Transaction exposure and operating exposure managementFull description
Operating Instructions and Maintain of EDIDeskripsi lengkap
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operating and maintenance manual
Process and Utility Description CDS
New Sulzer Diesel New Sulzer Diesel Ltd Winterthur, Switzerland
Description and Operating Instructions for Sulzer Diesel Engines ZAL4OS
Installation / Vessel: Type: Engine No.:
New Sulzer Diesel Ltd PO Box 414 CH-6401 Winterthur Switzerland 0
Telephone Telex Telefax
1993 New Sulzer Diesel Ltd, Switzerland - Printed in Switzerland
: : :
(052) 262 49 22 696 659 NSDL CH (052)2124917
This manual is put at the disposa1 of the recipient solely for use in connection with the corresponding type of Sulzer Diesel Engine. It has always to be treated as confidential. The intellectual property regarding any and a11of the contents of this manual, particularly the copyright, remains with New Sulzer Diesel Ltd. This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without their written permission, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party nor be used for any unauthorized purpose. Before the operator attempts to use the engine or before maintenance work is undertaken, the Operating Manual or the Maintenance Manual respectively is to be read carefully. TO ensure the best efficiency, reliability and lifetime of the engine and its components, only original spare parts should be used. It is to be ensured as well that a11equipment and tools for maintenance are in good condition. /
The extent of any supplies and services is determined exclusively by the relevant supply contract. The data, instructions and graphical illustrations etc. in this manual are based on drawings made by New Sulzer Diesel Ltd. and correspond to the actual standard at the time of printing (year of printing is indicated on title page). Those specifications and recommendations of the classification societies, which are essential for the design, have been considered therein. It must be recognized that such data, instructions and graphical illustrations may be subject to changes due to further development, widened experience or any other reason. This manual is primarily intended for use by the engine operating and maintenance personnel. It is assumed that it Willalways be at the disposa1 of such personnel for the operation of the engines and/or for the required maintenance work. This manual has been prepared on the assumption that operation and maintenance of the engines concerned Will always be carried out by personnel having the special knowledge and skill needed to handle in a workman-like manner diesel engines of the corresponding size, the associated auxiliary equipment, as well as fuel and other operating media.
Therefore, generally applicable rules, which may also concern such items as protection against danger, are specified in this manual in exceptional cases only. It is generally assumed that the operating and maintenance personnel are familiar with the rules concerned. This manual has been prepared to the best knowledge and ability of its authors.However,neither New Suker Diesel Ud. nor their employees assume any liability - under any legal aspect whatsoever - in connection with this manual, its contents, or modifications to it or in connection with its use, including possible negligence. Further,
claims retating to any damage whatsoeveror claims of other nature such as e.g. demands for additiona] spares supplies, serviceor others Willnot be considered.
New Sulzer Diesel Limited Winterthur Switzerland
Listing of Groups Group 0
General technical data Operating media Operating instructions Engine troubles
Engine casing Cylinder block Crankshaft main bearing Crankshaft thrust bearing Cylinder liner Cylinder head with valves
Crankshaft Running gear
Camshaft Reversing servomotor (only for reversible engines) Camshaft drive gear Valve actuating gear Control system
Speed governor Fuel injection system Overspeed safeguard and load limitation Co&ol linkage Fxhaust gas turbocharger Charge air cooler
Charge air bypass Charge air waste-gate Engine-driven pumps (only for non-reversible engines) Cylinder lubrication
Fzhaust pipe Exhaust waste-gate Cooling water Lubricating oil Starting air Fuel >
...................................................... Masses(weights) 0051 Operation at very low load ..........................................................................................0255 Dimensions and material specification of round rubber joints, tubular joints and rubber
Special measures in operation: ......................................... Instructions concerning the prevention of crankcase explosions Emergency operation Operation
with defective turbochargers . . with a fuel injection pump cut-out or with running
charge air cooler
after an overhaul
NM Sulzer DkSd
. . . . . . _. . . . . gear removed
This manual Description and Service Instructions describes the engine, certain individual parts and their function. They further include the most important details of their operation. It must be assumed that the operating personnel have the necessary technical knowledge of, and familiarity with, Diesel engines. A separate Maintenance Manual concerns itself with the maintenance of the engine and use of the corresponding tools and special devices. The information with regard to clearances and bolted connection tightening values it also included. In addition to this, a separate Code Book is available which shows the individual engine parts and their code numbers. Spare parts are only to be ordered in accordance with this Code Book. The subdivision of main and sub-groups is the same as for the Description and Service Instructions, Maintenance Manual and Code Book. Special service instructions, which also serve as code books, are provided for components from sub-suppliers such as turbocharger, governor, etc. Apart from the above-mentioned cords.
books, the engine cornes supplied with setting table, acceptance and erection re-
2 ZA4OS A
SHORT ‘ZA40S . . . . . . . . . . ..__....
: Four-stroke Diesel engine, built in-line and vee-form, cylinder bore 0 40 cm, stroke 56 cm.
Engine housing (frame) . . . . : Monoblock, carrying a11other components. Crankshaft main bearing . . . : Split bearing shells, mounted in the engine housing by bearing covers. Cylinder liner . . . . . . . , _. . . : Supported in the engine housing, water cooled. Bore cooled in the Upper part and provided with longitudinal bores for separate cylinder lubrication, if applied. Cylinder head . . . . . . . . . . . . : Upper end closure of the cylinder, fastened to the engine housing by hydraulically tightened studs. Fitted in are inlet/exhaust valves, fuel injection valve, starting valve, relief valve and indicator valve. Valve drive . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . : From camshaft via push rods and rocker arms. Crankshaft . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . : One piece construction, fitted with counterweights, drive and built-on pumps in certain cases.
gear wheels for camshaft
Connecting rod . . . . . . . . . . : Separated in connecting rod shaft with spherical Upper end and crankpin bearing split, split bearing shell, hydraulically pre-tensioned and fitted compression shim depending on cylinder output. Rotating piston . . . . . . . . . . . : Bore cooled with lubricating oil, fitted with a rotating mechanism, consisting of several parts, piston crown of steel, piston skirt cast iron. In certain cases provided with ‘inner cylinder lubrication’. Camshaft drive . . . . . . . . . . . : Via intermediate gear wheel from crankshaft. Camshaft . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . : The camshaft carries the inlet and exhaust valve cams as well as the fuel injection cam for each cylinder. The cams are shrunk-on hydraulically. There are fitted also driving wheel for govemor drive and overspeed safety cut-out, flywheel disc or vibration damper depending on the number of cylinders and application. Starting air control . . . . . . . . : With solenoid valve via shut-off valve for starting air and starting air distributor to starting valve in the cylinder head. Local control stand
. . . . . . . : In case of failure of the remote control the engine cari be operated from the local control stand.
Overspeed tut-out device . . : The mechanical overspeed s&$y.cut-out device shuts the engine down in case of overspeed by shifting the regulating linkage to zero fuel. The electro-pneumatic safety tut-out device acts on the piston of regulating racks of ail fuel injection pumps and in tum intermpts the fuel delivery until a lower engine speed is reached (however the engine is not shut down). Fuel injection
. . . . . . . . . . . . : Fuel injection pump-(Bosch-type) driven off camshaft (fuel cam), direct injection via high pressure pipe, fuel stud and nozzle holder to injection nozzle.
. . : Driven by exhaust gases, compresses the charge air.
Charge air cooler . . . . . . . . . : Cools the charge air heated by compression. In normal cases through two-stage charge air cooler by means of high temperature circuit and low temperature circuit with treated fresh water. In certain cases single-stage charge air coolers are arranged with a direct sea-water cooling system or a central fresh water cooling system. Engine-driven pumps . . . . . , : Oil pump, fuel delivexy pump (only for engines operated on Diesel oil) and cooling water pumps cari be driven directly off the engine. The pumps for the auxiliary systems are normally driven by electric motors. Instrument pane1 . . . . . . . . . : The most important systems pressures and engine speed cari be read off this pane1 during operation.
First stroke: Through the opened inlet valve compressed air is pressed by the exhaust gas turbocharger via charge air cooler into
the cylinder. The piston moves downwards. During this period the crankshaft goes through a half turn. The first stroke is also designated suction sfroke. Second stroke:
With closed valves the air in the cylinder is compressed by the upwards moving piston. Before the top dead centre (T.D.C.) is reached by the piston, fuel is injected into the combustion space. Here too the crankshaft goes through a half tum. The second stroke is designated compression stroke. Third stroke:
The injected, atomized fuel ignites in the hot compressed air. Combustion and with it expansion begins and presses the piston downwards.The crankshaft goes througb a further half turn. The third stroke is designated woAGrgs&o~ or expunsion stroke. Fourth stroke:
The exhaust valve opens and the combustion gases are pressed out of the cylinder by the upwards moving piston. These exhaust gases drive the turbine and with it the blower of the turbocharger. The crankshaft goes tbrough a further half turn. The fourth stroke is designated exhuust stroke or scuvenging stroke. Second stroke
REMARKS to the Engine Sectional Illustrations 0020-20 & following The numbers with which certain engine components are marked in the sectional illustrations correspond to the group numbers under which more detailed information is found in this book. As not a11 the described components are visible in the sectional illustrations, the first sheet, table of contents, of each group informs whether and where detailed information is found in this book.
4216 420 1 4211
ZAL 40s 1987
Crankshaft Main Bearing
Bearing Number FUEL PUMP SIDE
Camshaft Driving Wheel
FUEL PUMP SIDE
FUEL PUMP SIDE
OF ROTATION VIEWED FROM DRIVING END
0051 WEIGHTS Approximate Weights of some Components of the ZAL4OS Engine Design Group
[email protected] servomotor ....................... (for reversible engines) ................... Reversing valve ............................ (for reversible engines) .................... Operating unit for local control stand ...................................................
VTR 354 .............................. 1’900 VTR 454 .............................. 3’250 with casing and water separator ........... 1’534 with casing and water separator ........... 1’850 with diffusor ............................ 270 with diffusor ............................ 350 connection engine housing / cylinder head .... 40
6502 6502 6601 6601 6601 6601 6701
Exhaust gas turbocharger Exhaust gas turbocharger Charge air cooler ........ Charge air cooler ........ Air inlet casing .......... Air inlet casing .......... Airbranch .............
1. For engines operating between 60 kW and 160 kW per cylinder, for more than 50 hours : - Although operation
engines-are obviously at very low load.
full time at very low load, no time limit is given for
- Only Diesel Oil must be used. - Lub-oil has to be adapted to the used fuel. The Base Number corresponding to low sulfur content of Diesel Oil).
should be avoided,
must be according
or at least limited to 5 % of the Maximum
- Turbochargers must not be washed during the very low load period (bearing to washing at very low load).
could occur due
- The color of turbocharger bearings lub-oil must be checked daily, and changed immediately if it becomes darker. The concerned turbochargers must be overhauled by the turbocharger Services (ABB or Napier Services) before increasing the load to its normal value.
- If the lub-oil centrifugation does not work during thevery low load period (due to lackof steam for instance), content in lub-oil will increase. Check it once a week by analysis in accordance with OllO-l/Al. The lub-oil has to be centrifuged as soon as steam production is available. Lub-oil quality should be checked after centrifugation, and before increasing the load to its normal value.
- Wash the boiler after the very low load period, - The load increase Period Preparation
and before increasing
the load if possible.
after the very low load period of more than 50 hours must follow the curve given for Running during Commissioning, ref 137.735.162. (see hereafter).
- After the first very low load operation period, at least one cylinder cover must be removed after the 90 % load phase of the load increasing curve ref 137.735.162. This to check at least once that all deposits have burnt during the load increase, as this may depends on fuel and lub-oil types.
- In case of a remaining -
great amount of deposits covers must be removed
can be operated
: for complete
at its normal load.
A lub-oil type change may be preferrable lub-oils make less deposits than others). One cylinder cover must be removed period exceeding 50 hours.
again at very low load (some
after the next very low load operation
- In case of a remaining
should finish its load increase
the engine can be operated
at its normal
to the curve ref 137.735.162.
If operating again at very low load in the same conditions (load, fuel, lub-oil ...). more than 50 hours, removing one cylinder cover for inspection is not needed, as the first inspection did not show abnormal deposits.
2. For engines operating - Although operation
New Sulzer Diesel ZA40S
engines are obviously at very low load.
160 kW and 300 kW per cylinder, for more than 50 hours
full time at very low load, no time limit is given for
- Only Diesel Oil must be used.
- Lub-oil has to be adapted to the used fuel. The corresponding to low sulfur content of Diesel Oil).
should be avoided,
must be washed during
or at least limited to 5 % of the Maximum
the very low load period according
to our procedure
- The color of turbocharger bearings lub-oil must be checked daily, and changed immediately if it becomes darker. The concerned turbochargers must be overhauled by the turbocharger Services (ABB or Napier Services) before increasing the load to its normal value.
- If the lub-oil centrifugation does not work during the very low load period (due to lack of steam for instance), content in lub-oil will increase. Check it once a week by analysis in accordance with OllO- l/Al. The lub-oil has to be centrifuged as soon as steam production is available. Lub-oil quality should be checked after centrifugation, and before increasing the load to its normal value.
- Wash the boiler after the very low load period,
- The load increase Period Preparation
and before increasing
the load if possible.
after the very low load period of more than 50 hours must follow the curve given for Running during Commissioning, ref 137.735.162. (see hereafter).
3. For engines operating
between 60 kW and 300 kW per cylinder, for less than 50 hours :
- No restriction
if there is a load increase
Diesel Oil is preferred.
over 75 % load of at least 10 hours duration
after each very low load period.
New Sulzer Diesel
RUNNING PERIOD PREPARATION COMMISSIONING
Engine N’ :
Engine type :
Set N” :
)ate : Load
Manual starting 350 rpm
0% - 100% 100%
Mech. no load tests
V3 60 ’
50% - 75%
Load increase, automatic
Electr. no load tests
25% - 50%
on first web
and stop. Vl
0% - 75%
Load increase ,
and stop. /
Customer Name Date
Date : :
Form: N” : 4.137.735.162
to site conditions. /
only. Could be modified
SPECIFICATIONS OF RUBBER RINGS
AND DIMENSIONS AND O-RINGS
Y .5 8 cL=J 94 (38
v: i? rE .u E Es
Component where the O-rin or the rubber ring is installe cf
s & .a a gE 5.5
Material NBR = Nitrile FPM =VITON MVQ = Silicone
Round rubber joints
OiI sump ...............................
NBR 50 Sh
Oil sump ...............................
NBR 50 Sh
*15’600 NBR 50 Sh
Horizontal tie rod for main bearing ..................
NBR 70 Sh
Horizontal tie rod for main bearing ..................
m 2 g5 8 otq .- e Tool where the Piston Seal Ring (PSR) zgi
OtA’; or the Rod Seal Ring (RSR) are used. t3coz 9410.01
Pre-tensioning jack to crankshaft main bearing / piston
z ‘5 a2 d!
Pre-tensioning jack to cylinder head / piston
Pre-tensioning jack to cylinder head / cylinder
Pre-tensioning jack to connecting rod / piston
Pre-tensioning jack to connecting rod / cylinder
Pre-tensioning jack to crankshaft main bearing / cylinder 9427.01
Pre-tensioning jack to crank web counterweights /piston Pre-tensioning jack to crank web counterweights / cylinder
Diesel Engine Fuels
Liquid petroleum derivates are the predominant fuels used for Diesel engines. Within thisgroup of fuels, products of the utmost variety and quality exist which influence the frequency of overhauls for the engine and for the fuel treatment plant the required expenditure. Besides technological reasons economicconsiderations determine limits for the fuel quality depending on design, size and speed of the engine as well as of conditions of utilization. Gas oils and Diesel oils, so-called distillates of petroleum cari be used in a11our engines. Whether a specific engine is suited to run on heavy fuel oil and up to what grade depends on the specification of the respective engine type and has beenplotted in the table “Quality requirements ofheavyfuel oil in thedelivered condition”(see sheet 0356-2). When using fuels with very low sulphur content particular tare must be taken during the running-in of new piston rings and cylinder liners. Such fuel oils sometimes develop anomalies in combustion which cari affect the tribologie conditions in the cylinder space. For operation on heavy fuel oil, special provisions must be taken. In particular, the plant for heating and cleaning the fuel oil must be suited to the heavy fuel in question. Fuel suppliers generally provide only a few of the parameters given in the “Quality specifications”. This makes the evaluation of the supplied fuel oil quality difficult for the engine user. TOovercome this, classification societies have started some time ago to provide quality sutveyance programs as service performance. Fuels of various deliveries or from different suppliers should, if possible, not be mixed on board or in the power plant. Fuel oils may differ in their chemo-physical structure to such an extent that they pose a riskof incompatibility and bring about the precipitation of asphalt-like sludge leading to fouling of filters, overloading of the centrifuge and incomplete combustion. . The following table provides a synopsis on some parameters of Diesel oils which are generally marketed (see sheet 0356- 1). The analysis values alone, however, do not permit to determine with sufficient certitude in each case the suitability of a fuel oil type for engine operation. (continuation on sheet 0356-l
0356-l Summary of marine fuel oil characteristic
(This summary does not represent a quality specification) Marine Gas Oil
Marine Diesel Oil
820 ... 870
900 ... 991
up to 1010
at 40 o C mm2/s
at 50 ’ C mm2/s
1,5 ... 7 -
4 ... 14 -
30 ... 420
up to 700
Bunker Fuel Oil
at 15 o C Viscosity
High viscosity fuels must be heated to reduce the viscosity to the recommended value at engine entry. Pour point
-6 ... +6
0 . .. 20
up to 30
The fuel cari no longer be pumped in the vicinity of the pour point and heating devices are necessary for tanks and pipes at corresponding ambient temperatures. Sulphur
0.2 ... 2
1 ... 5
0.2 ... 2
1 ... 5
During combustion the sulphur of the fuel bums to for-m sulphur oxides which in turn form sulphuric acids. These acids are very corrosive to the cylinder linerwalls and the piston rings primarily if temperatures of these components are below the dew point. The corrosive attack cari be combated by a cylinder oil with sufficient alkalinity, expressed by its BN (Base Number). Regarding the selection of the BN in relation to the sulphur content of the fuel, reference is made to instructions on sheet 0356 -4. Experience shows that also an excessive BN cari have detrimental effects such as forrning hard deposits in the combustion chamber of the engine. Conradson carbon residue CCR
up to 0.2
up to 2.5 /
up to 18
up to 20 I
A high conradson figure shows that the fuel tends to form deposits during combustion, and thus favours the foulingof noules, piston ring grooves, gas outlet ducts and scavenge ports. 4sh content
up to 0.01
up to 0.02
up to 0.15
up to 0.2
Ash grinds piston rings, cylinders and valves, and cari also promote fouling and burnoff especially with a high vanadium and sodium content. The sodium content should be less than 1/3 of the vanadium content. Water content
0 ... 0.1
0 ... 0.25
40 ... 20
0.1 ... 1
Cetane number/index XXI
The inflammability of marine fuels (heavy fuel oils) is as of recently being judged the CCAI (Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index). This index should not lie above 870. For pure distillate fuels the CE’IXNE NUMBER is used as reference. This number should not lie below 30. Flash point
Min. 60 “C
summary gives only a survey of available fuel oils but does not indicate their suitability. Regarding the respective permissible limiting value, see NSD Quality requirements on sheet 0356-Z. Ltis not necessarily complete, other properties may also influence the engine performance. Marine Diesel Oil cari be pure distillates or may be blended. Some properties of blended oil may exceed the fuel juality requirements for specific engine types.
0356-2 Quality requirements
of heavy fuel oil in the delivered condition
Test Method Density at 15 “C Kinematic Viscosity at 50 “C at 100 “C Conradson carbon (CCR) Sulphur
Ash content Vanadium Sodium
Water content Flash point Pour point
ISO 6245 **
Shell / Exxon
ISO 3675 ISO 3104
** ** **
IcSt (centistoke) = lmm2/s Notes see reverse side * Density of up to 1010 kglm jean be accepted ifthe fiel treatmentplant is suitably equipped to remove waterfiom high-density fuel. ** No standard test method agreed upon. Suggested is X-ray jluorescence spectrometry. Before the fuel is fed into the engine system, some values such as viscosity, water and aluminium content must be further reducedby efficient fuel treatment. For the design of the fuel treatment plant, it is strongly recommended to . follow the relevant recommendations of New Sulzer Diesel (see sheet 0357- 10). The above fuel quality requirements correspond to the following standards: CIMAC Recommendations ISO 8217:1987 BS MA100:1989
Heavy fuel oil
Diesel engine fuels include a variety of petroleum products ranging from gas oil to heavy fuel oil. Gas oil is produced from crude oil by distillation and processing whereas fuel oil is mainly the residue left after distillation of the crude oil. TOobtain the desired viscosity the residue is blended down with lighter, less viscous components. Modem refineries also apply so-called secondary conversion processes such as visbreaking and catalytic cracking to obtain a higher proportion of lighter products. These products are used as blending stocks for heavy fuel oil.
Apart from distillate fuels, the designation for residual type fuel is not uniform and the following designations are in use: Marine fuel oil, light marine fuel oil, bunker fuel C Intermediate fuel, thin marine fuel oil, light marine fuel oil.
Marine fuels are usualiy differentiated by viscosity, whereby the viseosity is mostly indicated in centistokes (cSt) at 50” C. The classification according to ISO or BS1 standards and to the CIMAC as guiding principle is graduallygainmg m importance. It has to be well noted that viscosity by itself is not a quality criterion anymore. TOevaluate the quality and suitability of a fuel for use in a diesel engine a number of characteristics such as listed in the fuel oil requirements table have to be considered as a whole. For assessing the inflammability of a diesel fuel so far solely the CETANE number (established by a standardized engine test) or the CETANE index (established by calculation) have been utilized. This cari,,according to definition, only be the case for distillate fuels. Nowadays the so-called CCAI (Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index) isrecommended for marine fuels. The inflammability is of particular importance for higher speed engines. Experience has shown that for slow speed diesel engines the inflammability is of little importance.
The use of fuel oils with properties approaching the maximum numbers requires very good supervision and maintenance of the engine and, in particular, of the fuel treatment equipment. With fuels of poor quality and inadequate fuel preparation, premature overhauling and added maintenance costs have to be faced.
0356-3 Notes to “fuel oil requirements (Heavy Fuel Oil)” Q. Viscosity The maximum admissible viscosity of the fuel that cari be used in an installation is dependent on the heating and fuel preparation equipment. As a guidance, the necessary preheating temperature for a given viscosity may be taken from the viscosity/temperature chart in the engine Operating Instruction Manual. The recommended viscosityvalues of the fuel oil before engine are: (see also sheet 0357-21) 13 - 17 cSt (mm?s); 60-75 SecRWl; 70-85 SSU. 2. Conradson carbon residue (CCR), asphaltenes (compatibility / stability, SHF test) High levels of carbon and asphaltenes impair the combustion quality of the fuel and may cause increased wear and fouling of engine components. Asphaltenes also have a bearing on the compatibility and stability of blended fuels and cari cause problems of excessive sludge formation in the centrifugal separators. From experience, fuels with an asphaltene content of less than two thirds of the CCR number are considered as being less critical in that sense. TO minimize compatibility problems, tare should be taken to avoid mixingbunkers from different sources/suppliers in the storage tank on board. Care must also be taken if fuel blending is intended to bring down the viscosity of the fuel by blendingwith a distillate type fuel (e.g. marine diesel oii). Paraffinic distillate, when added to the heavy fuel oil, cari cause the asphaltenes to settle out, resulting in heavy sludge formation. For judging the stability of a type of heavy fuel oil the SHF - test (sediment by hot filtration) is generally applied. For a safe stability criterion, the fuel must not exceed 0.15% sediments in the hot filtration test (SHF). 3. Sulphur The alkalinity (BN) of the lubricating oil should be selected with regard to the sulphur level of the fuel in use. For example when using fuel oil with avery low sulphur content, acylinder lubricating oil with respectively lower BN is recommended. Indications for the selection of the BN of lubricating oil in relation to the sulphur content of the fuel oil are found in the recommendations for lubricating oil. 4. Ash and metals
Fuel oilswith a high content of ash forming contaminations promote abrasive wear in the engine. Vanadium, particularly in a compound with sodium forms corrosive melts on hot components (valves and piston surface) which lead to coatings (valve seat, turbine blades) as well as to material abrasion. Here certain ratios of vanadium/sodium are particularly critical, as the melting temperature is much reduced SOthat also components running at a lower operating temperature are affected. Sodium originates partly from sea water, it is therefore essential to separate water by settling and centrifuging to the utmost extent from the fuel oil. The sodium content must under no circumstances exceed 100 mg/kg (ppm). Fuel oils with low values of vanadium and sodium are to be preferred. The effects of hot corrosion cari to some extent be counteracted by using suitable fuel additives (ash modifiers, combustion catalysts). Such additives increase the melting point of vanadium compounds or effect a change in their modification SOthat they adhere less to components. 5. Aluminium Aluminium occasionally appears in crude oil as a natural common impurity element. However, if it appears in a larger percentage in compound with silicon in the fuel oil (e.g. over 10 mglkg) it cari be regarded as an indication of catalytic fines (cat. fines) as residues of catalytic cracking. Such residues cari enter marine fuel oil as a result of errors in the refining operation or else by using unsuitablëblending components in considerable quantities in the process. These catalytic residues from aluminium oxides appear as small pellets and cari cause extraordinary high wear on piston rings and cylinder liners. In order to eliminate these particles in the separator, the separator must be operated at its optimum, i.e. the throughput must possibly he reduced to less than 20% of the nominal rate and the separating temperature kept as high as possible (98 22°C). Expe rience shows that with correct operation of the separator the content of e.g. 30 mg/kg cari be reduced to less than lOmg/kg. A content of 8mg/kg aluminium before the engine is regarded as just tolerable. When judging the destructiveness of such residue, not only its ratio (mg/kg) but also the size distribution and the shape of the pellets are relevant. In practice these criteria are, however, not easily kept under control.
