion Ca2+confir med Ca2+confir med Ca2+confir med
Chemical Reaction Involved Ca2+ (aq) + (NH4)2C2O4 (aq) →CaC2O4 (s) + 2NH4+(aq) Calcium ions
Ammonium ions (White ppt.)
Test for Phosphate Experiment To 2-3 ml of O.S. directly add excess dilute HNO3. To this, add 1-2 ml of concentrate HNO3 andthen 3-4 ml of ammonium molybdate reagent and then keep it aside for 5 minute. Canary yellow crystalline precipitate will form.
S.No Name of the toothpaste
PO43present PO43present PO43present
Chemical Reaction Involved PO43- + 12 MoO42- + 24H+→ (PMo12O40)3- + 12H2O (l) Molybdate ion
Phospho molybdate ions Canary yellow
Test for Acetate Experiment To 1 ml of O.S. directly add HCl drop wise. Wait till effervescence stops. Add freshly prepared FeCl3solution. Brick red color will appear.
S.No Name of the toothpaste 1. Pepsodent 2. Colgate 3. Close Up
CH3COO-absent CH3COO- absent CH3COO- absent
Chemical Reaction Involved 3CH3COO-(aq) + FeCl3(aq) → Fe(CH3COO)3(aq) + 3ClAcetate ion
Ferric acetate (Red
Test for Magnesium Experiment
To 1 ml of original solution (which is concentrated by heating) add NH4Cl and NH4OH in excess followed by disodium hydrogen phosphate. Scratch the inside test tube with glass rod. White crystalline precipitate will appear.