6. Water The water content of the fuel must be further reduced by careful purification, most effectively done by centrifuging and the use of proper draining arrangements on the settling and service tanks. A water content not exceeding about 0.2% volume after fuel treatment is an appropriate guiding value. TO achieve a good separating effect, the throughput should be reduced and the separator temperature kept as constant as possible. For recommended data, refer also to the separator Instruction Manual. 7. Flash point The flash point is a value determined by the inspection authority for judging fire risks. For this, local regulations of the responsible authorities must be additionally obsexved. The flash point is basically not a quality criterion for Diesel fuel. 8. Pour point The Iowest admissible temperature of the fuel must be about 5 - 10°C above the pour point to secure easy pumping. 9. Ignition quality (CCAI)
The Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index (CCAI), as proposed by Shell, has been suggested as a criterion for the ignition quality of diesel fuels. Although there appear to be no rigidly applicable limits for this quality, generally, a fuel with a CCAI value not exceeding the number 870 may be considered as giving no trouble in this respect. The CCAI is not a criterion for other [email protected] properties of a diesel fuel.
0356-4 OPERATING Lubricating
The functions to be performed by the lubricant in a diesel engine cari be summarized as reduction of friction and wear, cooling of engine components, sealing of piston rings and cyiinder liner and prevention of corrosion at high and low temperatures. In addition to this, it must be able to tope with unfavourable by-products through its neutralization and detergent / dispersa1 properties. TOeffectively perform a11these functions it must have specific physical and chemical properties. An alkaline trunk-piston engine oil with detergent / dispersa1 properties, designed for application in medium speed engines running on residual type fuel must be selected. Although there are no standardized test methods in force for this type of oil, reference is often made to US-Army MIL-L-specifications, the now obsolete Caterpillar specifications and AP1 classification to indicate the performance level of the lubricating oil. The same oil is used for the bearing system and the separate cylinder lubrication (dual purpose oil, SAB40). The type of fuel used, distillate or residual, determines the necessary performance level of the lubricating oil. Residual fuels impose higher requirements on the lubricant.
As base stocks highly refmed naphthenic as well as paraffinic or mixed based minera1 oils have provensuccessful in service. As a guideline the following characteristics are indicated: Viscosity at 40°C ................... Viscosity index ( VI ) ............................ SAB Viscosity grade .............................. Flash point ( COC) ......................... Pour point ...................................... Alkalinity(BNASTMD2896) Alkalinity and performance cosity grade SAE 40.
. . . . . . . to be chosen with regard to sulphur content of fuel used
level of the lubricating oil is to be selected in accordance with the type of fuel. Vis-
for the Selection of Fresh Oil
Distillate grade fuel sulphur content of fuel % wt
up to 1%
15 - 20
Residual grade fuel (heavy fuel oil) sulphur content of fuel
30 - 40
When using a fuel with a sulphur content of more than 3%, a lube oil with an alkalinity of 40 BN is to be given preference.
When nmning on heavy fuel oil the lubricating oil must be continuously separated, for which a centrifugal separatorworkingin bypass is recommended which, according to latest advice by the separator manufacturers, has to be operated as a purifier. It is recommended that the flow rate be reduced to about 20% of the separators nominal rate. Separating at normal separating temperature should commence at least 4 hours before starting-up the engine and continue for 2 t 4 hours after shut-down. The temperature of the lube oil should be 85 to 95°C at the separator inlet. Water washing must not be applied.
4. Used oil testing
Under normal operating conditions samples of the lubricating oil should be taken fiorn the system of the engine as explained on sheet 0356/1 of the Maintenance Manual. From an analysis of the samples, it is possible to comment on the condition of the oil and to confirm if it is fït for further service. It is advisable to make use of the services offered by the oil suppliers for this purpose.
The used oil testingshould caver the followingdata: -
Base number (BN)
Nature of water
Possibly also dilution by fuel and metal content (spectroscopie analysis) might be included. The significance of analysis resultscan best be assessed if they are considered as a whole and in relation to the past analytical history of the oil. In the course of time even the best quality lubricating oil changes its properties due to ageing, oxidation and contamination caused by the working conditions in such a way that a change of the oil fil1 must be considered. However, it is not possible to give a fixed time interval for this purpose since this is influenced by the operating conditions and the efficiency of the oil treatment. For general guidance, condemning limits are indicated below. A rather sudden change of one or the other of these parameters cari indicate abnormal operating conditions or failures in the system. In such a case it would be of little help just to change the oil without investigating the cause. Correct sampling is most important to be able to draw true conclusions from the analysis. Care must therefore be taken to ensure that the sample is not contaminated after being drawn. The instructions given on sheet 0356 of the Maintenance Manual must be observed.
nominal values for lubricating oils in use
The values indicated below are given as a guidance. As pointed out before, their significance cari be best assessed ifthey are considered as a whole andin relation to each other. Normally, the oil is still fit for service if the values of the listed parameters are within the limits indicated hereafter:
Nominal values for lubricating oil in use
Change of viscosity ...................
% of initial value
Flash point (COC) ...................
Water content .......................
Total insolubles ......................
about 60% of original value in new condition
If one of these limits is reached remedial action must be taken to bring the oil charge back to normal condition. Besides renewal of the complete oil charge, this might also be achieved by intensified separation (e.g. through decreasing the intervals between the discharge cycles of the separator), special treatment in a reeonditioning tank (settling tank, sufficiently high temperature of the oil of 70 to 80°C is thereby important) or by partial replacement of the oil charge. It is also recommended to seek advice from the oil supplier. It bas been stressed by the separator manufacturers that lube oil separators must only be operated as purifiers for reasons of safety. In clarifier operation, the danger existsthatthedirtseparatedoutfromthe oilwillsolidify in the bowl so that its removal is no longer certain, leading to eut-of-balance and destruction of the bowl.
6. Other luhe oil requirements
6.1 ‘lbrbocharger For the selection and maintenance of the lubricating oil the requirements of the turbocharger supplier as outlined in the instruction book must be observed. As a general guidance it cari be stated that a good minera1 oil of the rust and oxidation inhibited type, with good resistance to thermal degradation and antifoaming properties is recommended. This is best achieved by application of a premium turbine oil of viscosity grade ISO VG 68 (i.e. approx. 68 mm 2/s at 40°C). Furthermore oils of the viscosity grade VG 78 cari be used. Should a rapid discolouration of the lubricating oil be noticed in the turbocharger then the antifriction bearings have to be checked for earlywear. It must, however, be realized that some minera1 oils eventually become darker due to ageing and oxidation processes, when in continuous use.
6.2 Hydraulic govemor For use in the hydraulic governor a rust and oxidation inhibited oil that gives minimum foaming with a viscosity of about 25 to 50 cSt at operating temperature is recommended. In practically every case, the oil used in the turbocharger or in the crankcase of the engine Willbe satisfactoxy for use in the govemor. It is very important to keep the oil clean. It is recommended to change the oil charge yearly.
6.3 Tbming gear EP Gear Oil, FZG test stage 12, viscosity grade ISO VG 220.
TO avoid service stoppages due to the cooling water circuit the water must be suitably treated to cause neither corrosion nor the formation of sediments. Untreated coolingwater leads, from experience, relatively quickly to the formation of sediments and incrustations and with it to troubles in the cooling system. 2. Raw water for closed cooling water circuits
For a fresh filling the raw water must, without fail, be totally desalinated water or condensate water from e.g. the fresh water generators or from auxiliary steam systems with additives. Condensate water is highly corrosive and must therefore be made suitable as a coolant by corrosion inhibitors. Only in exceptional situations should drinking water or process water be used from the local mains. Its hardness must on no account exceed 10 “dH (German hardness degrees). If the water exceeds this limit it must be desalinated and brought to the hardness value indicated below. Sea water must never be used as raw water because of its high content of salts. As a nominal guide for the desired raw water quality the following values should be used: Hardness ....................................
In cases of doubt a water analysis must be carried out and advice be sought from New Sulzer Diesel Ltd. It is generally not recommended to use corrosion protective oils (emulsion oils) for treating the coolingwater, as considerable risks are run to fou1 the cooling system, if instructions are not strictly adhered to and insufficient checks of the coolant (a water-oil emulsion) are carried out. .
3. Cooling water in service TObe suitable, cooling water must, as already mentioned above, be treated by the right, and correctly administered corrosion inhibitor. Well proven in service are inhibitors with NITRITE and BORATE as active ingredients. A listing of proven and tested marketed products cari be obtained from New Sulzer Diesel Ltd. upon request. The dosage must be strictly in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer, and it must be periodically checked in service to maintain the correct concentration. It is recommended to choose such suppliers of inhibitors who cari also provide expert advice for the fresh filling as well as for later in service. Coolant leakages have to be madegood again by adding the right water with the correctly metered additive. Loss by evaporation has to be made up by correct raw water (see above). In thisway au over concentration of inhibitors is prevented. The cooling water in the cooling system should have a pH-value of 9 to maximum 10. A faultless and permanent venting of the cooling system is an essential requirement for the uniform and effec-
tive cooling of a11componentsin the system. The water cooled spaces must be regularly inspected for rust formation, contamination and the formation of sediments. The quality of the cooling water must be tested for its correct inhibitor concentration as well as for
other parameters. Here the instructions of the supplier of the inhibitor must be carefully followed. It is also recommended to secure the services of the inhibitor supplier or to utilize appropriate test kits as per instructions.
Emulsion oils When emulsion oils are used as inhibitors, it is essential that full attention be paid to the following points: -the system must be scrupulously clean before being put into service. - the emulsion oil is added according to the instructions. When the system has been operating for a short time, the original inhibitor concentration falls sharply due to the creation of an oil film on the metal surfaces (e.g. from 0.5% down to 0.1% by weight). Only after the concentration drops below 0.1% weight should a calculated amount of fresh emulsion oil be added to bring the value back to 0.4% to 0.5% by weight. For tests on the existing concentration of inhibitors the recommendations
of the oil supplier must be followed.
Too high a concentration causes an increase in the oil film thickness and thereby impairs the heat transfer, which in turn causes increased corrosion and local overheating (heat cracks, burn stars). Totally Salt-free water cari result in the emulsion oil causing foaming, in which case anti-foaming additives should be used according to the oil supplier’s instructions Cuoling water systems with emulsion oils are particularly sensitive to contamination or fouling and especially in the presence of combustion residues. The acid in them causes the emulsion to decompose, which leads to sludge formation. We therefore strongly recommend using chemically acting corrosion inhibitors.
4. Cleaning the cooling water system For a fresh filling the complete cooling system must be clean, free from grease and oil and must not contain any foreign particles or remainders from the manufacture. Later, in service, cleaning cari become necessary if by influx of oil or when due to gradua1 formation of sediments the heat transfer and with it the cooling effect is diminished. Such problems Willoccur earlier where the tare of the cooling water and of the cooling system has not been given the required attention. The complete system must then be treated by a suitable detergent agent (degreasing, dissolution of chalk sediments). Prier to filling with the prepared cooling water, the system has to be thoroughly rinsed through and any residual acid remains neutralized.
For this purpose suitable cleaning agents are available, which are too numerous to be listed here. We again recommend, however, to consult a firm of specialists for assistance. Contaminations occurring during operation are settling in the cooling system particularly in areas where the water velocity is low and they considerably impair the heat transfer. Cooling water spaces in cylinder heads especially have to be periodically checked. Should sedimentation be detected then the complete cooling system must be cleaned.
:General indications The prerequisite for a safe operation free from trouble is an engine that is having the best possible maintenance. The below mentioned points should always be a guide to the maintenance staff. Lighting Besides a permanent good lighting, hand lamps should be ready at hand in various locations of the engine room. Cleanliness The engine room as well as the engine itself should always be kept as clean as possible. Any leakages should be attended to as soon as possible. Dust, sand and chemical vapours must be prevented from entering the engine room. Waming Opening valves and other shut-off devices may allow hot fluids or gases to escape. When dismantling engine components prestressed springs may suddenly expand. Fire Welding work and activities which cause sparks, should not be carried out in the engine room, before ensuring that no explosive gases, vapours or inflammable fluids are present. Components such as exhaust turbocharger air fihers must be protected by suitable covering. When claddings and covers are removed before the engine has cooled down, the risk of fire or explosions is increased if welding is carried out or open flames are being handled. Care must also be taken when paints or easily inflammable solvents are used in the engine room. Insulation material saturated with oil or fuel (due to leakages) is also easily ignited and should therefore be replaced. Cleanliness in the whole engine room, also below the floor plates, reduces the possibility of a fire and the risk of its spreading. Tools Hand tools should be piaced at easily accessible locations and clearly arranged. Special tools and devices shah be placed in the engine room in the vicinity of their usual application in such a way that they cari be put into action without hindrances. In marine installations they must be fastened and protected against rust. Spare parts Large spares should be stored as near as possible to their probable place of fitting, well braced and secured and where they are in the reach of the engine room crane. All the spare parts must be well protected against corrosion, but with a compound requiring little effort for removal. They must also be protected against mechanical damage. Spare parts removed from the store should be replaced as soon as possible. Opening the crankcase doors If the engine has to be shut-down due to suspected heated parts of the running gear or bearings, at least 20 minutes must elapse before the covers are unfastened and removed to reduce the danger of an explosion. Temperature sensing by hand touch When commissioning an engine after an overhaul of its running gear a check must be made by hand touching to find out whether any areas are heating abnormally. Thischeck should be made after 10 minutes operation and repeated after about 1 hour. Following this, the checking should again be made after a short full load run.
When using the turning gear the indicator valves on the cylinder head must be opened. It is advisable also to start the pre-lubricating pump. Measuring
These instruments should be checked periodically and calibrated. Risk of frost
If there is a possibility that the temperature in the engine room falls below freezing point, with the engine put out of service, measures must be taken that the water in the engine, in the pumps, coolers and piping system cannot freeze. (Draining the systems or heating the engine room).
INSTRUCTIONS Normal Operation
for normal operation
The important checks and precautions during normal operation are carried out as follows, either by the personnel responsible or instrumentation, depending on the installation. 1. Regular checking of the pressures and temperatures using the pressure gauges and thermometers. The values and limits laid down in the engine acceptance records, supplied separately, and table 0358 should be maintained. 2. The temperature
differences behveen the cooling water inlets and outlets should be kept assmall as possible, i.e. as much water as possible should be allowed to flow through the engine. For this reason, the cooling systems should never be unnecessarily restricted.
3. Check that the various valves for the engine cooling and lubricating systems are in the correct positions. 4. Any changes to the cooling water flows should be made slowly, since abrupt temperature damage due to thermal stressing.
changes cari cause
5. It is particularly important to maintain the correct charge air temperature after the air cooler. In principle, the charge air temperature should be kept as low as possible since higher temperatures result in less air to the cylinders. However, the temperature must not be low enough to cause condensation. This means that the air temperature after the air cooler must be above the equivalent dew point. 6. Thecharge air pressure drops across the turbocharger air filter and the cooler should be checked. If the pressure drop is too high, this cari result in too little air reaching the engine which, in turn, cari lead to turbocharger surging. 7. When heavy oil is used as a fuel, the temperature at the engine inlet must always be kept high enough SOthat the viscosity lies within the permissible range (see sheet 0357-21). 8. Comparison of the readings shown on the instruments with those indicated in the Engine Acceptance Report Will provide a good indication of the engine’s behaviour. TOthe most importance readings belong: position of the engine load indicator, speed of turbocharger, chargeair pressure and exhaust temperature before the turbocharger, as well as on stationary engines the power output of the generator and on marine engines the engine speed. A good indication is also obtained by the specific fuel consumption, whereby fluctuations in the lower calorific value of the fuel must be taken into consideration.
9. It is particularly important to watch the exhaust gas temperature before the turbine. The maximum permissible temperature must never be exceeded (see sheet 0358 and the separate turbocharger instructions). The exhaust gas temperatures after each cylinder are only meaningful when comparedwith the values obtained during the shop tests; by themselves they are of no importance. If the temperature after any single cylinder varies considerably from the test results, the reason must be found. 10. Combustion cari be checked from the colour of the exhaust gases, or by making smoke tests where apparatus is available. 11. On engines with separate cylinder lubrication, regulate the cylinder lub. oil quantity and calculate the specific consumption. 12. If
provided, check the various components in the cylinder lubricating system (header tank level, oil filter, oil pump, flow-control valve,OREKI-hydraulic motor and cylinderlubricatingpumps).
13. Listening to the engine noise cari disclose irregularities. 14. The fuel oil must be thoroughly cleaned before use. Water and sludge should be regularly drained from the daily fuel tank and fuel filter. The separator instructions must be observed.
15. The permanent drain from the receiver space on the engine housing and of the charge air cooler casing must always be open and during operation charge air issues. If water emerges it is necessary to clarify whether it is : condensate or cooling water. In the latter case, the cooler is defective and must be repaired. Should water flow out, one has to clarify whether it is water from the cooling system of the cylinder or the charge air cooler low temperature circuit. From time to time the drains must be checked, for possible blockage. 16. The permanent venting of the cooling systems must always be open to permit air to escape. 17. Check the pressure drop across the oil filter. 18. Check the levels in the water and oil tanks as well as those from the leakage pipes. AIways look for the cause of any abnormal changes. 19. Check the cylinder and fuel valve cooling water for contamination (e.g. in the header tank level glass). The cause of any contamination should be found and remedied. The water should be analyzed regularly. The concentration of any water treatment additives must be strictly maintained. 20. From time to time indicator cards must be taken and be assessed and compared with one another. 21. Lub. oil should be centrifuged. Lub. oil samples should be taken regularly and sent to an approved laboratory for analysis (for permissible oil contamination see sheet 0356).
NeW sulzer Diesel
for operating the engine after overhauls and long periods out of service (one or more days)
The engine should not be started after a long period out of service until the following basic checks have been carried out. 1. Check that no tools, equipment, cloths, etc. have been left in or on the engine after overhaul. 2. Check the levels in the various engine tanks and auxiliary equipment (also turbocharger, govemor, etc.) 3. Check that the fuel control linkages move freely. 4. On engines with separate cylinder lubrication turn the hand crank on the cylinder lubricators about 30 times to charge the delivery pipes. Watch each flow indicator and check that excessive force is not needed to turn the crank. 5. Check that the various valves for the engine cooling, lubrication and fuel systems are in the correct positions. 6. Start up the cooling water, lubricating and fuel oil pumps and adjust the pressures (see sheet 0358). Start the stand-by or pre-lubricating oil pump on engines with built-on pumps. Switch on the available heating for lubricating oil and cooling water. 7. Check that any cocks fitted in the cylinder and turbocharger air vent pipes are open. The water side of the charge air coolers must also be vented. (No venting, or even partial venting of cooling water spaces cari lead to damage to the engine). 8. Open the indicator cocks in the cylinder heads and rotate the engine several times with the turning gear (min. two full turns) to make sure that the running gear is working satisfactorily and that no water, oil or fuel has collected in the cylinders. 9. After any work has been done on the engine lubricating oil system, open the crankcase door and remove the rocker covers. ‘Rrm the engine until oil cari be seen flowing out of all the running gear bearings and rocker gear. The separate pre-lubricating pump has to be used on engines equipped with built-on pumps. 10. Close indicator cocks. 11. When the engine is to be run on high viscosity fuel (heavy fuel oil), the fuel has to be correctly pre-heated (see sheet 0357-21). In this case the fuel valve cooling water must also be heated. 12. Check the starting air pressure (30 bar). Blow any water out of the piping and starting air receivers. 13. Check along whole the engine for leaks. If such appear remedy immediately. 14. Disengage the turning gear and lock the operating lever. )
15. For further instructions see ‘Starting the Engine’. Depending on the type and layout of an installation, further preparations Will have to be carried out for which the operating personnel must receive separate instructions.
for starting after a long stoppage or after an overhaul
In addition to the above mentioned measures the following points must be noted:
1. Check the connection govemor-regulating linkage. With governor output position “10” the regulating linkage must allow being pressed to L.I. position “0” (see also sheet 5808). 2. If bearings and/or parts of the running gear have been replaced or removed for inspection, their lubricating oil supply should be assured as far as possible at normal oil pressure (see sheet 0358). During the engine operation following such measures it is recommended to check these parts for abnormal heating. For these checks following commissioning the engine should be stopped at first after short intervals then after longer inter-vals SOthat the temperature of respective parts cari be compared with those which had been removed or replaced respectively. 3. Regarding the fitting of new pistons, piston rings and cylinder liners please refer to section 0360 “Running-in”. 4. Check whether the passages for charge air and exhaust gases are free. 5. Should conservation oil have been filled in to preserve some components or the whole engine, drain this oil off and replace it with normal engine oil as recommended on sheet 0356-4.
Starting a Marine Engine
Starting the engine (with pneumatic speed setting) The engine may only be started when the fuel pump settings, the governor settings, the adjustment of the safety shut-off and of the regulating linkage are in order. If the engine has been stopped for some time, the instructions of the section ‘Preparation for Star-t-up’ (sheet 0357-2) must be followed. We recommend to turn the engine in any case at least two revolutions with opened indicator cocks, with the turning gear. If the engine has been stopped only very shortly this procedure cari be omitted. For starting the engine proceed as follows: 1. Start the pumps for lubricating oil, fuel transfer and cooling water. 2. Check whether the operating lever of the turning gear is in the disengaged position and blocked. 3. Checkwhether available.
the shut-off valves for starting air and control air are open and whether sufficient air pressure is
4. Set the pressure for the required speed (r.p.m.) on the pre-selector (about 2 bar). 5. a) Local controI stand: Press hand lever to STAR??-position until the engine fiies evenly then put hand lever back to RUN-position. or b) Remote control:
Hand lever on the local control stand must be in AUTO-position. Press starting button until the engine fires evenly. (By starting failure the starting air is shut-off automatically after 10 seconds).
6. Raise the engine speed slowly until the operating speed is reached. Full load should only be reached when the operating media have reached the specified values (see sheet 0358). 7. Watch the turbocharger speed (as a function of the load) and compare it with the values in the test report. _ .a 8. The load indicator may not exceed the position marked in the test report for a given load.
Besides the above mentioned general instructions, the special instructions specific for your power plant must be followed, like engine roomventilation, re-cooling the cooling water, re-filling the fuel and water tanks etc. The compressor must be started to recharge the starting air receivers (30 bar).
Starting of stationary engines Starting the ennine (see separate puplication EC 40, Operating
The engine may only be started when the fuel-injection pumps, the governor, and the control linkages are correctly set. the safety tut-outs, Where the engine has been out of service for a long period, the information in section "Preparation for starting" has to be followed (sec page 0357-Z). We
recommend that the engine be turned through at least two revolutions by the turning gear except in those cases where the engine has been stopped for only a short period.
TO start, the following things have to be done: 1. Start up lubricating oil, fuel'booster and cylinder cooling water pumps. (Where engines are fitted with engine-driven pumps, the stand-by or prelubricating and circulating pumps to be started). 2. Check that the turning gear is disengaged and that the is locked.
3. Check that the shut-off valves for starting and control air are open and that sufficient pressure is available. 4. Operate starting button for a short period. 5. Bring the engine slowly up to the necessary speed. (Extended running without load should be avoided however). 6. Synchronize and put alternator in parallel (if supply is to a grid). 7. Load up the engine steadily and only put onto full load when the lubricating oil and cooling water have reached service temperature. 8. Check operating pressures and temperatures (sec Table 0358). 9. Check the turbocharger speed and compare this with the value in the acceptance records (the speed depends on the load). 10.
shown in the accep-
tance records at any given load. Apart from the general instructions given here, the instructions for machinery-space ventilation, water cooling, re-filling of fuel and water tanks, etc. have to be followed. The starting air receivers have also to be topped up (30 bar).
INSTRUCTIONS a Reversible Marine Engine
at JAW Speed
in Heavy Seas
Al1 manoeuvring events are described in detail in the leaflet “Engine Control” Operating Instructions. Some generai recommendations for manoeuvring are listed below: 1. In installations where the shut-off valve of the starting air containercan remain closed during normal operation, this valve should be opened for the manoeuvring periods. If the engine is shut-off or if manoeurvring is not required for a longer period, the air receiver shut-off valve cari be closed again. 2. When reversing please keep in mind that the engine requires some time for this. The camshaft must be shifted to the other end position, and before a new start the engine speed must drop below 100 r.p.m. 3. The starting button has to be pressed down until the engine runs smoothly on fuel. 4. The camshaft cannot be shifted if the fuel linkage is not in the position ZERO or if the speed is too low (below 20 r.p.m.). Operation
at low speed
When operating at low speed the cooling water inlet temperature to the charge air cooler should be as high as possible, SOthat the engine does not cool down too much. Operation
in heavy seas
When the propeller is emerged and submerged constantly in heavy seas the engine speed should be reduced. When the propeller emerges there is a risk that the engine is shut off by the mechanical overspeed trip.
INSTRUCTIONS Running on Overload
- The engine cari be operated at the guaranteed overload for a limited period of time. In the absence of any special agreement, this is restricted to 110% of the full load output. - With correctly adjusted fuel pump control, the full load position of the load indicator should not be exceeded, or only for a short period of time during normal operation. - The overload position of the load indicator should only be attained in exceptional circumstances and for no longer than one hour. The engine speed, load indicator and the exhaust temperature before the turbine(s) are socalled "yardsticks" for the engine load. * - The maximum admissible overload position of the load indicator is laid down in the acceptance tria1 report for the engine, and may not be exceeded. The same applies as well to the maximum admissible temperature before the turbine(s) which may not exceed the maximum admissible values under any circumstances. - The maximum fuel charge limit stop of the regulating linkage set during acceptance trials 1s not to be moved under any circumstances. - When operating with overload, special cape should be given to the proper functioning of the cylinder lubrication system. - Tbe outlet temperatures for water and oil may not exceed the specified maximum admissible values (sec acceptance tria1 report and Table 0358). - Theevisual inspection and supervision of pressures and temperatures on the engine must be carried out more frequently when operating with overload.
INSTRUCTIONS a Marine Engine
If it is not necessaIy to shutdown the engine immediately for compelling reasons, the engine load should be reduced s u c c e s s i v e 1y in order to avoid extreme thermal stressing of the component material. Following shut-down of the engine, the cylinder cooling water system and the lube oil pumps are to be lef? in operation for at least 10 minutes to allow an equalization of temperatures within the engine. Leakages on the engine observed during its operation are to be remedied as quickly as possible after shut-down.
During a stoppage of some duration
The engine running gear should be turned in reasonably short intervals (in dly climates weekly, in very moist cl& mates daily), the procedure being:
Open indicator valves;
Start motor driven lubricating oil pumps;
Rotate the crank of the cylinder lubricators about 10 + 20 turns (see also sheet 0357-Z);
Start tuming gear and rotate crankshaft at least two revolutions.
~.\ .a zA4os A
Shutting-down a Stationary Engine
If it is not absolutely essential to stop the engine immediately, the engine has to be taken off load slowly in order to avoid extreme thermal stressing. After the altemator has been taken off the grid, we recommend that the engine be allowed to run at idling speed for approximately 5 minutes until even temperatures are spread throughout the engine. This short running period at idling speed is particularly important for those engines being supplied by their own engine-driven pumps otherwise cooling and lubrication would be abruptly stopped. Where available, the stand-by pumps should be put into operation for at least another 10 minutes. Wherecooling and lubrication is supplied by electric-driven pumps, we recommend that they be kept running for at least 10 minutes after the engine has been stopped. Any leaks observed while the engine was running should be cured as soon as possible. During a stoppage of some duration The engine running gear should be turned in reasonably short intervals (in dry climates weekly, in very moist climates daily), the procedure being: - Open indicator valves; - Start the stand-by or pre-lubricating oil pumps; - Rotate the crank of the cylinder lubricators about 10 f 20 tums (see also sheet 0357-2); - Start turning gear and rotate crankshaft at least two revolutions.
0357-6 OPEHATING Tria1
runs on the stake after major overhauls (only applicable on marine engines)
After a major overhaul, it is advisable to run the engine for some a coupled propeller at about 60% full load. This enables the usual the running gear to be carried out at the least inconvenience.
time with checks on
If, however, the ship's berth does net permit such a mooring trial, the engine cari be operated at smaller loads with disengaged transmission. The following precautions are to be taken because of the danger of the ship running away: 1. Once the engine overhaul has been completed, control system and the other control systems engine is started up. 2. Before cutout
the engine for proper
is put into operation, operation as well.
make sure that the fuel pump function properly before the
the operability of the regulating linkage 3. Furthermore, checked. This is best effected by moving the emergency
is also to be shut-down lever
and fro. 4. Before the engine is started up, make sure that the control rods of a11 fuel injection pumps move freely up to Pos. "0" of the load indicator.
from the re5. The engine may not be started if the governor is disconnected adjusted or in a gulating linkage, the governor is blocked, incorrectly defective condition. several machine personnel should be stationed 6. For the starting manoeuvre, around the engine, SO that in a case of emergency the control rods of the fuel injection pumps cari be broght to "Zero" charge by hand should the engine start to run away and get out of control. one of the machi7. When operating the engine with a disengaged transmission, nists is to remain constantly on the control stand SO that he cari intervene immediately should this prove necessary. The engine speed is to be kept under constant observation. 8. During
for any unusual
9. Critical speeds at which the engine vibrates are to be avoided. ranges are to be passed through as quickly as possible.
I leavy fuel oils, as they arc supplied today l’or hurning in Diesel cngincs. rcquire a carcful trcatment which makes thc installation ofa suitablc plant ncccssary. According to prcscnt techniques thc most cffcctivc rcmoval ofsolids and watcr from liquid fuels is achicvcd by ccntrifugal scparators.
1. Treatment of heavy fuel oils, treatment plant, present-day
and their use
Heavyfuel oils arc mostlycontaminatcdwith solids and watcr. Should unclcaned or insufficicntly trcatcd hcavy fuel oil enter thc engine, it cari cause unacceptably rapid wcar on engine components like piston rings, cylinder liners, fuel pumps, fuel valves etc. Furthermore excessive deposits cari be formcd in the combustion spaccs. Particularlysodium the turbocharger.
in the fuel oil (which originates from sea water) leads to formation of deposits on pistons and in For this reason, water must be separated carefully out of the fuel oil.
Settling tanks are used for the first steps of treatment. However, they only effect a coarse separation, particularly of free water from the heavy fuel oil. To keep them effective settling tanks must have the sludge and water, accumulating in the tank bottom, periodically drained off. The main cleaning is effected by carefully dimensioned and correctly adjusted and operated centrifuges. Modern designs rendersuperfluous the previously necessary adaptation of the gravity discs tovarying densities of heavy fuel oils in use. Modern machines automatically expel the sludge from the centrifuge. For modem power plants, designed for burning heavy fuel oils of the lowest grade such centrifuges are an absolute necessity. This applies in particular when heavy fuel oils with densities of 991 kg/ m3 and higher and with viscosities of 700 cSt/SO”Cmust be used. Homogenizers cari improve combustion properties to some extent, theywill however be of no help in the removal of solids from the fuel oil. They are therefore to be regarded solely as additional equipment in the treatment plant. Filters hold backsolids of a specified size and shape. They cari,, however, practically partly even cause accellerated fouling of filters.
Treatment of heavy fuel oil, heavy fuel oii and Diesel fuel oil separation
not hold back water. Water Will
As a result of experience we strongly recommend the use of centrifuges for the treatment of heavy fuel oils, and as already mentioned, preferably centrifuges of a modern design and make, which work without gravity discs, and, at the desired throughput able to effectively clean poor quality fuel oilsof high density (max. 1010 kg/m3 at 15’C) and of high viscosity (max. 700 cSt/SO”C) and ensure continuous unattended on board working of the separator u,nits. In older treatment plants one finds occasionally centrifuges with replaceable gravity discs, which must in each case be adapted to the density of the heavy fuel oil to be treated. The correct size of the gravity disc has to be selected in accordance with the specifications of the respective manufacturer. It is further recommended to operate such centrifuges as purifiers with clarifiers arranged in series. The layout of the complete treatment plant must conform to our recommendations. tions of the centrifuge makers are to be followed in the first place.
For its operation
Theseparating effect, i.e. the cleaningeffect depends on the throughput and on the viscosityof the heavy fuel oil. As a general rule, the smaller the throughput (m3/hr or Itr/hr) and the lower the viscosity of the heavy fuel oil, the better the separating effect. It necessitates heating the heavy fuel oil before it enters the centrifuge and maintaining the working temperature at a constant level within a tolerance of -r 2°C. The minimum pre-heating temperature required depends on the viscosity at 5O”Cof the heavy fuel oil in question. This temperature cari be read off theviscosityjtemperature diagram, please also refer to the instructions of the makers of your centrifuge. For design reasons the admissible pre-heating temperature is sometimes limited to 98 2 2°C. The sludge removed cleaning centrifuges the correct function utmost importance does not impair the assured in operation
by centrifuging must be removed periodically from the separator bowl. In the case of selfthe sequence of the emptying process may be controlled automatically but even in such a plant and the frequency of proceedings must be kept under control by the operating personnel. Of is the unimpeded drain of the sludge from the bowl, SO that unacceptably high back pressure function of separation and thereby of cleaning the heavy fuel oil. This point must be absolutely by periodical inspections. NW suker Diesel
Key to above schematic 1
Heavy fuel oil settling
Heavy fuel oil daily tank
Diesel oil daily tank
heavy fuel oil clarifier
Diesel oil purifier
Supply pump to heavy fuel oil separator
TO Diesel oil storage
Supply pump to Diesel oil and heavy fuel
From heavy fuel oil transfer
Drain / de-watering
Supply pump to Diesel oil separator
From Diesel oil storage
Heavy fuel pre-heater
Diesel oil pre-heater
Area for alternative
heavy fuel oil purifier
of the fuel system (see schematic
sludge tank arrangement
In the described plant the complete fuel system is pressurized, orate at the temperature required for the heavy fuel oil.
0357-20) SOthat any water contained
in the fuel does not evap-
The low pressure feed pump 16 draws heavy fuel oil from the daily tank 11, when the valve 13 is in the respective position, and delivers it to the buffer unit 19. From here the high pressure booster pump 20 draws and feeds the heavy fuel oil via end-heatcr 21 and filter 1 to the injection pumps of the engine. The delivery capacity of the high
pressureboosterpump20is a [email protected] not used by the injection pumps of the engine flows back to the buffer unit 19. The pressure required pumps on the pressure
in the system is set on the pressure retaining valve 5.
valve 14, the pressure
The pump 16 feeds from the heavy fuel oil daily tank 11 only the amount of fuel used up by the engine. The contents of the heavy fuel oit daily tank 11 must if necessary be heated, to permit its being pumped. Authorities’ safety requirements, however, restrict the tcmperature of heavy fuel oil in the daily tank 11. Only the amount of fuel oil circulating from the buffer unit 19 to the injection pumps and back to the buffer unit must bc heated to the tcmpcrature required for the injection. This is done by the end-hcatcr 21. The heating of the buffer unit 19 and of the rcturn piping cari,, if necessary, be included into this circuit. The treatment plant should be SOarranged oil daily tank 12. 11.91
that no heavy fuel oil cari enter the Diesel
Engine operation with heavy fuel oil
If thc fuel viscosity is too high, cxccssivc prcssurc is produced in thc injection systcm which may cause parts of thc injection pumps or thcir drive to be damagcd or cause thc rclicfvalves to opcn. At thc samc time the atomization of the L’ucloil is impaircd, which rcsults in incomplctc combustion.
Thc viscosity of fuel oils cari bc reduccd by hcating. Shcct 0X7-21 and tcmpcraturc for various hcavy fuel oils. Recommended
viscosi& at ~he inlet to the kjection
shows a typical rclationship
Shect 0357-21 also shows thc temperature rcquired to lower the viscosity of thc respective heavy fuel oil to the value required at the inlet to the injection pumps. This temperature is gcnerallycalled “Required pre-heating temperature”. The pre-heating of the heavy fuel oil is to be regulated by a viscosimeter. TO exclude irregular operation vapour formation in the injection pump must be prevented. For this reason the pre-heated heavy fuel oil is led to the injection pumps under pressure by the high pressure booster pump 20. This pressure (see sheet 0358) must be set on the pressure regulating valve 5. 4. Attendance
The engine cari be started on Diesel oil or on heavy fuel oil, and manoeuvred on both. For a start on heavy fuel oil sufficient heating energy must be available. If this is not available the start must be made on Diesel oil. Aswitch over to heavy fuel oil may only be made when the required viscosity is attained. If sufficient heating energy is not assured, operation must again be switched back to Diesel oil before shutting the engine down for a longer period. After operating
at low load the output should be raised gradually.
When work on the engine’s fuel system is scheduled early time to flush the system through.
at the next stop, we recommend
to Diesel oil at an
The daily tanks 11 and 12 as well as the buffer unit 19 must be de-watered and de-sludged at regular intervals, for which the drain cocks are used. TO keep them effective, tanks must have the sludge and water, accumulating in the tank bottom, periodically drained off. Preparations
before starting on heavy fiel oil:
cooling water must be heated to about 60°C.
The viscosity of the heavy fuel oil before the inlet to the injection ing temperature (see also paragraph 3). (See sheet 0357-21). Furthermore its separator.
it would be of advantage
pumps must be brought
to circulate the bearing lubricatingoil
to the required
about 4 hours before the start through
Operating on heavy fuel oil: For continuous operation, the temperature of the fuel oil must be kept at the nominal value (refer to “Required pre-heating temperature”). The cooling water of the injection nozzles must be kept at the specified temperature over the whole load range (see sheet 0358).
Manoeuvring on heavy fuel oil: When manoeuvring on heavy fuel oil, the fuel temperature (see sheet 0357-21) valve cooling water (see sheet 0358) must be kept at the specified values.
N#?lN SUlZ8W Diesel
and the temperature
of the fuel
IIigh pressure boostcr pump20 must bc kcpt running, so that thc fuel cari circulatc a11thc injection pumps and through thc buffer unit 19. The cooling watcr of thc injection Cylindcr
(plcasc rcfcr to shcct ()35x).
cooling watcr to bc kept at ahout 60°C.
nozzlcs must bc kcpt at thc spccificd
at thc rcquircdviscositythrough
pump or stand-by
pump for bcaring
must bc kcpt running.
ovcr from Diesel oil 10 heauy fitel oil.
Before changingovcr it is ncccssary toswitch-on thc hcatingof thc buffer unit 19, thc cnd-hcater 21, fuel indicator filter 1 and of the fuel piping. After reversing thc 3-way valve 13, in the buffer unit 19 a mixture of Diesel oil and heavy fuel oil is formed. The viscosimeter controls the end-heater 21 in such a way that thc viscosity (pre-heating temperature) of the mixture is maintained. Thc hcating should take place slowly (max. lS”C/min.). The heating to the fuel filter and fuel piping should be kept on at Ieast till the required read on the thermometer on the engine, has been attained. It is recommendable not to exceed 75% CMCR Ioad during switch-over aturc has been reached.
and until the required
heavy fuel oil to Diesel oil operation.
For the switch-over the 3-way valve 13 must first be turned. In the buffer unit 19 a mixture of heavy fuel oil and Diesel oil Will then be formed. The viscosity of the circulating mixture drops rapidly as the Diesel oil share increases. It is advisable
to change over from heavy fuel oil to Diesel oil operation Key to schematic 1
Pressure measured at engine manometer panel. Approx. temperature rise at continuous service power (recommended limiting values for alarm system with computer) For pressurized fuel oil systems the min. fuel oil pressure must be 1.0 bar higher than saturated steam pressure at the relevant fuel oil temperature (generally not lower than 5 bar). If using Diesel oil: the pressure may be lowered by 2 bar (no heating required). The water flow has to be within the prescribed limits. Approx. max. values in service (fouled condition). TObe kept as low as possible, Refer to acceptance tria1 results for normal values. Automatic or manual slow down. Setting points for electrical safety eut-out devices on the engine (supplied by the engine manufacturer). Maximum admissible deviation of individual cylinders from the mean value f 70°C. On engines with waste-gate the alarm point is set at: 720 kW = 3.2 bar; 660 kW = 2.8 bar; 600 kW = 2.5 bar. Limit values for viscosity (viscosimeter) are between 13 cSt ...17 cSt at 60°C ...15O”C.
NfbW sul?!er Diesel
Pressure and Temperature Ranges, Alarms and Safeguards at Continuous Service Power with T w o - s t a g e Charge Air Cooler 1
Alarm 1 Gauge Pressure
M easunng .-+’ rornt
Set point Slow-DOW~ Autom. Stop 9) 8)
Gauge Temp. Gauge PWCC Press. bar
Jacket cooling water
3 4 5 l5 -
Injecter noule cooling water
7 I3 -
High temperature circuit
11 0 1-1 1’2 1.3 18 1:
lylinder lube oil
Iiubocharger bearing oil
Fuel oil after filter
Fuel oil after éed pump
Feed pump outlet
Intake air system Air fiiter on turbocharger Intake air system Jducting, filter, silencer)
Admissible pressure drop
Admissible pressure drop
2’ 22 23
Bearing shell flotf l 1 Injection pumps inlet
i Charge air cooler
4 2G 25 -
Refer to turbocharger
I 1 _ 4)1 _ 10
216 27 -
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
8) 9) 10) 11)
25 7 6
1 30 18
Cylinder outlet Turbine inlet Pressure at turbine outlet
Admissible t 6) pressure drop
Exttnt of measuring points for Afarm, Slow-Down and Automatic Stop is subjeet to agreement bctwwn: cagloe maker, New Sulzer Diesel Ltd, Classiflcatlon and Customer. Pressure measured at engine manometer panel. Approx. temperature rise at continuous service power (recommended limiting values for alarm system with computer) For pressurized fuel oil systems the min. fuel oil ressure must be 1.0 bar higher than saturated steam pressure at the relevant fuel oil temperature (generally not lower than 5 &ar). If using Diesel oil: the pressure may be lowered by 2 bar (no heating required). The water flow has to be within the prescribed limits. Approx. max. values in service (fouled condition). TObe kept as low as possible. Refer to acceptance tria1 results for normal values. Automatic or manual slow down. Setting points for electrical safety tut-out devices on the engine (supplied by the engine manufacturer). Maximum admissible deviation of individual cylinders from the mean value + 70°C. On engines with waste-gate the alarm point is set at: 720 kW = 3.2 bar; 660 kW = 2.8 bar; 600 kW = 2.5 bar. Limit values for viscosity (viscosimeter) are between 13 cSt ...17 cSt at 60°C ...15O”C.
0358b Pressure and Temperature Ranges, Alarms and Safeguards at Continuous Service Power with T w o - s t a g e Charge Air Cooler I
1 Gauge Pressure bar
Measu rtng Point
Autom. stop 9)
Temp. ( bar
. . -“I. bar
Jacket cooling water
3 1 -p 5 5-
2 0 1 2 3 4
Main bearing Cylinder
9 -u 0
1 2 -$ 3
c 2 Charge air cooler
4 5 6
2) 3) 4) 5)
7) 8) 9) 10) 11)
Extent of measuring points for Mann, Slow-Down and Automatic Stop is subject to agrcement behvecn: engine makcr, New Sulxer Diesel Ltd, Classification aad Customer.
Pressure measured at engine manometer panel. Approx. temperature rise at continuous service power (recommended limiting values for alarm system with computer) For pressurized fuel oil systems the min. fuel oil ressure must be 1.0 bar higher than saturated steam pressure at the relevant fuel oil temperature (generally not lower than 5 1 ar). If using Diesel oil: the pressure may be lowered by 2 bar (no heating required). The water flow has to be within the prescribed limits. Approx. max. values in service (fouled condition). TO be kept as low as possible. Refer to acceptance tria1 results for normal values. Automatic or manual slow down. Setting points for electrical safety tut-out devices on the engine (supplied by the engine manufacturer). Maximum admissible deviation of individual cylinders from the mean value k 70°C. On engines with waste-gate the alarm point is set at: 720 kW = 3.2 bar; MO kW = 2.8 bar; 600 kW = 2.5 bar. Limit values for viscosity (viscosimeter) are between 13 cSt . ..17 cSt at 60°C ...15O”C.
AIR TEMPERATURE CHARGE AIR COOLER
Influence of the ambient temperature The shown temperatures
are valid if:
The water nominal flow through cooler is unvaried.
The pressure drop through the cooler does not exceed the admissible value of 400 mm w,g., due to dirt accumulation on the air side. Open cooling system -
Closed cooling system Water Temp. at Cooler blet (“C)
ô 0 V
Cyl’m d er output 450 kW --+ w
open cooling system +
water temp. 31 “C
charge air temp. 32’C to 47°C.
NîEW SUtMW Dlesel
Engine cioesnot turn during "start"
- Turning gear still engaged - Starting air bottles empty, or insufficient pressure - Shut-off valves on the starting air bottles or in the supply lines closed - Starting air shut-off valve not working - Starting valves jammed - Rotary slide valve of control air distributor not being pressed against starting carn - One or more of the working pistons or another running gear component jammed - Control valve for automatic air shut-off valve jammed and does not open
Engine attains firing speed but cylinders don't fire
- No fuel in tank. Shut-off valve in front of fuel filter closed. Fuel filter clogged up. - Fuel injection pump inlet cocks closed - Regulating linkage not being released by the governor (sec WOODWARD instructions) - Oil or water pressure tut-outs have functioned - Fuel pump regulating linkage jammed or stuck in the zero position - Mechanical safety tut-out device has actuated and not been re-set _ ,'- Fuel delivery lines between not tightened enough
Heavy ignition on firing
and delivery branches
- Fuel limiter has not functioned - Some of the injection pressure
- Defective fuel nozzles - Injection pump control not in order (cams displaced, camshaft gear wheels not meshing properly).
Individual Cylinders operating irregularly or out of action
- Fuel pump regulating linkage jammed, or in zero-charge position - Guide plunger of one or more of the fuel pumps jammed in TDC - Fuel pump plunger seized - Fuel supply line not tight or line ruptured - Fuel nozzle clogged up or leaking. Nozzle needle does not move - Compression pressure too low for ignition (piston rings defective, valves in cylinder caver do not close because of insufficient valve clearance,defective valves)
Engine stops when being started after firing a couple of times
- WOODWARD governor not working properly _ Fuel supply interrupted (filter blocked up, cock closed)
Black exhaust from individual cylinders
- Engine overloaded (check exhaust temperature and load indicator)
- Fuel pump control rod jenuned
- Individual cylinders not firing or receiving too much fuel - Inlet and outlet valve clearances adjusted incorrectly - Compression pressure of individual cylinders too low (defective piston rings, inlet or outlet valve leaking) - Fuel or valve cams not set properly, wrong timing by incorrect meshing of camshaft drive gears - Fuel nozzles blocked up or nozzles leaking. Possibility of
- Nozzle holes badly eroded
Blac k exhaust generally
- Engine overloaded - Insufficient charge air pressure (filter clogged up, charge air cooler badly contaminated on the air side) - Dirty turbocharger - Inside of exhaust pipes very dirty - Camshaft drive gears incorrectly fitted - Fuel injection pumps set incorrectly - Unsuitable
Engine does not reach requi red output
fuel being used
- Governor defective - Regulating linkage jammed - Fuel supply pressure toolow - Fuel not pre-heated enough (with heavy fuel oil) - Fuel limiter remains in the same position - Injection valves in a poor condition - Compression too low (defective piston rings, valve seat leaking, inlet and outlet valves do not close)
Engine running irregularly or some cylinders tut out
- Fluctuation of pressure in fuel supply (fuel booster pump defective) - Fuel temperature before the fuel injection pumps too high or too low -
- Leakages or defects in the fuel injection system - Individual nozzle needles of the fuel injection valves jammed - WOOWYARD governor not working properly - Fluctuation of pressure in the charge air system (one of the turbochargers surging) - Temporary actuation of the pneumatic safety tut-out device due to tut-off limit being reached (during no-load running)
Engine output draps without
any adjustment being undertaken
- A running
- Fuel injection pump defective or fractured fuel pipe - Fuel injecter nozzle blocked up - Fuel supply pressure too low (booster pump defective or insufficient capacity) - Inlet or outlet valve defective (seating burnt, poor sealing) - Contaminated
turbocharger or air coolers
- Poor combustion
to defective nozzles
'. - Actuation of the monitoring equipment (no oil pressure, or too low) - WOODWARD governor defective or blocked - Fuel tanks empty, or fuel supply interrupted through the closing of a shut-off valve, or fuel filter blocked UP - Mechanical overspeed safety tut-out device has actuated
Ringing or knocking of the inlet or outlet valves
- Valve clearance incorrectly set, or broken valve spring - Early ingnition due to incorrectly drive gears
set cams or camshaft
- Fuel unsuitable
Knocking noises during stroke
- Excessive connecting rod bearing play (bolts loose!) - Main piston beginning to seize - Valve clearance has increased
fuel injection pump control)
contd. from: Knocking noise during stroke
- Nozzle needle of one of the fuel valve nozzles stuck (uncontrolled injection and poor atomization) - Unsuitable
- The uppermost piston ring strikes against the ridge worn in the top of the cylinder bore - Defective working piston
Pressure differente of the charge air through the air filters and air coolers increases continuously at constant load
- Dirty turbocharger filter and air coolers
Reduction in the temperature difference between the cooling water inlet and outlet
- Dirty air coolers
- System lub. oil cooler leaking (defective tube)
in the lub.
Water in the charge air cooler housing or charge air space
- Condensation of the charge air (due to excessive cooling of the air) - One or more of the rubber rings for the cylinder liners not sealing properly - Charge air cooler leaking (defective tube)
the prevention of crankcase explosions
Investigations into the causes of crankcase explosions with diesel engines have shown that they cari only occur under particular conditions and, therefore, are extremly rare. The oil mist in the crankcase is inflammable over avery narrow range of mixture only. Weaker or richer mixtures do not ignite. Spontaneous ignition is theoretically and practically impossible. There must always be an extraneous cause to set off ignition such as hot engine components. Only under these circumstances and the presence of a critical mixture ratio of oil mist and air cari an explosion occur. The engine is equipped, as required, with an oil mist detector (see sheet 9314), which monitors continuously the density of oil mist in the crankcase and triggers an alarm or stops the engine (depends on the installation) if the mist exceeds a limit of admissible density. Good engine maintenance and deliberate action in cases of an alarm rule out explosions to a large degree. Attention!
Should the engine be shut down (manually or by the monitoring unit) because of a suspected heating-up of a running gear, then neither the covers nor the casings of the crankcase may be opened immediately. The heated areas must cool during at least 20 minutes, to prevent ignition from access of fresh air. Till the heated parts have cooled, the danger of an explosion is possible just the same. TO prevent accidents no person may therefore stand in the vicinity of the explosion flaps of the crankcase doors. Fire extinguishing equipment should be kept close at hand when the crankcase or engine housing is subsequently opened.
A) Operation with defective charge air cooiers If the tubes of the Charge Air Cooler (CAC for short) are defective, the cooling medium cari enter the working cylinder of the engine. If water flows out of the drain pipes of the CAC or of the engine cylinder block, the engine room personnel has to determine in each case whether the leakage is water of condensation or cooling medium. When untreated water is used for the air cooling, this leakage cari lead to serious corrosion. A leakage from the drain pipe may also be cylinder cooling water, which would occur when the O-rings of the cylinder liners are defective and leaking. If a CAC leakage is established, the following remedial measures should be taken. 1. Single-stage charge air cooler (only for direct cooling) - Replace the defective CAC by a spare cooler as soon as the operating conditions permit. - If no spare cooler is available and if no other suitable CAC cari be procured in a sufficiently short time, the following emergency remedies cari be undertaken: a) Removal of the defective CAC and closing the aperture in the CAC housing. If there is a possibility to repair the defective CAC, the aperture in the CAC housing is closed temporarily with a blind flange. The cooling water inlet and return pipes are blanked off. b) Shutting down and draining the defective CAC. If the üme atones disposa1 does not suffice to remove and repair the defective CAC, it must be shut down completely and drained. Al1 individual cooling water inlet and return pipes and anyvent pipes connecting it with the other coolers must be blanked off carefully. When a CAC is shut down or removed, the engine may not be operated at a high load. As a rule of thumb: use 45°C after the turbocharger which corresponds to a load of 20%. Should the exhaust gas temperature before the turbine rise above the temperature at full load in normal operation, then the load must be further reduced. It is possible that the turbocharger begins to ‘surge’ before the maximum permissible exhaust gas temperature before the turbine is attained. In such a case the engine load must be reduced until the ‘surging’ stops. 2. Mo-stage compact charge air cooler as well as single-stage charge air cooler for central cooiing system
With these charge air coolers a leakage of thecooling tubes is practica+not to be expected, as they are operated with treated cooling water. Should a cooler defect occur just the same, then the following measures are possible: - As soon as the operation permits, remove the defective cooler and fit in its place the spare cooler. - In the fïtted condition block off the defective cooling tubes by suitable means (see Maintenance sheet 6601).
B) Operating the Engine with defective Turbo Charger If, in the event of a turbo charger failure, a spare one is not available, and the defective turbo charger cannot be tepaired at site, then the measures described in the operating manual of the manufacturers are to
be undertaken to keep the engine operating without it. (e.g. blocking the T.C. rotor etc.). If a turbo charger casing is cracked, the cooling water inlet and return pipes must be blanked off. In the inline engine one caver on the scavenging air receiver must be removed SO that the combustion air caribe drawn in directly from the outside. A slight vacuum should be maintained in the scavenging receiver (50 to 100 nrnW.C.) to ensure that the air is also drawn through the blower impeller (cooling of the turbo charger). In the V-engines the caver of the air space situated on the engine end opposite the turbo charger, must be removed. In both cases suitable precautions must be taken to prevent foreign bodies to be aspirated. With such emergency operation without the turbo charger any overloading of the engine must be avoided. For this end the following checks must be made continuously: - the colour of the exhaust gases (they must be black). - the exhaust gas temperature before the turbine (max. 52O'C) The permissible engine load when the turbo charger has failed is: a) for engines running at constant speed: approx. 130 kW/cyl. b) for engines driving a propeller: approx. 65 kW/cyl. * This corresponds to about 260 rpm or about 45% of the ships speed. Depending on the temperature and colour of the exhaust gases, the engine load may possibly have to be reduced still further. Independent to ohccking the exhaust gas temperature before the turbine, the exhaust gas temperatures after each cylinder must be checked, as the absence of the blower pre= impairs the scavenging of the individual cylinder to such an extent that the exhaust gas temperature after the cylinder caribecome the load limiting factor.
Operation with cut-out fuel injection pump
The regulating rack of the fuel pump is to be withdrawn to zero-delivery and arrested in this position with the special spacer (tool No. 9455.11) (see Fig. 5501-21). Should an engine have to be operated with one tut-out fuel injection pump, one has to consider that vibration problems might arise. It is therefore essential in every case toverify by what degree the speed and load must be reduced SOthat no consequential damage may be caused by the formation of resonant vibrations. These investigations have been carried out by the engine manufacturer when a11the components for the vibration calculation are known to them (engine specification, coupling, gearbox, shaft power and propeller). The vibration calculation is included in the engine Documentation, their instructions must be strictly followed. When operating over a long period with a eut-out fuel pump, the indicator valve on the respective cylinder head is to be opened hourly to allow any accumulated oil to be emitted. Opening the indicator valve must be done with the utmost tare, and the oil spray to be caught by suitable means or to be directed towards the drain tank. TOprevent any intensive lubrication of the non-operating piston, the lube oil feed cari be reduced. This is effected by setting the adjusting screws of the cylinder lubricating pump serving the respective lubrication points to minimum feed (see sheet 7210 and 7220). When resuming normal operation set the adjusting screws to the original position again. Operation with removed driving mechanism
Should an engine have to be operated with a removed driving mechanism the same conditions apply as described above. For operation with removed driving mechanism the following work must be cam.ed out: Remove piston with connecting rod and connecting rod head. .
Block lubricating oil outlet from crankpin with suitable bandage. Fit cylinder head without push rods to rocker arms. Block starting air pipe between flame arrestor housing and cylinder head. Disconnect control air to starting valve and plug pipe with a closing piece. Cut out fuel injection pump concerned (see sheet 5501).
In both cases where the engine must be run with cylinders tut-out, it may no longer be operated at full power. TO prevent a thermal overloading of the engine the full load position of the load indicator (LI) or the maximum exhaust gas temperatures before turbine (as per sheet 0358) may under no circumstance be exceeded. Furthermore the colour of the exhaust gases must always be observed, as the engine should not be operated with dark exhaust. The engine power and engine speed have to be correspondingly reduced, keeping in mind any barred-speed ranges at critical speeds. When individual cylinders are tut-out the turbocharger cari start ‘surging’. This makes itself known by a loud ‘baying/panting’ sound. Surging cari be detected visually at the pressure gauge as large fluctuations in the scavenge air pressure. Should the ‘surging’ occur at short inter-vals or even continuously, the speed (with fixed pitch propeller installations) or the propeller pitch (with controllable pitch propeller installations) has to be suitably reduced. Operation with one or more running gears removed should only be practised in extreme cases of emergency, i.e. where there is no other possibility for the vesse1 to proceed under its own steam.
The running-in programme described under item 4 is applicable when: piston rings, cylinder liners, piston crowns or piston shirts
have been replaced on one or more cylinders. 1. General
- A careful graduated and sufficiently prolonged running-in is the basis for further satisfactory service, well sealing compression rings and modest wear of cylinder liners, piston skirts and piston rings. - The re-use of second hand piston rings is N 0 T permissible! - Rotational speeds prohibited because of torsional vibrations must be avoided. - It is presupposed thaL the engine is in full operational readiness and that controls and monitoring function perfectly. The same is to be the case with the installation and ancillary equipment. - Running-in additives in the lubricating oil or fuel oil are not foreseen. 2. Cylinder lubricating oil for the running-in a) Engines operating on Diesel Oil (d&illate fiel)
When running-in engines which normally operate on diesel oil, the normal lubricating oil recommended in our lubricant specification should be used. This is lubricating oil of the viscosity class SAE40 suitable for medium speed engines with trunk pistons. When diesel fuel oilwith asulphur content of up to 1% or 1 - 2% is used, refer to the recommended lubricating oil on sheet 0365-5, item 2.1. b) Engines operating on Heavy Fuel Oil
If heavy fuel oil is used for running-in, the same lubricating oil should be used which is recommended normal operation with heavy fuel oil.
When heavy tue1 oil with a sulphur content of 1 - 3% or 3 - 5% is used, refer to the recommended lubricating oil on sheet 0356-5, item 2.2. c) Starting on Diesel Oil and subsequent switching to Heavy Fuel Oil
When avessel leaves the port or at the start-up of a stationary power plant, the engine is started up on diesel fuel for practical reasons instead of on heavy fuel oil. During the running-in, the operation on diesel fuel should be kept as short as possible and the changeover to heavy fuel should be carried out at the latest before reaching 50% of nominal load or load step 4 (please refer to running-in programme 036C-2). If a longer period of diesel fuel operation is envisaged, a cylinder lubricant must be used as indicated in paragraph a) and the lubricators would have to be filled up or re-filled by hand in such a case. 3. Cylinder lubricating oil flow quantity for running-in
The engine is equipped with a 1o a d d e p e n d e n t cylinder lubricating system, i.e. depending on the engine capacitycorrespondingto the loadpositionof the regulating shaft, the cylinder is supplied with a larger specific lubricant quantity (at 25% load) or a reduced specific lubricant quantity (at 100% load). For the running-in period of the individual cylinder components or of the complete engine, the lubricating oil quantity must be larger. TOachieve this the setting screws 2 on the cylinderlubricators 8 corresponding in tum to each cylinder have to be set to maximum feed stroke (tum anti-clockwise to the stop X = 0) (see also sheet 7220).
General reference value for the specific cylinder lubricating oil [email protected] at nominal power and speed
at MCR - power per cylinder, in g/kWh 660 kW 1 720 kW
Operating position Running-in the engine, during the first 100 operating hours. ................ After this reduce quantity in steps of 20h to normal operating value.
For normal opertion ..................................................
For running-in after overhaul
4. Running-in programme
Increasing to the corresponding load position should be done s 1o w 1y (indicated increase at load indicator: about 0.3 positions per minute). gradua1 steps 1
En ‘nes for ships with Fixed Pitch Propellers (F& propeller law)
Engines for driving altemators or Controllable Pitch Propellers (CPP) *
of nominal speed
of nominal speed (no load)
STOP: Check main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings which have either been
removed or renewed during overhaul for normal operating temperature.
74% of nominal speed
of nominal load
STOP: For cylinders with new piston rings, piston, piston skirt or cylinder liner:
Check the surface condition of the cylinder liner (from below). 7
* = ** =
of nominal speed
of nominal load
Wherepossible also mn in these engines according to ropeller 10~ In the event of service output not having been reacheB earlier
( exceptional case )
When it is absolutely essential that the engine be brought back into service with a faster load increase than in the preceding table, the full charge of the cylinder to be run in should be reduced to 50% for at least 4 hours and to 75% for a further 6 hours. The limiting of the fuel charge cari be done by putting a distance piece on the regulating rod between the fuel injection pump housing and clamp ring of the respective cylinder (similar to what is done to tut out one fuel injection pump completely, see Fig. 5501-21). The barred speed and load ranges for service with one or more cylinders not firing have also to be adhered to when running under the previously mentioned conditions (see sheet 0359-9). At the same time, the engine must not be allowed to run with surging turbocharger orwith too high exhaust temperatures. 5. Reduction of the cylinder lubricant flow [email protected] after running-in
After completion of the running-in programme the lubricating oil supply to the overhauled cylinder has to be kept at the increased flow for about another 100 operating hours at service load. Only after this time have the setting screws (E) to be turned back in stepswithin 24 hours to the normal Xvalue as specified in the setting table (see also sheet 7210).
) zA4os A
Group 1 TABLE
Crankshaft main bearing .............................................
End plate on driving end .............................................
The engine housing 1 is of grey cast iron. The transverse partitions carry the bearing saddles for the crankshaft and are drilled with passages ‘OE’ supplying lubricating oil to the bearings. The housing is open at the bottom for fitting the crankshaft. The bearing caps are fixed to the engine housing with two vertical main bearing studs each. The crankshaft main bearing caps are marked together with the engine housing (please refer to ‘M’ on illustration 1001-20). A force fit between engine housing and bearing cap is provided by two transverse tie rods 5 arranged horizontally. In this way the bottom, open part of the housing is given the necessary stiffening. The crankcase is accessible through fitting and inspection openings on both sides.
Key to Illustration
1 Engine housing (frame) 2 Crankshaft main bearing stud 3 Round nut for item 2 4 Crankshaft main bearing cap 5 Transverse tie rods
M Marking on bearing cap and engine housing OE
Lube oil inlet
(Please refer to Sheet 1008-20) The oil sump fastened to the underside of the engine casing collects the oil dripping down from the various pressure lubricated components of the engine. Sieves fitted in the oil outlets prevent the entry of solid particles into the main oil tank of the plant.
Key to Illustration 1008-20 1 2 3 4 5 6
Oil sump Screws (secured by locking wire) Sieve Round rubber joint (NITRIL) Screw with locking washer Stiffening cross plates
The crankshaft main bearing is equipped with an Upper bearing shell6 and a lower bearing shell6a. The Upper and lower bearing shells are not identical and therefore not interchangeable. The upper bearing shells have several holes and a central groove through which the lubricating oil enters the bearing from the rear side. The lower bearing shells are completely even with the exception of a short oil inlet groove. The crankshaft main bearing studs are pre-tensioned hydraulically (please refer to the Maintenance Manual, sheet 1201). Transverse tie rods screwed into the crankshaft bearing cap from each side are equally tightened by hydraulic pretensioning. Damaged crankshaft journals cari be reground up to a limited undersize, for which bearing shells with a smaller bore are to be used (please refer to the Maintenance Manual sheet 1201).
Key to Illustration
1 Engine housing
6a Lower crankshaft main bearing shell
2 Crankshaft main bearing stud
3 Round nut to item 2
8 Sealing disc
4 Crankshaft bearing cap 5 Transverse tie rod 6 Upper crankshaft main bearing shell
9 Protective cap 10 O-ring 11 Round nut for item 5
The crankshaft thrust bearing guides the crankshaft axially maintainingits designed position. The Upper and lower bearing shell of the thrust bearing are identical. The same bearing shells are ah.0 used as the Upper bearing shell for the crankpin bearing. The lubricating oil reaches the load bearing parts of the thrust bearing through bores in the crankshaft leading from the first crank. The thickness of the thrust ring halves determines the axial clearance of the crankshaft (please refer to the clearance table in the Maintenance Manual). Undersize bearing shells
As it concerns the same shells as those in the crankpin bearing of the connecting rod, please observe the information given under group 3302 of the Maintenance Manual. Oversize thrust ring halves
Should it become necessary to re-machine the shaft collars on the thrust bearing shaft, then the original axial clearance must be maintained by fitting thicker thrust ring halves (please refer to the corresponding table in group 1202 of the Maintenance Manual).
Key to Illustration
1 Casing of thrust bearing - lower part la Casing of thrust bearing - Upper part 2 Thrust bearing ring halves 3 Bearing shells 4 Thrust bearing shaft 5 Cylindrical dowel pin 6 Oil catcher - Upper part 6a Oil catcher - lower part 7 O-ring 8 Engine end plate 9 Crankshaft 10 Camshaft driving gear wheel *11 Screw *12 Screw 13 Tapered dowel pin (long) 14 Tapered dowel pin (short) 15 Oil connecting piece As
D Utilize sealing compound * Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual
1202 - 20
ZAL 405 1987
(Please refer to sheet 1601-20) TO prevent the build-up of pressure in the crank case the engine casing has been equipped with a venting device. It permits the oil mist to escape from the crank case but prevents the entry of fresh air into it. Key to Illustration Fig. 1601-20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 D B
Water separator Joint (1 mm) Spring washer Screw (fitted with LOCTITE) Valve plate Strike plate Valve seat (fitted with LOCTITE No. 0675) Valve casing Joint (1 mm) Drain pipe (oil) Spacer pipe Sealed with sealing compound Connection for drain pipe (condensate)
SAFETY VALVES CRANKCASE
The safety (relief) valves or explosion flap valves are mounted to the covers 3 of the crankcase (see illustration 1603-20 Figs. ‘A’and ‘B’). The number of covers with safety valves as well as their arrangement is determined by the requirements of the classification societies and may therefore not be altered. In case of a possible crankcase explosion the safety valve already opens at a differential pressure (interior/exterior) of 0.1 bar and allows the hot gases or flames to escape sideways. By the restoring force of the compression spring 9 the valve is immediately shut again by means of the spring carrier 8, thus shutting off the entry of fresh air into the crankcase and preventing further explosions. If a crankcase explosion has been observed the engine must be stopped immediately. Do not open any covers to the crankcase until the engine has cooled down and allow no one in the vicinity of the safety valves. Later the cause of the crankcase explosion has to be found. Depending on the engine equipment various makes of safety valve may be fitted on the engine. The caver 3 must always be fitted with both feet ‘F’ at the bottom.
Key to Illustration
A Safety valve Make BICERI (explosion flap valve) B Safety valve Make HOERBIGER 1 Flame arrestor (A) 2 Flame arrestor (B) 3
4 Engine housing 5 Tubular joint 6 Washer 7
8 Spring carrier (flap) 9 Compression spring
5 7 6
On the driving end of the engine the end plate designed in one piece constitutes the front closure of the engine housing. Its position is determined by several dowel pins 6.
Key to Illustration
1 Engine end plate 2 Bracing 3 Bracing * 4 Screw 5 Oil sump 6 Dowel pins D
Utilize sealing compound
* Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual
The Upper part of the cylinder liner is water cooled. From the cooling water space ‘KW’ in the engine housing the water is led over into the cylinder head through tangential bores aslant the cylinder centreline. Through two axial bores in the bottom end of the cylinder liner, cylinder lubricating oil is pumped up in pulsations by the cylinder lubricator. Through small connecting bores ‘OA the oil is spread onto the running surface of the cylinder liner. On engines with ‘inner lubrication’ the lubrication of the running surface is taking place through the piston (see sheet 3401). With this alternative, the cylinder liners are executed without longitudinal bores in the lower part of the liner (see Fig. 2105 - 22). Remark: No gasket
When replacing a cylinder liner take tare that one of the same design execution is fitted to ensure a Perfect cylinder lubrication. is required between the cylinder liner landing face and the engine casing as the seal is achieved metalli-
cally. The centring piece 7 and the screw 8 fix the cylinder liner in a specific position in the engine casing. They also prevent the cylinder liner being lifted out of the engine casing when the cylinder head is removed.
Key to illustrations
1 Cylinder liner
14 Centring pin (for positioning the cylinder head)
* Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual ** Only provided for design execution with separate cylinder lubrication
1 2 3 KW 4
3 KW 4
III - III
Every cylinder is equipped with a separate cylinder head, which provides the Upper closure of the combustion space and which also contains the various valves. - two inlet valves with ROTOCAP - two exhaust valves with ROTOCAP or TURNOMAT - one central fuel injection valve - one starting valve - one relief valve - one indicator valve The cylinder head is cooled by water, which enters from the bottom via the cylinder liner and flows through various bores (bore-cooled type). The cooling water leaves the cylinder head through an outlet bore at the top, from which it is collected and led away through a collecting pipe. The inlet and the exhaust valve differ, and also their seats are n o t identical. The valves are suitably marked at the top end of the spindle (see sheet 2750). The indicator valve screwed into the cylinder head seals off the indicator bore which connects the combustion chamber to the atmosphere. Indicator valves are required for measuring the compression and firing pressures during operation (see also sheet 2745). Usually a relief valve 51 is fitted to the cylinder head (see Fig. 2701-24 ‘A’),which is set to an opening pressure (stamped on the housing). On engines for certain stationary plants the relief valve is not a necessity and it has therefore been replaced by a threaded plug 50 (see Fig. 2701-24 ‘B’). The cylinder head is positioned on the engine housing by a centring pin (see sheet 2105).
2701- 1 CYLINDER
Key to Illustrations
1 Push rod cladding
38 Nozzle holder for the fuel injection valve (see sheet 2722)
3 Connecting piece
4 Cylinder head
* 40 Nut (fuel injecter)
5 Tubular joint (similar to 9) 6 Nut to cylinder head stud
41 Flange (fuel injecter)
7 Rocker arm cowling (see 2705)
42 Insert bush * 43 Nut (starting air valve)
8 Thread protecting cap 8a
44 Flange (starting air valve)
45 Starting air valve (see 2723)
9 Tubular joint 10 Cover for 7
46 Fuel injection nozzle
11 Main rocker (arm)
12 Stud for rocker arm cowling * 13 Nut for 12 14 Auxiliary rocker (arm)
50 Screw plug
(see Fig. 2701-24 ‘B’)
15 Hand grip
51 Relief valve 52 Main rocker pin
(see Fig. 2701-24 ‘A)
16 Outer valve spring 17 Inner valve spring
18 Valve guide
54 Oil connection piece
19 Inlet valve (see 2750)
55 Oil connection
(see Fig. 2105-20)
19a Exhaust valve (see 2750)
20 Inlet valve seat 21 Exhaust valve Seat
58 Centring pin
22 O-ring 23 Cylinder liner
59 Engine casing
24 Soft iron gasket 25 Connecting nipple (indicator valve)
* Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual. Fig. 2701-24
Alternative design executions:
‘A Relief valve 51 for Marine engine
‘B’ Screw plug 50 for Stationary engine zA4os
(50) 51 M\l-241 ?2722-201
f- wz ?22.842
A ZA4OS 10.91
4 -10x 240.460
ROCKER ARMS (Please refer to Fig. 2705-20) The rocker arms actuating the inlet and exhaust valves of every cylinder are contained in the rocker arm cowling, which is fastened to the cylinder head. The main rocker arms are actuated in turn by the cams on the camshaft through push rods and act directly onto the auxiliary rocker arms. The rocker arms are pivoted floatingly on their shafts. The shafts are again pivoted floatingly in the rocker arm housing. The lubrication by pressure oil is achieved through interna1 bores, from the engine casing, through the cylinder head into the rocker arm cowling. From bores in the rocker arms oil also flows to the bal1 head cups above the valve spindles and push rods. The vent valve (item bricating bores.
20,21,22) allows the air to escape quickly from the lu-
The rocker arms cari be removed and fitted without separating the rocker arm cowling from the cylinder head (please refer to the maintenance manual). Key
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8,8a 9 10 11 12 13,13a 14
Rocker arm cowling Bal1 head Main rocker arm Auxiliary rocker arm Bal1 head cups Plugs O-ring Locking nuts Spacer bush Plug Main rocker axle Bearing bush Snap ring Spacer bush
to Illustration Fig. 2705-20 15 16 17 18
Plug O-ring Bearing bush Auxiliary rocker axle
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Valve seat vent valve Seal ring 1 Bal1 Hose joint (like 28) Cowl caver Hand grip Stud Nut for 26 Hose joint (like 23)
* Tighten in accordance with instructions in the maintenance manual.
Each fuel stud 11 is equipped with a pressure valve 16, which ensures that during operation the fuel pressure before the fuel injection nozzle is maintained as high as possible. This prevents to a great extent cavitation erosion in the fuel injection valve. Possible leakages between the pressure valve and the fuel delivery connection or between pressure vaive and hpfuel pipe are collected and led along the protection pipe 3 through the fuel injection pump into the fuel leakage collecting pipe. The protection pipe around the fuel hp-pipe is designed to prevent fire hazard in case of a bursting fuel pipe. As the high pressure pipe and protection pipe form a unit they cari only be replaced together.
Key to Illustration 2716-20
1 Screw la Spring washer 2 Flange 3 Protection pipe 4 O-ring +5
6 Gasket 7 Plate 7a O-ring 8 Fuel injection pump caver 9 Spring washer 10 Screw * 11 Fuel stud 12 Cylinder head * 13 Screw 14 Spring 15 Valve casing 16 Valve body 17 Fuel hp-pipe 18 Cylindrical pin * Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual
17 10 9 7a 6
14 18 16 15 4
The fuel injection valve, called injecter for short, is water cooled. It is pressed onto its Seat in the cylinder head by a pre-tensioned spring washer stack. Sealing to the combustion space is metallic, i.e. it is not permitted to use a joint. With the aid of the spring tensioner 1, the prescribed openingpressure (sprayingpressure) cari be adjusted. Regarding opening pressure please refer to the resp. setting table delivered with the engine documentation. Testing, dismantling, assembling and setting of fuel injection valve has to be carried out in accordance with sheet 2722 in the Maintenance Manual. The fuel nozzle 15, and its needle 15a, are one unit; this means that the two parts may not be interchanged with other nozzles. They are always supplied as one unit.
Key to Illustration
1 Spring tensioner *2
3 Spring washer stack 4 Lock nut 5 Flange 6 Snap ring 7 Nozzle holder 8,8a
9 Spring 10 Spring plate 11 Spindle 12 Insert sleeve * 13 Cap nut 14 Locating dowel 15 Fuel nozzle 15a Nozzle needle 16 Cylinder head * 17 Fuel stud SL Spray holes KWZ Cooling water inlet BR Fuel (inlet)
KWR Cooling water return LB Leakage fuel * Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual
NelU sulzev Diesel
The starting air valve fitted in the cylinder head cari be removed or fitted as an assembly. Its function is controlled pneumatically by air from the starting air distributor (please refer to group 4301). It admits starting air (30 bar) to the cylinders in certain positions of the piston. The control timing i.e. opening or closing of the valve in relation to the crank position is entered in the setting table, which is supplied with the engine. Function
As long as the engine does not receive the starting command and there is no air pressure in the starting air pipe, the control valve 4 and the working piston 5 screw-connected to the valve spindle 7 are pressed upwards by the Springs 9 and 10 respectively. That means the valve is closed (please refer to the left side of illustration 2728-20). The schematic sketches in illustration 2728-21 show the starting air valve in the positions corresponding following situations: Figure 1
- The starting air pipe, therefore also the space ‘H’is under air pressure, but no staring command has been received. - Space ‘A’above the starting control valve 4 is without pressure. - Equal pressure exists in the space ‘D’ and ‘F’ above and below the working piston 5. The starting valve is shut.
- The valve has received the starting command (Open). - The starting air distributor has fed control air into the space ‘A’. - The control air valve 4 has been pressed onto its lower Seat. - The air below the working piston 5 escapes from the space ‘F’ through the bores ‘B’ and ‘N’.
- The control air from the starting air distributor presses the control valve 4 down. - In the space ‘F’ the air pressure escapes below the working piston 5, the pressure built-up above the piston 5 space ‘D’ pushes the piston with the valve spindle down, the valve 7 is open and starting air enters the combustion chamber ‘R.
- The air flow from the starting air distributor is interrupted. - Space ‘A’is without pressure. - The control valve 4 is pressed up by the spring 9. - Staring air enters the space ‘F’ below the working piston 5 and equalizes the pressure in the spaces ‘D’ and ‘F’. - Valve 7 is still open but closes immediately by the action of spring 10.
Key to Illustration Fig. 2728-20 “1
Nut Cylinder head Spacer Control valve Working piston Valve guidelcasing Valve spindle a Joint ring 9 Spring 10 Spring 11 Valve casing 12 Screw 13,13a Spring washer stack 14 Control air pipe *15 Nut 2 3 4 5 6 7
A B C D E F G H J K M Ml N P VS
*Tighten in accordance with instructions in the maintenance manual.
Pressure space above control valve Venting bores Venting bores Pressure space above working piston Connecting bore Pressure space below working piston Air passage bores Ring space Stop for working piston Combustion chamber Ring space Ring space 3 for venting Vent bore Balancing space Valve seat (closed control valve) Valve seat (open control valve)
69 Position of control valve 4 when closed
Position of control valve 4 when open
Steuerluft + CotvTRoL AIR
Steuerluft vom Anlassluftverteiler CONTROL AIR FROM STARTING AIR OISTRIBUTOR
Each cylinder head 1 is equipped with an indicator valve 5 which seals off the indicator bore (connection of the combustion chamber to the atmosphere). Indicator valves are required for measuring the compression and firing pressures of a11cylinders during operation with the aid of the “peak pressure indicator” (tool No. 9408.14). The indicator valve 1 must be opened by a separate handwhee18 (tool No. 9427.39). Before measuring these pressures, the indicator valves are to be opened for a short period during operation SOthat any existing residues of combustion in the indicator bores cari be ejected and thus not gain access to the measuring device. Attention!
When opening the indicator valve 5 hot dirty gas is exhausted, which cari lead to injuries. For this reason a sufficient distance must be kept from the hot gas outlet ‘HG’ when the indicator valve is opened.
During the measurement
operation with the “peak pressure indicator”, the respective indicator valve is to be
Standard values for compression and maximum ignition pressures must be taken from the shop tria1 report for the respective load and speed. Maintenance
Even if measurements are not being carried out, it is advisable during continuous operation to open the indicator valves for a short period once a day in order to prevent the possibility of the indicator bore from coking up. TO enable the engine to be turned over in a more favourable manner during overhaul and preparatory work for starting etc., the indicator valves are always to be opened. This Willenable liquids (water, fuel, oil etc. ), which have collected in the combustion space during longer standstill periods, to be ejected when the engine is tumed over. Key to Illustration
On top of the cylinder head two pairs of inlet and exhaust valves are arranged behind each other across the engine longitudinal axis (see sheet 2701). The opening and closing timing is controlled via the valve drive by the cams on the camshaft (see sheet 4401). The valves are again shut by the restoring forces of the valve Springs. In consideration of their dissimilar thermal loads, inlet and exhaust valves are differently executed. For easy distinction the valve spindles are therefore marked with “INLET” and “EXHAUST” respectively. The inlet and exhaust valves are equipped with rotating devices which render the following advantages: - by a short rotation during the valve stroke, combustion residues are wiped away; - the temperature
is equally distributed around the valve Seat;
- longer service life of valve spindles and valve seats. Inlet valve
For both power ranges the inlet valve is provided with a ROTOCAP rotating device. It produces a rotating movement during valve opening. The valve seat angle is d. 30”. Exhaust valve . Engines with an output up to 660 kWICylinder:
For this power range the standard equipment of the exhaust valve is the ROTOCAP rotating device. It produces a rotating movement during valve o p e n i n g. The valve seat angle is 30”~. . Engines with an output of 720 kWICylinder:
The exhaust valves for the high power range are equipped with the TURNOMAT rotating device. Tbe necessary rotating movement in this rotating device is produced during valve c 1o s i n g. The vale seat angle is 45” & The location for fitting inlet or exhaust valves respectively is shown in Fig. 2701-22.
Piston rings and oil scraper rings ..................................................
The shaft journals and crankpins are drilled through, to pass the lubricating oil fed to the main bearing journals also to the crankpin bearings. TOcounteract the unbalanced forcescounterweights 4 are fitted to the crank webs. The countetweights are fastened by hydraulically tensioned studs 3 and round nuts 5. By measuring the crank web deflection, the correct level of the main crankshaft journal bearing cari be checked. (Please follow the instructions on sheet 3101 of the Maintenance Manual).
Key to Illustration
1 Crankshaft 2 Positioning pin 3 Tension stud 4 Counterweight 5 Round nut to 3 6 Shaft extension for crankshaft 7 Threaded plug 8 Fitted coupling bolt 9 Gear wheel on crankshaft 10 Oil connecting sleeve 11 O-ring M Marking
4- IOZ 240.471
When conditions demand it, the crankshaft is fitted with a torsional vibration damper. This is to reduce torsional vibrations which may be dangerous for the crankshaft. Depending upon the demands, either a fluid damper or a leaf spring damper is required, each of which is bolted onto the crankshaft FREE END. Positioning marks ‘M’ on the flanges of the crankshaft and torsional vibration damper permit the latter to be refitted in exactly the same position if ever it has to be removed. The following is a short functional description of different damper types : 1. Fluid damper HOLSET, HASSE + WREDE and STE (see Fig. 3130-20)
The damper consists of a housing into which is installed a free-floating damping mass. The housing is rigidly connected to the crankshaft and hermetically sealed. A gap exists between the housing and the damping mass which is filled with silicone oil of a specific viscosity. - The damper requires no outside lubrication. - The torque is transmitted to the damping mass by the friction of the silicone oil. When torsional vibration occurs, there is relative motion between the housing and the damping mass. The resulting sheer stresses (friction) in the silicone oil bring about a damping of the torsional vibrations. - The work consumed by friction generates heat. When for any reason the torsional vibration damper is overloaded, the silicone oil overheats which leads to a change in the viscosity of the silicone oil. When this happens, the torsional vibration damper cari no longer fulfil its function and cari even lead to damage of the damper itself. - Maintenance: TOcheck the silicone oil, therefore, samples have to be drawn from the damper at prescribed intervals (see Maintenance Manual sheet 3130). 2. Leaf spring damper GEISLINGER
(see Fig. 3130-21)
The damper consists of an inner part 12 which carries an outer part 13 (damping mass). The inner part is rigidly connected to the crankshaft. Between each of these parts are radially arranged leaf spring packs 14 which are restrained at the outer ends. The spring packs form, together with the inner and outer parts, chambers which are filled with oil. j
- The damper requires lubricating oil from the engine pressure circuit for both lubrication and cooling. Thisoil being taken from the circuit along axial hole 11 in the outside crankshaft bearing journal (at FREE END). - The torque is transmitted to the outer part 13 by the flexible leaf spring packs 14. When torsional vibration occurs, there is relative motion between the inner part 12 and the outer part 13 (damping mass). The oil is forced from one chamber to another through restrictingslits thus damping the torsionalvibrations. - Maintenance: (Please refer to the documentation
of the manufacturer)
3. Sleeve spring damper WLKAN
(see Fig. 3130-22)
Inner part 21 of the damper is screw fastened to crankshaft part 27. Outer part 22 is connected elastically via sleeve Springs 24 and cari move in conformitywith the torsional vibrations. The outer part and the screw fastened side discs 23 constitute the “seismic mass”. Sleeve spring packs 24 are arranged between the inner and outer part and are compressed by the torsion of the damper. - For lubrication and cooling the damper requires oil from the engine circuit, which issupplied through a longitudinal bore 26 in the outermost crankshaft journal (at the FREE END) by the oil circuit. - Through radial drillings the individual spring chambers are supplied with pressure oil. Al1 hollow spaces of the damper are thus filled with oil. Through relative movement at the spring circle, a hydraulic damping is produced by oil displacement. Additionally frictional damping is produced within the spring packs. The essential damping capacity is, however, produced by oil displacement, i.e. oil is pressed through small gaps between side discs 23 and inner part 21. - Maintenance: Indications on inspection and maintenance work cari be gathered from the documentation turer.
of the manufac-
Key to Fig. 3130-21
Key to Fig. 3130-20
11 Oil supply hole
2 Damping mass
12 Damper inner part
13 Damper outer part
4 Damper oil (silicone)
14 Spring pack (leaf Springs)
5 Closing plug for use when
15 Closing caver 16 O-ring
taking silicone oil samples
17 O-ring Key to Fig. 3130-22
21 Damper inner part 22 Damper outer part 23 Damper side disc 24 Sleeve spring pack 25 Cover plate with shaft 26 Oil supply bore 27 Crankshaft 28 Screwed connection 29 Casing
30 Screw plug with through bore
4- 1OZ 240.506
’ VULKAN ’ Hülsenfederdampfer ’ VULKAN ’ Sleeve spring damper
(Please refer to sheet 3212-20,-23) For barring the crankshaft or moving the running gear (piston, connecting rod etc.) a turning gear is provided. It is driven by an electric motor and is arranged on the driving side of the engine. The pinion of the turning gear engages in the gear rim of the flywheel or indexing wheel. A dia1 and pointer permits determining in which position every piston stands. For precise barring the hand wheel coupled to the electric motor caribe manipulated. The pinion 17 which caribe shifted axially is driven by two worm gear drives running in an oil bath and arranged in series. The operating lever 5 serves to shift the pinion 17, to engage and disengage it in the flywheel gear teeth. In its end position it is locked by the locking pin 6. It controls a starting blocking valve, also in some installations a coupling blocking valve SO that the engine cannot be started with engaged pinion or be driven by another engine through coupling and gear box. The oil quantity in the casing is 18 litres. For oil quality, 'please refer to section 0356 "lubricating oil". Key to Illustrations Figs. 3212-20 to 23) a
Arrangement of the turning gear on the left engine side.
Arrangement of the turning gear on the right engine side.
1 Support 2 Pointer to dia1 on flywheel 3 Turning gear 4 Electric motor 5 Operating lever 6 Locking pin 7 Protection caver 8 Housing 9 Large worm gear Housing caver ti Fitted bolt 12 Thrust ring 13 Spacer ring 14 Oil drain plugs 15 Horizontal worm 16 Screw fixing shaft key 17 Pinion 18 Shaft key 19 Pinion shaft 20 Shaft, electric motor
21 22 23 24,24a 25 26 27 28 29,29a 30
Coupling flange Driving shaft Bearing housing Bearing bush Vertical worm Small worm gear Cover Cover for oil filling Ring screws Compression Springs
32 33 34,34a 35 36 37 38
Nut (self locking) Spacer ring Bal1 thrust bearing Spacer ring Spacer ring Cover Oil level glass
o- 107. 185. os9
The piston bearing is situated on the Upper spherical end of the connecting rod. This bearing is part of the working piston and therefore described on sheet 3401. An Upper and lower bearing half is fitted to the crankpin bearing, which are of different design. In order to avoid mistakes when fitting, each bearing half is provided with a positioning guide which is protruding only on one side of a shell half. Concerning undersize bearing shells, please consult the Maintenance Manual sheet 3302/1. The lubricating oil is fed through a drilling from the main journal to the crankpin and part of it flows through a central bore in the connecting rod to the piston bearing. The crankpin bearing is connected to the connecting rod by waisted studs which are tightened by hydraulic pre-tensioning. The two crankpin bearing halves are similarly fastened together. The compression shims 9 are fitted by the engine manufacturer in accordance with the cylinder power capacity and for normal operation require no modifications. The corresponding shim thickness is recorded in the setting table.
N Slot for fixing the bearing shell * Tighten in accordance with the instructions in the Maintenance Manual
The piston is also called working or rotating piston, i.e. during operation it slowly rotates automatically through its ZlXiS.
The rotation is achieved by a ratchet pawl, situated off centre to the connecting rod sphere, through a toothed rim and a flexible member. The stroke of the pawl is a function of its distance to the sphere and swing angle of the connecting rod. For each 67 turns of the crankshaft, the piston rotates one time through its axis. Pistons for engines with an output of 720 kW per cylinder are equipped with oil spray nozzles. For piston cooling, the oil is sprayed directly to the bore ends of the piston crown. The oil flow is indicated with arrows in illustration 3401-21. The ring space ‘RI? provides a constant oil supply to a11spray nozzles. Pistonswith ‘inner lubrication’ are provided with lubricating bores ‘OB’ in the piston skirt 11, which are connected by interna1 bores with the ring space ‘RR’ and assure a uniform cylinder lubrication. Remark:
Should the piston be replaced, please pay attention to the correct execution alternative (see also sheet 2105).
Key to Illustrations
* 1 Waisted screw 2 Supporting ring
16 Oil scraper ring 17 Centring dowel (cyl. pin, long)
(for engines with 720 kW/cylinder) (for engines with ‘inner lubrication’) * Tighten in accordance with instructions in the Maintenance Manual.
Kolben für MCR-660kW/Zyl. PISTON FOR MCFi-660kWICYL.
Leistung ENGINE POWER
ZA4OS (66OkWKyl.) sulzer DiC!Sd
Kolben für MCR-720kWlZyl. PISTON FOR MC%720kW/CYL.
Leistung ENGINE POWER
4 5 OE 16
Kolben mit ‘Innenschmierung’ PISTON WITH ‘INNER LUBRICATION’
15 22 14 14a 16
13a 13 12 11
10 9 ; OE 8 3 2
The fitted piston rings 1 and 2 guide the piston in the cylinder liner and seal the combustion space downwards. They prevent an excessive contamination in the crankcase. The oil scraper ring 3 prevents excessive oil entering the combustion space and thereby too high a carbon accumulation on the piston crown. The arrangement of rings in the piston ring grooves is as shown on sheet 3402-20. It is recommended to install only NSD original piston rings or rings manufactured by a specialized firm producing them according to New Sulzer Diesel specifications. Remark
On pistons with ‘inner lubrication’ the oil scraper ring 3 is situated in the lowermost groove of the piston crown (see Fig. 3401-22).
For the removal and fitting of the rings, the piston ring expander from the engine tool kit must be used (please consult the Maintenance Manual group 3402).
Key to Illustration 3402-20
Piston ring Piston rings
Oil scraper rings (designation: 579 Top)
*.(designation: 248A Top, 962 Top or 059 Top) (designation: 231 Top)
The camshaft is driven through gear wheels, the teeth of which are pressure oil lubricated by spray nozzles. The journal pin of the intermediate gear wheel and the camshaft bearings are connected to the pressurised oil system of the engine. The correct assembly position for the gear wheels is shown on Fig. 4101-20; note also the CHECK dimension ‘K (piease refer to Maintenance Manual sheet 4101/1 and /la).
Key to Illustrations
Camshaft driving gear wheel Large intermediate gear wheel Small intermediate gear wheel Gear wheel on camshaft Oil spray nozzle O-ring Camshaft Stopper ring (only for non-reversible engines) Thrust bearing ring halves (only for non-reversible engines) K Check dimension for gear train assembly M Markings for gear wheel position
NM SUlwr Diesel
ZA 140 ZA L 40
1. The camshaft is driven by the gear wheel on the crankshaft via the camshaft drive. On the In-line engine it turns in the same sense of rotation as the crankshaft. However on Vee-type engine the camshaft turns in the opposite direction to the crankshaft. The camshaft makes one full turn for two turns of the crankshaft SOthat the fuel is injected at the end of the compression stroke and that inlet and exhaust valves open or shut respectively at the right moment. The camshafts are bright steel shafts ground cylindrically, onto which the following parts are shrunk-on by the pressure oil method: - Cams for the inlet valve - Cams for the exhaust valve - Cams for the fuel injection pumps - Camshaft driven gear wheel - Stop rings for the thrust bearing (only for non-reversible engines) TOremove these parts from the shaft or to change their position, it is necessary to utilize special tooling which is not included in the standard tool kit. It is recommended not to undertake such work without having obtained the required instructions from the engine maker or without the assistance of a specialist. 2. The camshaft is supported at the engine ends and behveen the cylinders (see sheet 4216). Depending on the method of operation and vibration calculation, the 9 f 18 cylinder engines are either equipped with a flywheel disc or a vibration damper at the FREE END of each carnshaft. Vibration
The dampers of C. HASSE & WREDE CO. and STE make are specially adapted to the engine. Function and maintenance is analogous to the liquid vibration damper on the crankshaft (see sheet 3130). For damper cooling the cooling oil is injected through the spray nozzles 11. 3. Reversible
In reversible engines a reversing servomotor is mounted on the Free End of each camshaft. The reversing servomotor shifts the camshaft axially. It also locates the camshaft in the proper end positions; reversible engines therefore require no actual thrust bearing.
Key to Illustration
1 Gear wheel on the camshaft (driven gear) 2
3 Camshaft bearing 4 Cam for fuel injection pump 5 Cam for inlet valve 6 Cam for exhaust valve 7 Reversing servomotor 8 Stop ring for thrust bearing 9 Thrust bearing ring halves 10 Vibration damper or flywheel disc 11 Spray nozzle for cooling oil
/ RE VERSIBL
;G 6 5
4 - 107.240.504
The cams are mounted onto the camshaft by compressive shrinking. They are correctly set in the engine manufacturer’s works and normally must not be reset. Should it for any reason become necessary to shift cams, then the manufacturer must be consulted as arbitraty cam shifting cari lead to irreparable damage to cams and camshaft. The correct position of the cams is laid down in the setting table for the cooled down engine. The crank angle read off the graduation on the flywheel is valid as the opening begin after the respective valve has opened by 2.7 mm minus the adjusted valve clearance. (Measured with dia1 gauge on the valve rotary device). The position of the fuel pump cam is indicated in degrees before TDC and refers to the delivery start of the fuel pumps (please refer also to the Maintenance Manual, sheet 5501/2). Marks are engraved on both sides of the cams for the coarse setting, the indication for its application (EX= exhaust valve, B= fuel pump, IN or P4-IN= inlet valve) and on the cams for non-reversible engines an arrow for the correct sense of direction. (On cams for reversible engines the mounting position is unimportant as they are completely symmetrical to the marks). Remark
On engines with VTR 354-P or VTR 454-P turbochargers, inlet cams with designation P4-In are to be provided.
Key to Illustration
1 Exhaust valve cam, reversible II
Inlet valve cam, reversible
Fuel pump cam, reversible
Valve cam non-reversible
(In the example shown the same cam is used for inlet and exhaust valves. Depending on the arrangement of the engine different inlet and exhaust valve cams are fitted).
V Fuel pump cam non-reversible S Drillings for the insertion of pin spanners for setting X Connections for high pressure oil piping As opening begin the crank angle read off the graduation on the flywheel is valid, after which the respective valve has opened by the minus 2.7 mm adjusted valve clearance.
tx 4 - WX 240.195
The camshaft is held in bearing shell pairs. The two bearing shells are not identical and must be fitted as follows: - The upper bearing shell3 has a continuous oil groove. - The lower bearing shell4 has only two short oil intake grooves. TO prevent errors in fitting, pins 8 and 5 have been provided in the bearing caver 2. On the reversible engine the reversing servomotors are mounted on the FREE END of the camshaft. The axial guide for the camshaft is assured by a thrust bearing integrated in the reversing servomotor (please refer to illustration 4500-20a). In the non-reversible engine the last camshaft bearing on the DRIVING END is equipped additionallywith locating ring halves 6 (please refer to illustration 4216-21). They keep the camshaft axially in the correct position. The stop rings 7 are shrink-fitted onto the camshaft like the cams and the camshaft drive gear wheels.
Key to Illustrations
* 1 Camshaft bearing screw 2 Bearing caver
LT Bearing division AS Driving end
3 Upper bearing shell
N Normal bearing
4 Lower bearing shell
P Thrust bearing
5 Pin 6 Thrust bearing ring halve 7 Stop ring 8 Pin to bearing caver * Tightening according to instruction in the Maintenance Manual
1 \ \ \ / \ \ 1 \ \ \
The starting air distributor is driven off the camshaft. Its pur-pose is the control of the starting valves in the cylinder heads. Illustration 4301-2 shows the startingvalves in the cylinder heads. Illustration 4301-2 shows the starting air distributor of a reversible engine, illustration 4301-4 of a non-reversible engine. The pilot control valves are actuated only during the starting process. At a11other times they are pressed outwards by their Springs. This produces a clearance ‘S’ between the cam and the roller. In the reversible engine the piston is pushed by control air, entering by connections X and Y, to the position corresponding to the required direction of rotation. When the piston is in the right position, the valve passing starting air from the shut-off valve to the starting air distributor is actuated through connection Z. (Please refer to schematic diagram ‘Engine Control’ in the remote control documentation). One of the pilot control valves (illustration 4301-S) is then always in the position ‘d’ during starting process. The engine starts turning. Function
In a11four figures starting air is present in the space ‘A’.The pilot control valves are pressed by it onto the cam. Figure ‘a’
: The control air piping to the starting air valve is vented through connection ‘V’.
: The pilot control valve shuts the piping to the starting valve.
: The pilot control valve keeps the piping to the starting valve closed.
: The connection between space ‘A’(starting air) and ‘SV’ (to the starting valve) has been opened. Starting air opens the starting valve. Starting air flows from the shut-off valve through the starting valve directly into the respective cylinder.
4301- 1 Key to Illustrations 4301-2 and - 5 1 Oil slinger 2 Cam 3 Flange 4 O-ring 5 Control pilot valve 5a Spring 5b Roller 6 Piston seal ring 7 Piston 8 Protecting pipe 9 Thrust washer 10 Rod seal ring 11 Name plate 12 Shaft 13 Rod seal 14 Bearing ring 1.5 O-ring 16 Guide flange 17 Casing 18 O-ring 19 Camshaft 20 Cylindrical dowel pin M Setting mark S Clearance Connections for the control air pipes X
ZAL 40s clockwise rotation ZA.. 40s anti-clockwise rotation
ZAL 40s anti-clockwise rotation ZfW 40s clockwise rotation
to valve 215 H (see Engine Control diagram)
Reversible / ZA4OS
zA4os / Reversible
4301-3 Key to Illustrations 4301-4 and -5 1 Oil slinger 2 Cam 3 F]ange 4 O-ring 5 Control pilot valve 5a Spring 5b Roller * 6 Bolt 7 Shaft 8 Joint 9 Casing 10 O-ring 11 Camshaft 12 Cylindrical dowel pin M Setting mark S Clearance when not in operation = 1 mm * Tightening according to instructions in the Maintenance Manual
Non-reversible / ZA4OS
ZA4OS / Non-reversible
VENTiNG x Nocken - Kopfkrcis W CROW CIRCL
....... -.._, .
A nlos~ ;TAIRTING
ZA 40s 1987
(Please refer to Fig. 4304-20, -21 & 22) The shut-off valve stops the flow of starting air to the air starting valves until the pilot control valve receives the "starting couunand"and opens. As a rule the engine is equipped with o n e shut-off valve. Engines in emergency generating plants (having twin starting systems) and reversible V-engines are equipped with t w o such valves. A non return valve 6 is also a part of the shut-off valve. It protects the shut-off valve and the starting air pressure vesse1 from undesired pressure impacts from the combustion space. In installations where the plant is on full stand-by duty, and the therefore turned over slowly at intervals, using.starting air, the valve is equipped with a throttling non return valve (slow turning (please refer to sheet 4304-21, Fig. "A"). If these valves are not the respective openings are plugged on the shut-off valve. a)
engine shut-off valve) provided,
Function (Please refer to sheet 4304-21) In the ready to start engine, the space "A" is under air pressure which enters the shut-off valve directly from the starting air pipe "ALL". The same pressure exists in the spaces "B" from the pilot control valve "VSV". The force excerted by the air pressure on area "B" plus the spring pressure being larger than on the ring area in "A", the (valve) piston 5 is closed. At the command start, the pilot control valve lets the air escape from the spaces "B". The piston 5 is pressed against the spring till the stop and admits starting air from the space "A" into space 'Y". The non return valve Piston 6 is pressed against its spring and admits the air through the space "D" into the branchpipe to the starting valves. The non return valve 6 engine cylinders.
remains open whilst starting air flows to the
As soon as the command arrives to interrupt the starting process, air flows into the spaces "B" from the pilot control valve "VSV". It presses the (Valve)-piston 5 onto its Seat and interrupts the flow through of starting air. The non return(Valve)-piston 6 is immediately pressed on its Seat as soon as the air flow stops.
to Illustrations 4304-21 and -22 4304-22
4304-21 Shut-off Valve
"A" Pilot control Valve
"B" Throttling nor, Return valve
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Casing, shut off valve Spring Threaded plug Piston seal ring Valve piston Non return valve piston Threaded plug Screw Casing non return valve Valve seat
11 12 13
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
ALL ALV AV VSV
Starting air Control air distributor Starting valve Pilot control valve
14 15 16 17
O-rings Screw Connecting flange Casing Piston seal ring Valve body Piston seal ring
Spindle Lock nut Spring Casing O-ring Threaded plug Valve body O-ring
ZA 46 1987
The valve actuating gear opens and closes the inlet and exhaust valves at the required time. The actuation is transmitted from cams arranged on the camshaft through push rods acting onto the main rocker arms. The latter actuate the auxiliary rocker arms thus simultaneously opening either two inlet or hvo exhaust valves. The valve closure is effected by spring action. The lubricating oil for the valve actuation is fed to its moving parts through interna1 bores. TO compensate for the heat expansion of the push rods and valve guides during operation, a relatively large clearance must exist on the cold engine, between the valves and the rocker arms. These clearances must be checked periodically and if necessary re-adjusted. For instructions regarding the adjustment procedure and the correct clearances please refer to the Maintenance Manual, sheet 4401.
Key to Illustration
1 Guide housing 2 Guide piston
12 Cylinder head 13 Push rod
3 Spherical ended pin
14 Main rocker arm
15 Auxiliary rocker arm
5 O-ring 6 Circlip (guide piston)
7 Spring plate
18 Circlip (roller pin)
8 Cylindrical dowel
19 Locating disc
17 Roller pin
9 Push rod shroud 10 O-rings
11 Closing piece for shroud 9
22 Engine housing
21 Roller bush
I-I oet Oil
REVERSING SERVO MOTOR AND REVERSING VALVE Reversing Servo Motor (see sheet 4500-20 and -2Oa) The reversing servo motor mounted on the free end of the engine (damper side) shifts the camshaft for reversa1 of rotation to the end position corresponding to the required sense of rotation of the engine. The cams, for the new sense of rotation are thus moved under the rollers of the valve actuation and of the fuel injection pumps. The axial shifting of the camshaft is effected by the engine lub. oil pressure, which, depending on the chosen sense of rotation acts on one or the other side of piston 6. The piston 6 - which does not rotate in operation - is flanked by two locating rings, lined with a running layer. The axial clearance "AS" of the piston 6 between the locating rings (0.324 + 1.024 mm) is determined by the position of the fly-disc 5 or of the connecting piece 15 respectively. The control of the reversing servo motor is effected through the engine controls via a reversing valve (see sheet 4500-21). The reversing servo motor carionly shift the camshaft provided: a) A given minimum rpm is reached b) No fuel is injected, i.e. when the regulating linkage stands on zero delivery. The blocking against untimely shifting and against release of fuel injection in the wrong sense of rotation is effected through the controls of the blocking valve 4509-20. The control proper is effected by a friction coupling (parts 10, 11) which closes or frees specific interna1 bores (See also 4509). Depending on the desired sense of rotation, the reversing valve lets oil drain out of either space "A" or "B" and enter the other space. By this action the piston 6 - and with it the camshaft - are shifted in axial direction until it touches the respective stop in the casing (= End Position). When the camshaft stands in the corresponding end position the oil pressure holds the piston 6 in the chosen position ('AHEAD' or 'ASTERN'). Through the oblique bores 'SR'oil reaches the connections 'US' to which the control valves are connected, which block the release of the fuel linkage until pressure has built up in the ring space 'R'. oil escaping from the spaces 'A' or case through the reversing valve.
flows back to the engine crank
Reversing Valve (See sheet 4500-21) The reversing valve which is screw fastened to the reversing servo motor is controlled pneumatically by the engine controls. During the reversa1 operation the piston is in the position marked with 37 because at this time a large oil volume is demanded by the reversing servo motor. The oil arriving from the engine lub. oil system flows therefore through the larger of the two holes in the piston into the space 'E' and from there - depending on the position of the piston 35 - into the space 'A' or 'B' of the reversing servo motor. ZAL40S E Reversible 1987
REVERSING SERVO MOTOR AND REVERSING VALVE Alter the reversing operation is completed the control air does no longer
press against piston 37, SO that it caribe pushed by oil pressure into the position depicted as 37a. Oil carionly flow through the throttling bore "DB" into the space "E" or to the reversing servo motor respectively,this suffises however to make up for the losses in the reversing servo motor and to hold the piston 35 in the correspondingend positions. Key to Illustrationssheet 4500-20, -2Oa and -21 4500-21 Reversing Valve
4500-20, -2oa Reversing Servo Motor 1 2 3, 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 +13 "14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A,B AS R SR us STB RTB D *
Engine casing Casing O-Ring Hood Fly disc Piston Guide ring Screw Locating rings Stop discs Control ring Cover Threaded stud Ring nut Connecting piece Cylindrical pin O-ring Bearing ring Cylindrical pin Bearing bush Carnshaft Locking ring Compression spring Slide valve Spaces for pressure oil Axial clearance (0.324+1.024) Ring space Connecting bore Connections for control valves Oil feed to locating bearing Oil return from locating bearing Use sealing compound f.fitting
30" 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Screw Piston seal Guide bush Casing Guide bush Piston Guide bush Piston (position during reversing) 37a Piston (position during operation) 38 Joint 39 O-ring 40 Flange 41 Screw 42 Threaded plug w.copper joint A,Al E zvs ws SL MO
Oil return bore Oil inlet TO reversing servo motor From reversing serve motor Control air Engine oil Throttling bore
Tighten to instruction,in acc.with maintenancemanual.
Reversible ZA40S 1987
4500 - 20
l- 107. 124.373
IP- 19 ICSOO-20)
BLOCKING VALVE (See sheet 4509-20)
Below every reversing servo motor a fuel blocking valve is mounted. It has the duty to press the fuel linkage to position "ZERO" via the reversing servo motor, as long as the camshaft is not yet in the end position.
Key to Illustration sheet 4509-20 1
Reversing servo motor
Reversible ZA40S 1987
4509 - 20
3 1 2
l- 107.185. 852
The control elements required to operate the engine from the local control stand are arranged on the engine. The illustration sheet 4604-20 shows the general layout where the various assemblies are mounted. For information on the function of the various components please refer to the separate leaflet ‘ENGINE CONTROI: which is supplied with this Manual. The numbers which the various valves, switches etc. carry on the illustrations (for example 49HA, etc.) correspond to the code nos. on the engine control diagrams. The control elements are described and shown in more detail in the following sub-sections and illustration sheets respectively: a) Local control stand (sheets 4604-21 and -2la) b) Pressure sensor (sheet 4604-22) c) Limit switch to turning gear (sheet 4604-23) d) Blocking valve to tuming gear (sheet 4604-23) e) Limit switch to overspeed trip (sheet 4604-24) f’) Pressure reducing valve for pneumatic speed setting (sheet 4604-21 and -2la) g) Limit switch to tut-out servomotor (sheet 4604-25 or -25a)
Key to Illustrations 4604-20 and 20a 1 Pressure sensor (sheet 4604-22) 2 Line filter (sheet 4604-22) 3 Limit switch, position indication of turning gear (sheet 4604-23) 4 Start blocking valve when turning gear pinion is engaged (sheet 4604-23) Local control stand (sheet 4604-21 and -2la) Speed governor (described on sheet 5101) Pilot control valve for starting air distributor Double initiator for monitoring cylinder lubrication (see sheet 7221, only for engines with ‘inner lubrication’ mounted on opposite end of engine from turbocharger)
*9 Control valve (automatic stopping of engine, at failure of control air and control current voltage) 10 Limit switch for position indication of tut-out servomotor (sheet 4604-25) 11 Overspeed trip (sheet 4604-24) * 12 Start and Stop valve (manual actuation) (diagram code nos. 126HA, 126HB, 126HC) * Only for stationary engines.
New suker Diesel
4604- 1 a) Local control stand (sheets 4604-21 and -2la) Marine engines are equipped with an auxiliary control desk, which permits operating the engine, if this cannot be done from the control room or from the bridge. Land based (stationary) engines have manually operated START and STOP VALVES in place of the local control stand. The numbers designating thevalves of the local control stand on sheets 4604-21 and 4604-21a, correspond to the diagram code numbers of the respective control diagrams.
6 Pressure gauge 7 Cam for control valve of starting air distributor 8 Cam for control valve of stop valve 9 Cam for control valve for STOP 10 Control lever 11 Cam for remote contrai blocking switch and valve 12 O-ring 13 O-ring 14 Remote control blocking valve 15 Remote control blocking switch * 16 Control valve for bridge emergency stop (remote control) * 17 Control valve for stop from control desk * 18 Control valve for starting valve for shut-off valve * 19 Control valve for starting valve to starting air distributor 20 Starting pilot valve for items 16 - 19 21 O-ring
Arrangement on engines with pneumatic speed setting Arrangement on engines with electrical speed setting * These valves may be either of the WESTINGHOUSE Type 371030 100 0 or of the SEITZ Type 999.
4604-Z b) Pressure sensor (pressure switch) (sheet 4604-22) Al1 the pressure sensors 1 for remote control, alarm system and remote indications are arranged on aconnection block 2. The number of pressure sensores fitted depends on the installation. Blind flanges are provided for connections which are not used. Each pressure sensor is marked with the same code number on the connection block as designated in the respective engine control diagram. The switching points of the pressure sensors cari be set in the following manner: The pressure sensor is separated from the medium by a needle valve. With testing device for pneumatic elements (tools No. 9408.26), the pressure required is given to the pressure sensor via the measuring point 4. The corresponding alarm must immediately be triggered upon a drop below the switching point. The corresponding
setting values are mentioned on sheet 0358. Key to Illustration
1 Pressure sensor 2 Connection block 3 Blind flange 4 Measuring point 5 Needle valve 6 Line filter 7 Support 8 O-ring c) Limit switch to tuming
gear (sheet 4604-23)
The iimit switch 6 is actuated by the cam 7 and causes a signal lamp to light up in the control room to indicate that the tuming gear is not or not firlly disengaged. d) Interlocking
valve for tuming
gear (sheet 4604-23)
The interlocking valve 5 prevents the engine being started with starting air when the turning gear is engaged. If two engines are coupled to a common gearbox, the pneumatically interlocking valve 5a or in case of electrically interlocking a limit switch 8, prevents the clutch being engaged when the turning gear is in. Key to Illustration
2 Shield with diagram code no. 2a
Shield with diagram code no.
2b Shield with diagram code no. 3 Roller
4 Lever 5 3/2-way valve 38 HA 5a 3i2-way valve 38 HC 6 Limit switch 7 Cam 8 Limit switch
4604-3 e) Limit switch for the overspeed safety tut-out device (sheet 4604-24)
If the engine is stopped by the overspeed safety tut-out device the tut-out rod 3 actuates the limit switch 4. In the control room the corresponding signal lamp lights up. It only goes out again after the overspeed safety tut-out device has been re-set manually (please refer to sheet 5303). Key to Illustration 4604-24
1 Fuel pump regulating shaft 2 Cut-out lever 3 Cut-out rod 4 Limit switch 5 Shield with code nos. 6 Maximum load limitation screw f) Pressure reducing valve for pneumatic speed setting (sheet 4604-21 and -2la)
If the engine is operated from the local control stand the engine speed on PGA governors cari be adjusted with the hand wheel5, of the valve 3. g) Limit switch on the shut-off servomotor
For engine with built-on oil pump (sheet 4604-25) As soon as the engine is stopped by the shut-off servomotor, the limit switch 4 is actuated by the tut-out rod 3. In the control room the corresponding signal lamp lights up. For engines with separate oil pump (sheet 4604-25a) The limit switch 9 is actuated by the receding tut-out rod of the shut-off servomotor. The 3/2-way valve is only installed in reversible engines and prevents a reversa1 if the shut-off servomotor has not receded. Key to Illustrations
1 Shut-off lever
2 Fuel pump regulating shaft
3 Cut-out rod
8 Shield with code no.
4 Limit switch
9 Limit switch
5 Cylindrical dowel pin
10 3/2-way valve (only for reversible engines)
NeW sulzer Diesel
i I 5.95 Diesel
4- @i? 240.477
2- 10 7.1856 72
ZA 40s 1987
Ï0 .Y a
This arrangement is only valid for engines with built-on oil pump
Diese Anordnung ist nur gültig für Hotoren mit angebauter Oelpumpe
8 \ 1 \
ZA 40s 1987
(Please refer to sheet 4612-20) The tut-out servo motor shuts the engine down or prevents its fuel injection when starting is attempted if and when the lubricating oil system is not under the required pressure. In reversible engines it blocks the fuel linkage if the cam-shaft(s) is (are) not in the correct end position, or if the immediate sense of rotation does not correspond to the desired one. The action of the servo motor is effected by its piston directly onto a lever which is clamped to the fuel regulating shaft. In operation, i.e. when lub.oil pressure is present, the slide seat 3 is pressed against the piston 6 at "X". If the pressure fails in the space "A"> the slide seat 3 is pushed away from the piston 6 by the higher pressure in space "B" (which is created by the force of spring 2). The opening 'ID"is uncovered and the oil from space "B" cariescape. (Please refer to sheet 4622-20, Fig. "a"). The quick relief valve consistingof the parts 3, 3a, 4, 5 and 10 permits the oil from spaces "B" and "C" to escape very fast through the opening "D" and "E" into the engine casing, if the oil pressure collapses. This valve furthermore renders a venting of the tut-out servo motor superfluos. (Fig. "a"). On engines with built-on lubricatingoil pumps, whilst they are being started the piston 6 is pressed inwards by several pneumatic pistons 13 fed by starting air, until sufficient oil pressure has built up to hold the piston 6 in position (19a) (see Fig. "cl'). Key to Illustration sheet 4612-20 a) For engines without built-on oil pump b) Alternative with split casing c) For engines with built-on oil pump 1 Casing (in one part) la Casing (split) 3 2 Slide Springseat 3a Valve body
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Spring Spring plate Piston Piston seal ring Flange Rod seal ring Circlip O-ring Guide
Y13 Piston 14 Cylinder Piston seal ring :5 O-ring 17 Flange 18 Fuel pump regulating shaft 19 Lever in position "Engine Stop" 19a Lever in pos. "engine in operatien" 20 O-ring A,B, Pressure spaces C,D, E Drain to engine casing X Contact face of parts 3 & 6 FE Free end
“0 ” I
13 . UI., 15 16 17 1An/ass/u/f STARTING AIR Air de démarrage Aire de arranque
The tacho-generator DRIVING END.
1 is driven off the shaft of the overspeed trip 5, by a driving claw 4 installed on the engine
The tacho-generator supplies the corresponding voltage for the speed indicating instrument (r.p.m.) in direct relation to the generator speed (r.p.m.). - Connection “a” (terminal “a”) is used for the signal of the engine speed indicating instrument (r.p.m.). The speed ratio, engine speed / tacho-generator speed is 16 : 41. - Connection “b” (terminal “b”) is meant for the signal of the remote indication, generally placed in the engine control room.
Key to Illustration
1 Tacho-generator 2 Terminal box 3 Cable 4 Driving claw 5 Overspeed trip a Connection for speed signal (r.p.m.) b Connection for remote indication 1 View to DRIVING END II View to left engine side x End of engine housing
The load indicator plays an important role in the monitoring of the engine in operation. It permits evaluating the approximate engine load from the position of its pointer. The load indicator consists of a pointer 2 fixed on the shaft 5 of the fuel injection pump regulation, and of a graduation 1 with 0 - 10 positions. The operation of a load indicator depends on an angle transmitter, having an output current of 0 - 20 mA for the position 0 - 10. The output current is also used for load dependent impulses like overload etc. Adjusting the angle transmitter Rough adjustment;
In the regulatingposition line.
‘0’, the marks ‘M’ and ‘Mt’on the shaft of the angle transmitter must be approximately in
The output signal 0 - 20 mA is phased in for the indication with the two potentiometers ment, the front caver 7 of the angle transmitter must be removed.
Pt and P2. For this adjust-
Adjustment of the O-Point:
TIrm regulating linkage to position ‘0’. Rotate potentiometer Pr until the indicating instrument in the control room shows position ‘0’. Output current on the angle transmitter = 0 mA Adjusting the mar value:
Turn the regulating linkage to position ‘10’. Rotate the potentiometer P2 until the indicatinginstrument on tbe angle transmitter = 20 mA.
in the control room shows position ‘10’. Output current
the indicationsthroughoutthewholerangemustbe checked. Key to Illustration 4910-20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Load indicator graduation Pointer Pinion Toothed segment Regulating shaft of fuel injection pump Angle transmitter Front caver
M Marks for positioning Ml 1987
Marks for positioning zA4os
l- lOZ 124.391
IA1 40s 1987
For marine enginesselected for operation with a controllable pitch propeller, a signal transmitter has been foreseen for signalling the electrical load to the propeller pitch control system. Two standard design executions cari be supplied. ‘lkansmitter
on the regulating
shaft (Illustration 4913-20)
The angle transmitter 1 is arranged on the casing of the camshaft space 7 at the FREE END of the engine. The position of the regulating shaft 5 is transmitted via lever 4, which is connected through a torsional spring, the link rod 3 and lever 2 to the angle transmitter 1. The transmitter emits an analogous electrical signal corresponding to the angle range of load positions “0” to “10”. Setting instruction for CAMILLE
When the engine load indicator points to “0” the markings on the transmitter output shaft and on the transmitter casing must correspond (electrical zero position). Setting instruction for kMW transmitter:
The exact adjustment of the transmitter has to be carried out in accordance with the instructions of the propeller manufacturer Ka-Me-Wa. . TRansmitter on the speed govemor
for the PGA-EG58 governor and ASAC 70 actuator for the electronic speed system.
The movement or load position respectively of the governor output shaft 8 is accomplished by the angle transmitter 1 via the setting levers 4,10,3 and 2. The angle transmitter 1 passes a load dependent signal to the propeller control corresponding to the angular position. Se#ing instruction forABBposition
transmitter QHF 0631:
The transmitting linkages 4,10,3 and 2 have to be set in such away that at load indicator position 5 (50% load) the markings on the shaft and housing of the transmitter correspond.
Key to Illustrations
1 Angle transmitter 2 Lever on transmitter 3 Linkrod 4 Lever on regulating shaft or governor output shaft 5 Regulating shaft 6 Torsion spring
Generally a mechanical-hydraulic centrifugal governor with load limiter (charge air pressure fuel limiter) is installed. It is driven by the step-up gear of the governor drive. Depending on the governor type the setting of the governor speed and with it of the engine speed (r.p.m.) is either effected pneumatically or electrically. For emergency operation the speed cari also be set by the setting knob on the governor. In view of thevariety of speed control systems, special executionsand alternative governor types, a detailed description of the governor is here not practical. Instead we refer to the operating instructions supplied separately by the manufacturer of the governor which has been installed in the respective engine. Information on function, troubles, maintenance and on the type of oil to be used must be gathered from this operating instruction. The following WOODWARD
with pneumatic speed setting; / Actuator for electronic speed control system; with electrical speed setting; for electronic speed control system.
A further fully electronic governor alternative from ASEA BROWN BOVERI (ABB) may also be installed: ASAC 70 . . . . . . . . Actuator for electrical control element and electronic speed setting. The utmost instructions Adjustments It is strongly cerned.
attention must be paid to the proper operation of the governor. It is, therefore, essential that the regarding oil grade and oil changing intervals be adhered to. or repairs on the governor should only be carried out by specially trained personnel. recommended that a spare governor be kept on board which is already set up for the installation con-
Key to Illustrations 5101-20 and 20a
Key to Illustration 5101-21
1 Starting booster
1 Oil cap
2 Connection for charge air
2 Shut-down solenoid
3 Oilcap 4 Electrical plug
4 Starting booster
3 Speed setting motor
5 Oil filter 6 Connection for engine oil pressure safety
5 Compensation pointer
7 Oil level sight glass
7 Oil level sight glass
8 Load indicating pointer
8 Governor output shaft
6 Electr. table connection
9 Speed droop setting knob
9 Speed setting knob 10 Connection for control air pipe
(Please refer to Sheet 5105-20) The governor drive is a comprehensive unit, screw fastened onto the engine casing. It is driven by an intermediate gear wheel from the camshaft gear wheel. The lubrication of its bearings and gear wheels is provided by the engine pressure lubricating system.
Tighten in accordance with instructions maintenance manual
ZA L 40s 1987
5303 OVERSPEED FUEL
CUT SAFETY LIMITATION
The engine is accorded two-fold protection a) An electro-pneumatic
against excessive speed:
safety cutout devlce
b) A mechanical overspeed safety cutout device a) Electre-pneumatic
Under normal operating conditions, an electro-pneumatic valve arranged on the engine prevents the supply of air (30 bar) to the fuel control rods of the fuel injection pumps, SO that they cari be actuated by the governor by way of the sprlng llnks. The rear end of a11 the control rods is designed as a piston and connected to the electro-pneumatic valve by way of a collection line. The valve itself 1s controlled by a electric monitoring device (sec also 5501-a)). If the engine attains a certain speed, the electro-pneumatic valve receives a signal and opens. As a result of this, the pistons of the control rods belonging to the fuel injection pumps are pressed in the direction of the control position l*O" by means of compressed air (30 bar). As a consequence of this, the fuel injection pumps cesse to prime immediately, which leads to a reduction in the speed of the engine. As soon as the speed reaches the maximum permissible limlt again, the electro-pneumatic valve closes and vents the space behind the control rods. Thereupon, the governor controls the fuel injection pumps again and brings the engine to the required speed. The electric signal controlling the electro-pneumatic valve is generated by a pick-up on the flywheel or the tachometer transmitter, depending on the type of installation employed. The switching value 1s noted in the control and acceptance documents for the engine. In other words, the e&&e is not shut down by the pneumatlc safety cutout in the event of overspeed, but only brought to a lower speed and then released again. b) Mechanical oversoeed safetv cutout (sec 5303-20) In case the electro-pneumatic overspeed safety cutout should not actuate, the engine is shut down by the mechanical overspeed cutout (for shut-down speed, see control and acceptance documents for the engine) should it reach a speed which is in excess of the switching value of the electro-pneumatic safety cutout. This 1s effected in the following manner: AS a result of centrifugal force, the adjustable, spring-loaded piston 12 disengages the pawl 7 from the cutout bar 4a. The bar - under the influence of the pre-tensioned spring 4b (over 100 kg) - shoots immediately outwards end operated the lever 4. As a result of this, the regulating shaft of the fuel injection pumps is turned in such a way that the pumping of fuel is interrupted immediately and the engine 1s brought to a stop. (With stationary engines connected to a public grid, it is necessary to provide a further electric cutout to ensure that the installation is separated from the public grid and not driven by the generator.
.The drive of the overspeed safety tut-out is connected to the pressurised oil system of the engine. Attention!
If the engine has been brought to a standstill by the mechanical overspeed safety tut-out, it cannot be started again before the paw17 is engaged in the tut-out bar 4a. This is effected by turning the shaft back against the force of the spring 4b, i.e. through the turning of the hexagonal 18 with a ring spanner and extension arm (tool No. 9408.40), until engagement is attained. Prior to re-setting the overspeed safety tut-out, it must be ascertained why the tripping action has been effected. In particular, investigations are to be made to determine why the engine has not been hindered from exceeding the overspeed limit by the pneumatic safety tut-out,which is set to actuate earlier.
The speed at which the safety tut-out should actuate cari be influenced by means of the adjusting screw 14. If the screw is turned in a clockwise direction, the tut-out point is lowered. If the tut-out speed is to be increased, i.e. by tuming the adjusting screw 14 in an anti-clockwise direction, make sure that the adjusting screw does not project more than 5.5 mm from the tut-out bar 11.
The spring-loaded locking halls 13 hold the adjusting screw 14 in the selected position (12 engagement positions around the circumference). The graphical representations the adjusting screw.
on the following page show the change in the tut-out point realized through turning
Fuel limiter (see sheet 5303-20)
(only for engines with UG40D or EGB Governor)
The fuel limiter - comprising cylinder 8a and piston 8 - is accommodated in the overspeed safety tut-out housing. During the starting manoeuvre, the piston 8 is pressed outwards to the stop through the force of the starting air (30 bar). The lever - which on starting moves in the direction of load indicator position 10 - thus makes contact with the piston 8, i.e. the fuel injection pumps cannot prime the fuI1quantity. This prevents hard and dangerous ignitions in the cylinders and excessive smoke.The automaticcontrol system causes the air under the piston 8 to be blown off via the electro-pneumatic valve at a given point and, as a result of this, regulation of the fuel injection pumps is taken . over by the speed governor.
Kev to Fin.5?01-20, Intermediate wheel Shaft journal Torsion spring Lever for cutout Cutout bar Spring Cover Lever for fuel limitation Balls with Springs for vibration damping 7 Cutout pawl Piston +a for fuel limitation * 8a Cylinder > 1 2 3 4 4a 4b 4c 5 6
9 10 11 12 13
Piston rings Housing Shaft of mechanical Tripping piston Locking balls
14 15 16 17 18 1g
Adjusting screw Drive wheel Shaft for pawl 7 Press-on sleeve with spring Shaft with hexagonal Cover Locking screw
20 SH D R l
Oel Spray hofe Use sealing compound for erectlon Engagement not required on engines with F%A58
of safetv cutout
2; 3 1 fJ 2 Number of adjusting screw revolutions (1 revolution = 12 notches)
ZAL 40s 1987
Oel Oil Huile Aceife
ZAL 405 1987
The fuel injection pump (hereafter referred to as injection pump) pumps fuel at high pressure in accurately regulated quantities to the fuel injectorwhere it is injected into the cylinders asan atomized spray. Each cylinder has one injection pump. The pump plunger 15 is driven upwards by the fuel cam on the camshaft via roller 21 and guide piston 2. A strong spring 18 holds the roller on the cam and returns the pump plunger via the lower spring plate 3. The amount of fuel injected is controlled by the Upper and lower edges of the helical groove in the pump plunger. Regulation of the injection pump is by axial movement of the regulating rack 7 whose teeth mesh on the toothed regulating sleeve 9 causing this to turn. The sleeve is connected to the pump plunger 15 by carrier ‘J’ SOthat as the sleeve turns, the pump plunger turns also. Depending on the position of the plunger, the helical groove uncovers and closes the supply and retum ports to the fuel chambers ‘A and ‘B’ either earlier or later. Thus the position of the helical groove controls the injection period and hence the amount of fuel injected. The regulating rack 7 is connected to the fuel regulating shaft through spring links. The regulating shaft is turned by the governor via the fuel injection pump regulating rod (see sheet 5801). A special seal using separating oil is provided to prevent fuel leaking into the lubricating oil between the pump plunger 15 and pump cylinder 14. Lubricating oil is fed to the bore ‘SO’ in the lower part of the pump body. The oil, from the engine pressure system, is fed along vertical blind hole ‘SOI’ to the circumferential groove ‘ZN’ in the pump cylinder and thus closes off the way for the fuel which has leaked through between pump plunger and pump cylinder. Part of the oil flows upwards and reaches the groove ‘ON’ where it mixes with any fuel and drains out through the leakage drain ‘LO’. The rest of the oil flows down the pump plunger 15 and returns to the crankcase via holes in the guide piston 2. Due to the minimal clearance between the pump plunger and pump cylinder, the amount of oil leaking from the separating oil system is ver-y small. A pipe is connected to pump caver 11 at ‘LF’ through which the fuel cari flow in the event of a high pressure fuel delivery pipe breaking or if the screwed connections of same are not tight. The rear part of the regulating rack 7 acts as piston ‘K’ for the pneumatic safety tut-out whereby the regulating rack 7 is pushed towards the ‘0’supply position as soon as air at 30 bar is blown in at connection ‘SA’.The air is controlled by the corresponding control elements on the engine. Remarks:
Individual injection pumps cari be taken out of service while the engine is running by fitting a distance piece of length 71 mm behveen the pump housing and clamp ring 8 (see sheet 5501-21, Fig. ‘A). Three of these distance pieces are supplied as tool No. 9455.11. Cut-out ofa fuel injection pump should only be carried out under emergency conditions (see sheet 0359-9).
Key to Illustrations
1 Pump housing
A Supply chamber
2 Guide piston
B Return chamber
3 Lower spring plate
J Pump plunger carrier
4 Pin 5 O-ring 6 Upper spring plate 7 Regulating rack 8 Clamp ring 9 Regulating sleeve * 10 Screw
groove for lubricating
and separating oil SO Oil inlet SQ
Connecting hole for oil
Leakage oil outlet
Fuel leakage outlet
11 Pump caver 12 O-ring
M Alignment marks on regulating rack and regulating sleeve
Alignment marks on regulating rack and underneath of pump plunger carrier
K Piston of pneumatic shut-down
18 Return spring 19 Spring ring 20 Pin 21 Roller * 22 Pump mounting bolts (waisted bolts) 23 Locking screw 24 O-ring * Tightening according to instruction in the Maintenance Manual
---12 B13------lb -15 r--l6
I-_ I I I I
The fuel regulating shaft for the fuel injection pumps is actuated by the governor through a spring Ioaded bar 8. Depending on the governor type the arrangement connecting the governor to the regulating shaft differs somewhat, as is shown on sheet 5801-21. The rotary movement of the regulating shaft is limited upwards by the adjusting screw 7. The maximum position is adjusted on the test bed with this screw (please refer to the setting table and test report of the engine). The lever 10 cari be used in an emergency to stop the engine, by pulling it downwards. (For electric generating sets feeding into an electric mains circuit, the unit must first be electrically disconnected). The tut-out servomotor 15 (please refer to sheet 4612) also acts directly on the regulating shaft through the lever 14.
Key to Illustrations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.lO Hand lever for emergency tut-out and for checking easy movement of the linkage 11 Lever for mechanical overspeed trip and safety tut-out 12 Lever (for starting load limiting) 13 Shaft 14 Lever (for tut-out servomotor) 15 Cut-out servomotor (see sheet 4612) 16 Actuator (electric control unit)
Regulating shaft Regulating shaft bearing Fuel injection pump Spring member Lever Torsion spring Maximum load limiting screw Spring loaded bar Regulating rack
TURBOCHARGING Depending on the number of cylinders, the nominal output and mode of operation, the turbocharger is exactly selected and matched to the engine with respect to size and specification. Indications on mode of operation, maintenance and servicing are found in the respective turbocharger manual of the manufacturer. Instructions on cleaning are described in the Maintenance Manual in sheet 6501. Principle of function
Exhaust gases ‘C’ from the cylinders 1 drive the turbine 7 of the exhaust gas turbocharger and are then exhausted through the exhaust system of the plant to ‘B’. The rotation of the turbine drives the blower 8 which is mounted on the same shaft. The blower 8 draws fresh air ‘A via a filter-silencer from the engine room and compresses it to a higher pressure i.e. the charge air pressure ‘D’. The compression process heats the charge air, which is again cooled to a lower temperature by charge air cooler 10. Depending on air humidity more or less condensate water is produce by the cooling, which is separated by the water separator 11, fitted after the charge air cooler, then drained off through the permanently open drain 16. Additional installations
On this modern high powered engine further installations have been provided to exploit the high efficiency of the turbocharger. Depending on the engine utilization the followingvalves are applied either singly or in combination with the others. Charge air hypass valve (18) The charge air bypass valve 18 is generally only fitted to engineswith variable speed. Its purpose is to retum, at part
load, a certain amount of charge air ‘D’ after the blower 8 into the exhaust pipe 6. (Details are described on sheet 6730). Charge air waste-gate
On engines equipped with the charge air waste-gate17 operating in the Upper load range, excess charge air is allowed to escape into the engine room (details are described on sheet 6735). Exhaust gas waste-gate
For the power range above ER 1 (&onomyEating 1) the exhaust gas waste-gate is applied as part load waste-gate. In the lower power range the charge air waste-gate cari be applied in place of the part load waste-gate. Controlled by the charge air pressure through control piping 20 and pressure retainingvalve 21, part of the exhaust gas ‘C’ is thereby led to the gas outlet side ‘B’ in other words short circuited (details are described on sheet 8136). Key to Illustration 6501-20
1 Cylinder liner 2 Working piston 3 Cylinder head
15 Cooling water 16 Permanent water drain 17 Charge air waste-gate
18 Bypassvalve 19 Exhaustwaste-gate
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5.95
Inlet valve Exhaust pipe Turbocharger Blower Diffuser Charge air cooler Water separator Receiver Air connection piece Exhaust outlet pipe
20 Charge air control pipe 21 Pressure retaining valve
A Fresh air B Exhaust gas outlet C Exhaust gas after cylinder D Charge air after blower zA4os
\ \ .
The charge air cooler (CAC for short) is arranged after the blower outlet of the turbocharger. Its duty is to cool the compressed and thereby heated charge air before it passes into the engine cylinders through the water separator, receiver space and air branch. The standard CAC is a two-stage two-way cooler, i.e. the water enters the part 10 from the bottom, is reversed at the other cooler end and leaves the cooler at the same front end at the cooler part 7. This method assures an equal distribution of the temperature drop across the whole CAC. The si n g 1e - s t a g e CAC 9 has been selected for the direct cooling system using sea water, as well as for the central cooling system using fresh water (please also refer to schematic diagram 8300-20). The t w o - s t a g e compact CAC 17 is only apphed to the central cooling system using treated fresh water. The fkst stage of this CAC has been provided for the high temperature circuit ‘H’, which first cools the charge air and afterwards the engine (cylinder cooling). The second stage of this CAC is used for the low temperature cooling circuit ‘T’ which cools the charge air before cylinder to the required temperature (please also refer to schematic diagram 8300-21). Illustration sheets 6601-20 (single-stage design) and 6601-20a (two-stage design) show the arrangement of the turbocharger and the CAC on the example of a 6 ZAL4OS engine. As required the charging groups cari be mounted either at the free end or at the driving end of the engine. ZAV4OS engines are equipped with two charging groups. Operation In operation charge air must always flow from the drain connections 12.
Obstructed or blocked drain connections must immediately be cleaned out. Should water issue from drain connections, it must be established, whether this is condensate (precipitation at high air humidity) or cooling water (leakage in the CAC or leaking O-rings of the cyIinder liners). Fouling in operation
Water-side fouling of the CACcauses reduction of the temperature difference behveen cooling water inlet and outlet. Cleaning must be carried out at standstill and in accordancewith instructions in the Maintenance Manual sheet 66OVl. In case of air-side fouling the pressure difference across the CAC is increasing (Ap indication in mm w.g.). The temperature difference of the charge air across the CACisdecreasing. Air-side fouled CAC-s cari be the source of black sooty exhaust or the so-called “surging” of the turbocharger. (Cleaning at standstill is described in the Maintenance Manual, sheet 6601/1). Air-side, in service washing of the CAC
On engines with built-on washing plant (refer to sheet 6601-21). - Close shut-off cock ‘D’, open ‘A and ‘B’. - Fil1 container with cleaning agent in accordance with cleaning agent maker’s instructions. - Close shut-off cocks ‘A’ and ‘B’. - Connect compressed
air from board system by quick-release coupling and open shut-off cock ‘C’.
- Open shut-off cock ‘D’ to the CAC. The contents of the container is sprayed through the nozzles into the CAC. - After about ten minutes close shut-off cocks ‘D’ and ‘C’. - Repeat cleaning operation but use clean water in place of cleaning agent. - After this close the shut-off cocks ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ and open ‘A.
The pressure difference across the CAC (in comparison with thevalue prior to the washingoperation) indicates the effectiveness of the washing. Should the washing produce no effect, then the CAC must be cleaned at standstill in accordance with instructions from the Maintenance Manual. Remark!
Detailed instructions on operation, maintenance and repairs of charge air coolers are contained in the separately issued instruction leaflet of the cooler manufacturer. As in most cases GEA, SERCK, ASTRA or RUMIA coolers are installed, it is practical to obtain these instruction leaflets directly from the makers. The addresses are: l
GEA Luftkühlergesellschaft Happe1 Gmbh u. CO. D 44708 Bochum Germany
SERCK Heat Transfer Bll 2QY
Great Britain ASTRA refrigeranti SA 15040 Pietramarazzi
If another cooler make is installed the instruction material must be requested from the respective manufacturer. It is also possible to order such Instruction Leaflets from the engine manufacturer or supplier. The following indications must be made on the request: . . . . . . . . Engine type and No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine supplier. Cooler manufacturer and type. . . . . . . Required language. Key to Illustrations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Cylinder head Exhaust gas turbocharger Expansion piece (bellow) Diffuser Air inlet casing Connections for washing plant Cooling water outlet Drain Single-stage CAC Cooling water inlet Water separator Permanent drain
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Measuring connections Container for blower washing plant CAC suspension device Vent ‘l’wo-stage compact CAC Filter Vent Filling funnel Connection for compressed air Container NozzIes Differential pressure gauge
A B C D
Shut-off Shut-off Shut-off Shut-off
cock, cock, cock, cock,
vent filling funnel connection for air inlet below
H Hightemperaturecircuit L Low temperature circuit
-----:+/ -1’1 3 Gezeichnet
für 6 ZAL4OS
DRAWN FOR 6 ZAL4OS
für 6 ZAL4OS
DRAWN FOR 6 ZAL4OS
(Please refer to sheet 6701-20) For every cylinder of the engine an air connection is provided, which assures the passage from.the charge air space of the engine casing to the cylinder heads. The charge air compressed and supplied by the turbocharger cariin this way pass on the shortest route from the combined space to the cylinders. (Arrangement, See Fig.) Key to Illustration 6701-20 1 Air connection piece 2 Connecting flange 3 Hose joint 4 Screw 5 Cylinder head 6 Engine casing 7 Screw D
Sealed with sealing compound
Turbochargerswith improved efficiency are installed to reduce fuel consumption. TOprevent ‘surging’ of the turbocharger at partial load operation, excess charge air is led via the bypass from the blower into the exhaust gas manifold before the turbine. In principle the charge air bypass valve is only fitted to engines which are operated at variable speed. For safety reasons the valve may also be applied in ships with controllable pitch propellers where the engine runs at constant speed, SOthat for emergency operation the plant cari be operated the same as with a fixed pich propeller. The control of the charge air bypass valve is speed and load dependent. The valve opens when the engine speed is between ~63% and ~93% of nominal speed and the engine load rises above load indicator L.I. - position 3.5. Function
The (toothed) rack 1 is pushed to the position BYPASS CLOSED by control air which is always present at connection ‘A’.When the signal to open arrives from the control logic box, the solenoid actuated 3/2-way valve 4 is actuated and control air pressure shifts the rack in the direction ‘C’, whereby the valve flap 5 of the bypass opens. The limit switch 7 monitors the correct position of the bypass during operation. Should the flap be in the wrong position, an alarm is triggered. Functional
check of monitoring
The functional check cari be carried out at any load, as the monitor must indicate a faulty flap position at any time. For the check proceed as follows: Turn the flap with a hexagonal spanner to the wrong operating position and hold it there. Check whether the alarrn is triggered within about 3 seconds (Hereby there is a risk that the turbine begins to surge when operating at partial load).
Key to Illustration
1 (Toothed) rack
5 Valve flap
2 Spur gear wheel
7 Limit switch
4 3/2-way solenoid valve
0 -IQZ 240.176
The main purpose of the waste-gate is the improvement of the acceleration ability of the engine. Turbochargers of engines equipped with a waste-gate attain the maximum charge air pressure at about 85% up to 91% of MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating). The opening start of the waste-gate is dependent on the engine rating. Engines applied for MCR have the opening start at about 85%, engines applied for ER 1(Economy Rating 1) have the opening start at about 88% and engines applied for ER 11(Economy Rating Il) have the opening start at about 91%. The waste-gate slowly opens from the above mentioned opening start until fully open at 100% load. Between the opening start and 100% the charge air pressure remains practically constant. Beyond 100% load the charge air pressure rises further, as not more charge air is blown off via the waste-gate than at 100% load. A further advantage of the waste-gate is minor smoke development at low loads and during acceleration and, compared with the standard engine, lower exhaust temperatures after the turbine at the load at which the wastegate opens. The surplus charge air after the charge air cooler is blown through the waste-gate and a silencer directly into the engine room. The air is dry and has a charge air temperature of about 40°C. Function
Piston 6 is shut by pressure spring 5 and charge air pressure. A bore is provided in piston 6 which supplies space ‘A’ with charge air. Pressure regulatingvalve 1 regulates the out flowing air and with this the pressure in space ‘A’.When the charge air pressure rises, the pressure in space ‘A’rises accordingly. From the above mentioned start of opening, piston 6 opens slowly and charge air flows into the engine room (or, depending on the installation, into the open). Checking the setting:
(This is only necessary after remedies of defects, dismantling or replacement of the wastegate).
The simplest way is at standstill, but definitely at belaw 80% load (piston 6 must be shut). Loosen lock nut 2, screw in screw 3 till the stop. Turn back screw 3 by the value indicated in the setting table (one turn = 1.5 mm).
The holding pressure is set with tool no. 9408.26f on pressure regulating valve 1. Operate the engine at 100% load. Check charge air pressure against indications in the timing records, if necessary adjust with pressure regulating valve. Connect pressure gauge (range Os4 bar) to connection 4. Here the holding pressure as per setting table cari be verified. In case of marked deviation, establish its cause or consult the manufacturer.
Charge air pressure:
The charge air pressure must be continuously watched during operation, in order to prevent damage due to excessive ignition pressures.
The setting for the alarm CHARGE AIR PRESSURE HIGH mustthereforebe checked periodieaily. (Alarm point = charge air pressure at 110% load, according to setting table) Key to Illustration
(Please refer to sheet 7100-20) Built-on pumps are those which are mounted at the free end of the engine and are there driven off a gear wheel fastened to the end of the crankshaft. Built-on pumps are provided only in some specific cases and only on non-reversible engines. Generally the required pumps are mounted separate from the engine in the engine room and are driven by electric motors. Depending on the requirements, the following pumps caribe built onto the engine free end: -
Lubricating oil pump (see 7101) Fuel booster pump (see 7102) Cylinder cooling water pump (see 7103) Raw water pump (see 7104) Fuel nozzle cooling water pump (see 7105)
The pumps are fitted into the front cowling in the manufacturers works and are secured in their proper position by locating dowels. As the front cowling is also pin located in the engine casing, the pumps are always returned to the proper setting when they had to be removed for overhauls, and refitted. The gear wheels driving the various pumps are lubricated from the engine lubricating oil system by spray nozzles. The pipes leading to and from the pumps must be fitted without any stresses. Where no pump is provided, the respective bore in the front cowling is closed by a caver with joint.
Front cowling (on the free end) Place for fuel nozzle cooling water pump Place for fuel booster pump Cover Place for raw water pump Place for lubricating oil pump Place for cooling water pump Torsional vibration damper Intennediate piece Pump driving gear wheel on crankshaft
with built-on Pumps
7 100 -20
\’ CO m. angeb.
The oil pump is only attached in the case of non-reversible engines and then only in special cases. As long as the engine is in operation, it provides oil for the engine components served by the pressurised oil circuit. The pump is driven by the central drive wheel (see illustration 7100-20). An O-ring, inserted in the groove of the pump flanges, provides the seal against the front casing. The pump is designed in such a way that it cari be used for right and left-hand turning engines. This is effected by interchanging the wheels 10 and 13. The fîtted pressure and safety valve protects the pump against excessive pressure and also regulates the pressure before the filter and the bearings. Function
If the pressure should increase in the chambers ‘A’and ‘Al’, which are connected by the holes ‘N’, the slide valve 1 is pressed outwards against the force of the spring 17. As a result of this, a corresponding amount of oil escapes from the space ‘Al’ into the space ‘B’. If the pressure continues to increase, the valve opens more (closes in the event of a decrease) SOthat a pressure is built up which remains constant. The theoretical valve opeaing pressure is 7.8 bar. The drive wheeI5 is attached to the pump shaft by means of a necked-down boit, which has to be tightened according to special instructions (see Maintenance Manual, sheet 7101).
13 Pump priming wheel (driven) 14 Flat joint for item 16 15 Shim 16 Cover 17 Spring G Space for fitting the eyebolts
Pumps / ZAL.4OS
(Please refer to sheet 7102-20)
The fuel booster pump is fitted only onto nonreversible engines and even there only in specific installations.As long as the engine is operating this pump delivers the liquid fuel to the Fuel injection pumps. The design of these pumps permits the interchangeof the cogwheels 16 and 18 SO that it caribe used either for clockwise or anti clockwise rotating engines. An O-Ring 13 serves as seal between the pump and the engine. The screw 24 fastening the driving gear wheel 22 onto the pump shaft/cogwheel 18 has to be tightened in accordance with instructions (Please refer to the maintenance manual Group 7102). The relief valve 1 protects the pump from unadmissiblehigh pressure (Blow-off pressure = 10 bar). The shaft seals 20 and 20a prevent the leakage of oil into the fuel or the fuel into the lubricating oil respectively. The bearings of shaft (cogwheel) in the bearing housing 12 are lubricated by oil from lubricating oil system of the engine. The bearings of the cogwheels however are lubricatedby the fuel.
Pump cogwheel (driven) 16 17 Bearing caver 18 Pump cogwheel (driving) Screw 19 20,20a Shaft seals 21 Backing ring Driving gear wheel 22 23 Thrust ring Screw 24 25,25a Cylindrical dowel pins 26 Screw The drawings of sheet 7102-20 show the cogwheel mounting for a clockwise rotating engine.
ZAOOS with eng. dr. pumps 1987
o- 107. 165.397
ZA 40s 1987
COOLLNG ( see 7103-20)
cylinder cooling water pump is only built ont0 non-reversing engines and only in certain cases. As long as the engine is running, the water necessary for cooling the engine (net the charge air cooler) Will be circulated. The pump shaft bearings are supplied with oil from the engine lubricating oil system whereby the oil reaches the bearings through internal drillings.
The shaft sealing ring 8 prevents oil escaping from the drive side CYCLAM-rotating mechanical seal 11 seals off the water chamber. Leakage water as well as leakage oil which may corne from the seals pump through leakage drain 'L' at the bottom of the pump housing. The
as a seal between
Pre-tensioning of the shaft 16 is done hydraulically instructions (sec maintenance manual, group 7103).
Should pump leakage noticeably increase, then either the shaft seal on the drive side (oil) or pump side (water) will have to be renewed. This requires that the pump be removed from the engine and dismantled (sec maintenance manual, group 7103). The pump has also to be removed from the engine if an inspection of the rotating parts and bearings is to be made and for any extensive overhaul. At the same time the running clearances have to be noted.
Bearing Rubber 177,17
'0' ring x 7
'0' ring x 7
'0' ring x 7
Shaft sealing (Gaco)
Ml6 x 50
ZAOOS eng. dr. pumps 1987
PUMP WATER (sec 7104-20)
The raw water pump is only built onto non-reversing engines and only in certain cases. As long as the engine is running, raw water Will be supplied for cooling the charge air cooler(s) and for secondary cooling of the lubricating oil. cylinder cooling water etc. (depending on the installation). The pump shaft bearings are supplied with oil from the engine lubricating oil system whereby the oil reaches the bearings through interna1 drillings. The shaft sealing ring 8 prevents oil escaping from the drive side while the CYCLAhl rotary mechanical seal 11 seals off the water chamber. Leakage water, as well as leakage oil which may corne from the seals, leaves the pump through leakage drain 'L' at the bottom of the pump housing. The rubber ring 18 acts as a seal between the pump housing and the end casing. Pre-tensioning of the shaft 16 is done hydraulioally according to specific instructions (sec maintenance manual, group 7104). Should pump leakage noticeably increase, then either a shaft seal on the drive side (oil) or pump side (water) Will have to be renewed. This requires that the pump be removed from the engine and dismantled (sec maintenance manual, group 7104). The pump has also to be removed from the engine if an inspection of the rotating parts and bearings is to be made and for any extensive overhaul. At the same time the running clearances have to be noted.
Kev to Fia. 7104-20 1
Bolts Ml6 x 130
Rubber '0' ring 291,47 x 7
Rubber '0' ring 177.17 x 7
Shaft sealing ring (Gaco)
Lubricating oil inlet
Rotary mechanical seal
Bolt Ml6 x 50
'0' ring 291,47 x 7
ZA40S with eng.dr.pumps 1987
The fuel valve cooling water is only built onto non-reversing engines and only in special cases. As long as the engine is running, water is supplied to cool the fuel injecter nozzles. The pump shaft bearings are supplied with oil from the engine lubricating oil system whereby the oil reaches the bearings through interna1 drillings. The shaft sealing ring 8 prevents oil escaping from the drive side while the shaft sealll seals off the water chamber. Leakage water, as well as leakage oil which may corne from the seals, leaves the pump through leakage drain ‘L:at the bottom of the pump housing. The O-ring 18 acts as a seal between the pump housing and the end casing. Pre-tensioning of the shaft 16 is done hydraulically according to specific instructions (see Maintenance sheet 7105)
Should pump leakage noticeably increase, th& either a shaft seal on the drive side (oil) or pump side (water) Will have to be renewed. This requires that the pump be removed from the engine and dismantled (see Maintenance Manual, sheet 7105). The pump has also to be removed from the engine if an inspection of the rotating parts and bearings is to be made and for any extensive overhaul. At the same time the mnning clearances have to be noted.
Key to Illustration
2 Drive gearwheel
15 Cover 16 Shaft
3 Sleeve 4 Locking wire
5 Bolt 6 Bearing housing
20 Dowel pin
8 Shaft seal
21 Split pin
19 Bearing bushes
9 Bush 10 Spacer ring
11 Shaft seal
A Water inlet
12 Pump housing
C Lubricating oil inlet
L Leakage drain
Engine-Driven Pumps / ZA4OS
ZA US 1987
A well functioning cylinder lubrication and the use of a suitable grade of lubricant is essential for the trouble-free operation of the working pistons. On engines of the type ZA4OS a universal oil is utilized, which is suitable for the bearing lubrication as well as for the lubrication of the cylinder liners. Conceming grade and quality of the oil please refer to the section “Lubricating Oil”, sheet 0356-4. The oil [email protected] fed to the cylinders is regulated load-dependent, whereby one must consider that a certain portion of it is scraped off into the crankcase by the oil scraper rings. The delivered oil quantity therefore does not correspond to the actual cylinder lubricating oil consumption. Arrangement
of the cylinder lubrication
(see schematic diagram 7200-20)
The oii for the lubrication of the cylinder liners is pumped through the separator 4, the heater 3 and the fine filter 5 into the daily service tank 6. Should the case occur that no more oil is delivered from the separator to the daily service tank 6, the float valve 13 Will open and admit oil from the pipe 12 into the tank. This oil cornes from the main oil pipe of the pressurized engine lubricating system and flows through the fine filter (SCAAMTIC)ll, mounted on the engine.
Key to Schematic Diagram 7200-20
1 Oil drain tank 2
Oil pump in separator
6 Daily service tank for cylinder lubricating oil 7
Connecting pipe (tank / cylinder lubricator)
Sight glass (overflow)
10 Engine oil feed pipe (either from separator or from built-on tub. oil pump) 11 Fine filter (SCAMATIC) 12 Feed pipe to daily service tank 13 EIoat valve 14,14a Level switch 15 Oil lever indicating device 16 Suction pipe to engine lubricating oil pump
FOR CYLINDER LUBRICATON (Please refer to sheets 7203-20 & -21)
The self-cleaning oil fine filter (SCAMATIC) cornes into operation when the float valve 13 in the elevated tank 6 opens. The pipe 12 between engine and elevated tank- and therefore also the filter 11 - are constantly under pressure (please refer to sheet 7200-20). The shut-off valve in the pipe between engine oil pipe and fine filter must always be open during operation. It must be shut only when the filter must be dismantled. As mentioned before, the filter is self-cleaning, and requires no periodic maintenance, The switching mechanism inside the filters is actuated by the flow of the oil and it acts about 20 times per minute. The switching cari be heard when the engine stands still and it cari be felt by touch on the running engine, provided the oil flows through! The oil enters at 'A' and leaves the filter at 'B' (filter grade = 5 um). Part of the entering oil drives the switching mechanism of the cleaning device and leaves the filter at 'D' to return to the crank case of the engine. (Please refer to sheet 7203-21). Sludge eliminated by the filter (dirt) enters the space 'E' and flows through the exit 'C', which is connected to the crank case, back into the collecter tank (please refer to sheet 7203-21). Key to Illustration 7203-20 & -21
6 7 8
11 12 13 14
Engine oil pipe Spherical cock Oil feed line to filter Fine filter SCAMATIC) Return pipe from built-in switching mechanism Holder Dirty oil drain Connection to high level tank Fixing screw Locking disc Joint Hex. screw with nut and lock nut
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Sealing ring Locking disc Hex. Screw Sealing ring Cover Special sealing ring Filter insert Filter casing Sealing ring Joint Threaded plug Connecting nipple Protecting sleeve Corset Screw
The drive of the cylinder lubricating oil pumps is effected hydraulically, in accordance with schematic diagram 7210-20. Sheet 7210-21 provides information on the arrangement of the hydraulic drive components. For establishing and setting the lubricating oil feed rate, diagram sheet 7210-22 has to be used. The cylinder lubricating oil pump drive is SOdesigned that the specific cylinder lubricating feed rate at low load (about 25% load) is 1.1 times to 1.3 times higher than at full load (100% load). The geared pump 6 supplies a constant quantity of engine oil per unit of time and with an increased pressure to the 3-way flow control valve 5, which is controlled by the fuel regulating linkage 1. Depending on the position (load) of the fuel injection pump regulating shaft 1 and the 3-way flow control valve 5, the latter controls the quantity of oil flowing to the hydraulic motor 7. The 3-way flow control valve 5 allows any surplus oil to return to the engine housingvia return 18. In this way, the quantity of oil routed to the hydraulic motor 7 is increased or reduced and thus also the speed of the hydraulic motor. As a result of this, the cylinder lubricating oil pumps 8 are driven faster or slower, and therefore prime more or less oil. The speed of the hydraulic motor is dependent solelyon its supplied quantity of oil.
The minimum speed of hydraulic motor 7
= 40 r.p.m.) is determined by stop screw 1.
As a rule the basic setting as recorded in the setting table should not be altered. Pre-lubrication
and emergency operation
TOpre-lubricate the cylinders (see also sheet 0357) as well as in the case of failure of gear pump 6 or of flow control valve 5, the hand cranks 10 of the cylinder Iubricators 8 have to be turned manually. Damage to the drive system of the lubricators should, if at a11possible, be remedied immediately. Cylinder oil quantity
The recommended Establishing
lubricating oil throughput is indicated on sheet 0360.
specifk feed rate (SFR) from the adjusting diagram sheet 7210-22
The theoretical feed rate is established from the three diagram fields ‘A!,‘B’ and ‘C’ as shown in the examples for 25% load and 100% load. Diagram field ‘A’
The determining characteristic ‘KS’ of flow control valve 5 bas been entered here. Starting at the LI-position (load indicator) of the regulating shaft (on the left) the speed of hydraulic motor 7 nOR is estabhshed by means of the flow characteristic. The exact speed nOR cari be verified by direct speed measurement on the drive shaft 9, or by counting the number of crank turns. Number of crank turnslminute x 9 = rm effective
Diagram field ‘B’
A characteristic line is allocated to every position ‘X’ (e-g. X = 2) of the stroke-adjusting screw ‘E’, which indicates the relevant throughput FR in g/cyl. hour at the intersection of the corresponding nOR. Norma& the setting measure ‘x’ (number of screw tums) should be equal on a11cylinder lubricators on the engine.
Diagram field ‘C’
Starting from the intersection in field ‘B’, the intersection with the resp. cyIinder Ioad characteristic (e.g. 180 kW/@.) cari be found and with it the specific feed rate SFR (g/kWh) cari be established. TOdetermine the setting measure ‘X’,the procedure cari also be reversed (e.g. 100% load).
For normal operation the basic setting according to the setting table should not be altered as a rule. Only after overhauls i.e. after replacement of piston rings, cylinder liner, piston or piston skirt, may the lubricating oil quantity SFR be altered for the duration of running-in as described in the running-in instructions (sheet 0360). At the end of the running-in period the original value must be re-set again. When replacing gear pump 6, for the hydraulic motor 7 and specially the flow control valve 5, the actual speed nOR of the hydraulically motor has to be measured and compared with the values in the setting table. Deviations of i 10% at 100% load and of +r 15% at 25% load are tolerable. Possibilities of correcting the settings
Should the deviations be greater, then alterations of the basic setting should only be carried out by specifically trained personnel. Below are given the alteration possibilities of characteristic ‘KS’ of the 3-way flow control valve:
- Transmission bar 3 Lengtheningorshortening the barlength by 1 mm, producesaparallelshifiofthe
~OR= + 4 rp.m. (when shortening) nOR
= - 4 rp.m. (when lengthening).
- Tooth meshina of toothed segment 4 Shifting of the marked toothed mesh by one tooth produces a largerparallel shifr of the characteristic ‘S’as shown below:
- Re-attachinp of transmission bar 3 on the lever 2 Re-setting the rod meshing by one hole in lever2, in the direction smaller leverradius, causes a steeperinclina tion of the charactetitic curve ‘KS’,whereas in the direction largerleverradius, it causes af7atter inclination of the characteristic curve ‘KS’. In other words at nearZyunchangedzeropoint, the inclination of the characterîstic curve ‘KS’changes at LZ-position 8 by about 5 35 rp.m.
After altering the setting, the minimum speed of the hydraulic motor has to be checked ut minimum engine speed and
load and Iimitedto noR = 40 rp.m byadjustingstopscrew11.
7210-2 Key to Illustrations
1 Fuel pump regulating shaft
11 Stop screw
2 Lever on regulating shaft 3 Transmission bar
12 Feed indicator (see sheet 7221)
4 Toothed segment 5 3-way flow control valve (see sheet 7212)
14 Cylinder liner
6 Gear pump (see sheet 7211)
16 Oil pressure piping
7 Hydraulic motor (see sheet 7213) 8 Cylinder lubricator (see sheet 7220)
A Diagram field for LI and ~OR B Diagram field for measure ‘x’ of the adjusting screw C Diagram field for load and SFR E Adjusting screw for pump stroke KS Characteristic of 3-way flow control valve LI IlOR
Load indicator position Speed of hydraulic motor (r.p.m.)
X Number of tums of adjusting screw ‘E FR SFR
Flow quantity Specific cylinder lubricating oil feed rate
+ + \,
,. -- HilY
I I -t-i- I
LI=7.9 100% lood, SFR=2,32g/kWh
720 kW, n= 514 RPM
Adjuating scrcw E
(Left hond thrcod)
Vicwcd from obon Oil
FOR CYLINDER LUBRICATING OIL DRIVE (sec Fig. 7211-20) For a11 engine alternatives the cog wheel pump is utilized. It is therefore equipped with valves which permit its use for both engine directions of rotation. GEAR
Key to Fig. 7211-20
5 6 7
a 11 12 13 14
Valve housing Allan screw Pump housing Driving gear with drive shaft Bearing bushes Flange Allan screw Centring ring Driven gear Closing caver Circlip Guide bushes
15 16 17 la 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 D S
Spring Valve Valve body Valve body Valve Guide bush Spring Circlip Bush Rubber '0' ring Rubber '0' ring pressure side Suction side
’ I 25
3-WAY FLOW THE CYLINDER
CONTROL VALVE LUBRICATOR DRIVE
(please refer also to sheet 7210-21) The gear pump delivers the lubricating oil to connection ‘A. Part of this oil flows from connection ‘B’ to the hydraulit motor via the throttle of the control piston. The remaining oil returns to the system through connection ‘T’. Depending on the position of the control piston or the regulating linkage respectively, more oil reaches the hydraulit motor and less returns to the system or vice versa. In addition a pressure regulating valve 5 is provided, which is set to 50 bar.
Key to Illustration
Pinion shaft Cover Casing Setting screw for pressure regulating valve Pressure limiting valve Pressure balance Regulating piston A Oil inlet B Oil outlet to hydraulic motor T Return to system 1 Schematic diagram of flow control valve II Characteristic
50 W 30 20 10 O+r;:::::
OIL PUMP (sec Fig. 7213-20)
The hydraulic motor drives the cylinder lubricating oil pumps which are connected to each other with couplings. The oil leaving the hydraulic motor returns to the crankcase. The distance from the cylinder lubricating oil pumps seating surface to the drive-shaft centre line 1s specified with a tolerance SO that during installation the correct position with regard to the height-is obtained automatically. In order to ensure that the correct axial position 1s obtained the cylinder lubricating oil pumps must be pushed UP to the stop against the front of the support during assembly.
Kev to Fig. 7213-20 1
Allan screw Screw
Axial needle-roller bearing
Eight pump elements ring the vertical gear shaft. Each element consists of a pump body with control plunger and main piston. As well as these, a suction pipe ‘A’and two deliveq pipes ‘B’ are to be found in each element. The individual pump elements 8 are screwed onto a common baseplate 15. Al1 the oil outlets are located at the top in the housing caver 3. 2. Mode of operation
The gear shaft 14 is driven by the cylinder lubricating oil pump shaft 18 (see also sheet 7210) via worm gears 10 and 10a. Their rotation is converted directly into a reciprocating movement of the main piston and control plunger. The rim of the stroke control disc 6 runs in the groove of control plunger 9 and causes the latter to execute t w o upward and downward strokes every revolution. The head of the main piston 7 engages in the rim of the stroke operating disc 4 and the piston executes an upward and downward stroke e v e r y r e v o 1u t i o n. a) Suction stroke:
The control plunger is brought to the middle position by the stroke control disc and connects the suction pipe ‘A’with the displacement chamber of the pump body through the transverse hole in the control plunger. The main piston sucks oil due to its upwards motion created by the stroke operating disc.
a) Delivery stroke:
The control plunger is brought to its uppermost position and connects the displacement chamber of the pump body with the Upper delivery line through the vertical groove in the control plunger. The downward stroke of the main piston supplies oil to the relevant connection.
b) Suction stroke:
The control plunger is again brought to the middle position. The Upper delivery pipe is closed off. The upward stroke of the main piston then sucks oil in.
b) Delivery stroke:
The control plunger is brought to its lowest position and the displacement chamber of the pump body is connected with the lower delivery line through the vertical groove in the control plunger. The downward stroke of the main piston supplies oil to the relevant connection.
The effective stroke of the main piston cari be altered by the adjusting screw 2 (‘E’ in diagram 7210-22) at the head of the piston. This is used to regulate the oil delivexy and this at the same time for hotb delivery lines of a pump element. The oil delivery Willbe increased when the adjusting screw is tumed anti-clockwise and decreased when it is turned clockwise. By turning the adjusting screw clockwise until it cornes to the stop, the oil delivered from the relevant element Will be greatly decreased but not actually completely tut off. For this re.ason, under no circumstances
may delivery pipes be blanked
Checking the flow: see sheet 7221 Manual pump drive
TOprime the lubricating oil pipes before starting the engine, after a stoppage of some duration, or to supply extra oil momentarily when the engine is running, as well as in case of failure of the hydraulic pump drive, the gear shaft cari be turned by hand using the hand crank 11 ( push crank down to engage)
7220- 1 CYLINDER
:3. Relief valve TOprotect the casing of the cylinder lubricating oil pump against damage as a result of excessive pressure, a relief valve is provided in the vent screw ‘D’. This valve opens as soon as a pressure of 2 bar is attained (not shown in Fig. 7220-20). 4. Arrangement
(see Fig. 7210-20)
Acylinder lubricating oil pump is required for every 4 cylinders (= 8 lubricating positions). Engines up to 8 cylinders are equipped with two such pumps whereas 9-cylinder engines have three of them. Depending on the location of the turbocharger, the pumps are mounted on the casing at the free end or on the front casing at the driving end. With 6 and 9 cylinder engines, a number of delivery branches are not required. Nevertheless, small pipes are connected to these branches and they return the delivered oil to the supply pipe of the respective pump.
Key to Illustration 7220-20 1 Dust cap
14 Gear shaft screw
3 Casing caver 4 Working stroke disc
16 Drive shaft
18 Cylinder lubricating oil pump shaft
17 Shaft seal
6 Control stroke disc
19 Free wheeling clutch
7 Working piston
20 Rollers for item 19
8 Pump element 9 Control piston 10 Helical gear on gear shaft
A Suction pipe
10a Helical gear
B Discharge pipe
11 Hand crank
C Oil drain plug
D Venting screw with fitted
12 OiI outlet branch 13 Flat joint
relief valve F Filler pipe connection
New sulzer Diesel
Fabrika t Manufacturer Producto
V6gele A G Hockenheim Deutschland
2 - 102 080.336
The feed indicators arranged above the cylinder lubricating oil pumps allow a check to be made on the cylinder lubrication while the engine is running. Al1 the lubricating oil pipes leading from each cylinder lubricating oil pump in pairs to the respective cylinders are connected up to the feed indicators made of clear Plexiglass. Depending on the number of cylinders of the engine, 6 or 8 digit feed indicators are used. Function
In operation the steel balls 4 are lifted up in rhythm of the stroke with the regulating piston and kept hovering in the Upper half of the indicator glass bore (3). Each feed indicator is monitored at two oil ways by electrical proximity switches 5. If the oil flow stops, the steel balls 4 Willsink until they lie in front of the proximity switch 5. This causes a damping effect on the magnetic field which in turn results in an alarm being energized through an amplifying relay.
The exhaust gas from each individual cylinder is led into a single pipe 1 and then to the turbocharger 3. This arrangementis described as SPES (Single Pipe Exhaust System). Expansion bellows 5 are installed between each individual length of pipe to absorb thermal deformation. The supports 2 prevent the pipe from vibrating in operation. The supports 6 hold the pipe connections when the respective cylinder head 4 has been removed. The threads of a11the bolts and studs for the exhaust piping have to be smeared with special heat resistant grease (see Maintenance Manual, sheet 0002, page 1).
Key to Illustrations 8100-20 and -21 1 Exhaust manifold 2 Support 3 Turbocharger 4 Cylinder head 5 Expansion bellows 6 Support 7 Spiral gasket
Il o- 107 185.an
für 8-Zyl. Motor
DRAWN FOR 8-CYL. ENGINE
\a \ \
_-_ _-_ ----_ :
Gezeichnet für 6-Zyl. Motoren DRAWN FOR 6-CYL.
Engines with high cylinder outputs consume the whole turbocharger potential. However, in order to make full use of the wide utility spectrum of the engine in marine or stationary plants, as well as improve the fuel economy and the acceleration performance, an exhaust gas waste-gate cari be provided (see illustration 6501-20). The exhaust gas waste-gate functions generally similar to the charge air waste-gate. If the maximum admissible charge air pressure is reached, part of the exhaust gas is bypassed directly into the gas outlet after the turbine in order to limit the energy supplied to the turbine. Function
The exhaust gas waste-gate 1 is fitted after the turbocharger to a connecting piece 6 on the gas outlet piping. Immediately before entering the turbine, part of the exhaust gas is branched-off from the exhaust pipe, via branch piping 7, and led to the waste-gate. When the valve opening pressure is reached, valve 2 opens and exhaust gas escapes to the gas outlet piping 6. The control ofvalve 2 is effected by the pressure of the charge airwhich reachesvalve piston 3 via connection piping 8. The shutting forces are provided by compression spring 5 and counter piston 4. The opposed piston is fed via connecting bore ‘E’ with charge air pressure or holding pressure respectively which cari be adjusted by pressure regulating valve 10 connected via control piping 9. The basic setting of valve stroke ‘S’ is done with setting screw 11. The function and setting of the valve stroke are checked by means of the control pin 13. On engines with part load waste-gate the turbocharger is specially tuned to part load operation. The turbocharger
attains the nominal charge air pressure at about 85% to 91% of MCR.
. . . the valve opens at about 85%;
. . . . the valve opens at about 88%;
. . . . the valve opens at about 91%.
(ER = E;CONOMYMTING)
At approximately this load point the valve opens progressively until, at 100% load, it is completely open. Opening characteristics open
test (interval according to sheet 0030 in the Maintenance Manual)
Load engine up to just before the corresponding opening point. The waste-gate valve must remain shut. Test pin 13 protrudes from the covering cap 14 and may not lower itself. Slowly increase engine load up to 100%. The waste-gate valve must open continuously. Test pin 13 lowers itself till the valve stroke entered in the setting table is reached. Should faults occurwith this operational test, or should other defects be found then this fault must be remedied (see Maintenance Manual sheet 8136). Remark:
In the pressure regulating valve 10 the oil level must be periodically checked. screw plug 15 the oil level cari be measured with a measuring wire 17 (about 0 longitudinal bore in the set screw 16. Should the oil level be below the minimum clean oil (by preference turbine oil) has to be added. After the check has been plug 15 has to be screwed in again.
After removal of the 1.5 mm) through the of 15 f 20 mm, then completed the screw 5.95
8136-1 Checking the setting ( only to be done after a defect, dismantling or in the case of replacement
of parts )
A check or setting cari only be performed with turbocharger and charge air cooler in Perfect condition. Setting the valve stroke:
TOcarry out setting works remove first covering cap 14. With the valve shut turn the setting screw 11 for stroke limitation inwards to the stop (turn in clockwise direction). Then turn it outwards to the valve stroke ‘S’ specified in the setting table and lock it with the lock nut (1 turn = 1.5 mm valve stroke).
Never run with the valve shut by force (no stroke).
Setting the holding pressure: (with engine in operation)
Before carrying out setting works check the oil level and top up if necessary. Bring engine power to 100% load without, however, exceeding the admissible 100% value of charge air pressure given in the setting table. Set the holding pressure using the pressure gauge (range 0+4 bar from tool No. 9408.26) on pressure regulating valve 10 (measuring point 12), to exactly the value given in the setting table.
Charge air pressure:
The charge air pressure must be permanently monitored while the engine runs to prevent damage caused by excessive ignition pressures. The setting for the alarm CHARGE AIR PRESSURE TO0 HIGH must therefore be checked periodically (Alarm point = charge air pressure at 110% load).
Key to illustration
1 Waste-gate housing
13 Control pin
2 Valve spindle
14 Covering cap
3 Compensating piston
15 Screw plug
4 Counter piston
16 Set screw
5 Compression spring
17 Measuring wire
6 Connecting piece to gas outlet piping 7 Exhaust gas branch piping 8 Charge air connecting piping 9 Control piping
B Exhaust gas C Exhaust gas after cylinder
10 Pressure regulating valve
D Charge air
11 Setting screw 12 Measuring point for holding pressure
E Connecting bore S Valve stroke
Gezeichnet für Reihenmotor DRAWN FOR IN-LINE ENGINE
Generally the cooling water is circulated through the engine cooling circuits by separate electric motor driven pumps. Engines with “built-on pumps” (for example Diesel Generators) have their pumps driven directly off the crankshaft (please refer to section 7103 and 7104).
The water cooling is divided into three separate circuits, namely: - Cylinder cooling with treated fresh water in a closed circuit - Fuel injection valve and nozzle cooling with treated fresh water - Charge air cooling
. for single-stage charge air cooler with raw water or with treated fresh water (central cooler) . for two-stage compact charge air cooler only with treated fresh water in a closed circuit.
The circuits of the three systems within the engine are shown on the diagram 8300-20 for single-stage charge air cooler and diagram 8300-21 for two-stage compact charge air cooler. For circuits within the installation (power plant) please consult the relevant diagrams of the plant. Pressure and temperatures, Cooling water treatment,
please refer to section 0358.
please refer to section 0356 - cooling water.
Key to Illustration,
1 Cylinder cooling water inlet 2 Cylinder cooling water outlet 3 Cooling water inlet to turbocharger 4 Cooling water outlet from turbocharger 5 Cooling water inlet to fuel injection valve 6 Cooling water outlet from fuel injection valve 7 Instrument pane1 8 Gas inlet casing to turbocharger
8a Gas outlet casing from turbocharger 9 Fuel injection valve
10 Charge air cooler, single-stage 10a Compact charge air cooler, two-stage 11 Drain from gas outlet casing of turbocharger M Measuring connection T Thermometer V Vent D Drain H High temperature circuit L Low temperature circuit CA
Charge air inlet
M6 / A
VT / /
II II II I
Generally the lubricating oil is circulated by a separate electric motor driven pump. Engines with built-on pumps (for example Diesel Generators) have their pumps driven directly off the crankshaft (please refer to section 7101).
The lubricating circuit within the engine is shown on diagram: 8400-20 . . with separate cylinder lubrication 8400-21 . . piston with ‘inner lubrication’. For the further circuit of the lubricating oil within the installation please refer to the diagrams pertaining to the installation. Regarding the arrangement of the cylinder lubricators and their drives please refer to sheet 7201. ‘Ikbocharger and govemor have their own integral lubricating systems (please refer to the separate descriptions and instructions of these components).
Key to Illustrations 8400-20 and -21
2 Crankshaft main bearings
16 Cylinder lubricator 17 Cylinder lubricating oil daily tank
3 Crankpin bearing
4 Spherical piston bearing
19 Gear oil pump (of cylinder lubricator drive)
1 Main oil pipe from pump
5 Piston (cooling) 6 Bearing of intermediate gear wheel of camshaft drive 7 Spray nozzle 8,8a
12 Shut-off servomotor 13 Shut-off control valve (only for reversible engines) 14 Reversing valve (only for reversible engines) 15 Reversing servomotor
M Measuring connection T Thermometer REV
only for reversible engines
(only for reversible engines)
zAL4os with Separate Cyl. Lubrication
zAL4os Piston with ‘Inner Lubrication’
Please refer to sheet 8600-20 for the arrangement of the starting air system (30 bar). The flame trap 9is designed to prevent flashback into the starting air pipe.
Key to Illustration
1 Starting air pipe from starting air bottle 2 Shut-off valve 3 Slow turning valve (not included in standard equipment) 4 Relief valve 5 Filter 6 Starting booster 7 Start fuel limiter 8 Starting air distributor 9 Instrument pane1 10 Flame trap 11 Starting air valve M Measuring connection
q-Jo 0000 ‘ZI 9
3 / ,2 3-
Fuel oil system (Fig. 8700-20)
The fuel oil is fed to the fuel injection pumps by a booster pump installed either in the plant or on the engine. The volume of fuel delivered by this pump is considerably larger than required by the engine injection. At the end of the return pipe 7 a pressure retaining valve 6 has been foreseen, on which the specified feed pressure (see sheet 0358) cari be set. The excess fuel oil is returned to the system. For heavy fuel oil service the fuel piping is heated and insulated. The high pressure injection piping 4 is additionally encased for safety reasons. This pipework is monitored by a float switch 13 installed at the end of the fuel leakage pipe 8. TOreduce the pressure surges produced by the injection pumps, throttling orifices have been fitted in the connections to the feed and return pipes on the injection pumps. Shut-off valves 11 and 12 are only fitted in front of each fuel injection pump as standard on the Marine Engines. Setting the pressure retaining valves (Fig. 8700-21)
TOincrease the adjustable pressure, turn the adjusting spindle 6 in a cloclovise direction (+). TOreduce the pressure turn the adjusting spindle 6 in an anti-clockwise direction (-). TOfree the spindle for adjustment loosen the lock nut 1 and tighten again after the adjustment is completed.
Key to Illustrations
1 Fuel supply pipe 2 Fuel injection pump
3 Injection pipe
4 Fuel branch with pressure valve
4 Joint ring
5 Fuel injection valve
6 Pressure retaining valve
6 Pressure adjusting spindle
7 Fuel return pipe
7 Sliding bush
8 Leakage pipe from HP-pipe 9 Leakage pipe from fuel injection pump
Where rules or laws demand it or when the customer orders it specially, the engine is equipped with an oil mist detector. This device continuously measures the density of oil mist in the crankcase and triggers an alarm when the oil mist intensity is too high. With this, possible bearing damage cari be detected at an early stage and explosions be prevented in the crankcase. Dependingon the design execution, either a GRAVINER (Fig. 9314-20) or SCHALLER (Fig. 9314-20a) type is fitted. Function
The oil mist detector 1 is mounted on the EXHAUST SIDE of the engine. From each cylinder of the crankcase space, a sampling pipe 2 leads to the oil mist detector 1. Via the individual suction tubes 3 oil mist samples are drawn in periodically and checked for their intensity. In case of inadmissibly high density the device triggers an alarm. Via return pipe 4 (only on GRAVINER) the oil-air mixture is again led back to the crankcase. As the oil mist detector may have been supplied by various manufacturers we have to refer to the more detailed description of each make. The manufacturer’s documentation also contains more exact instructions regardingperiodical maintenance work which must be carried out.
Support 7 Pressure reducing valve 8 Engine housing 9 Compressed air piping 10 Pressure regulating unit 11 Filter
-t -t + L+
GRAVINER OIL MIST DETECTOR
SCHALLER OIL MIST DETECTOR
9316 MAIN TEMPERATURE
MONITORING (sec Fig. 9316-20)
Where required by regulations or at the request of the customer, the temperature of the main bearings cari be monitored while the engine is running. In such cases, temperature probes, as shown on Fig. 9316-20, are built into the main bearings which transmit a temperature-related signal to a monitoring instrument. Bependlng upon the installation, this instrument cari give en alarm or immediately stop the engine when the pre-set temperature 1s exceeded. The arrangement of the temperature probes for normal main bearings is shown on Fig. 'A' and for locating bearings on Fig. 'B'. The screws which hold the clemps 4 have to be secured with locking wire. The temperature probes are held continuously pressed against the stop at the bottom of the hole in the bearing by Springs 9. In order to secure the unions 10 in the main bearings, their threads have to be smeared with LOCTITE before they are screwed In. This is not necessary with unions lOa, since this temperature probe is located outside the englne casing.
Kev to Fia. 9316-20 1
Main bearing cap
3b Terminal boxes for item 3 4
Locatlng bearing, lower part
Main bearing shell
Locating bearing shell
10,lOa Union L
TO + smeared with LOCUTE No. 59 or 221 before screwing in.
’ 3tJ 3b
II 0 I ,
TO lift the complete engine by crane two suspension devices 4 are to be fitted as shown on sheet 9500-20. The centre of gravity is situated at the following distances “L’ from the coupling flange, towards the engine centre: 6 ZAIAOS with turbocharger
on FREE END
L = 3133 mm
6 ZAL4OS with turbocharger
on DRIVING END
L = 2630 mm
8 ZAIAOS with turbocharger
on FREE END
L = 4053 mm
8 ZAIAOS with turbocharger
on DRIVING END
L = 3364 mm
9 ZAL4OS with turbocharger
on FREE END
9 ZAL4OS with turbocharger
on DRIVING END
L = 3700 mm
On the 6 cylinder engine the suspension devices 4 are placed between the cyhnder No. 1 and No. 2 and between cylinder No. 5 and No. 6; on the 8 cylinder engine between cylinder No. 2 and No. 3 and between cylinder No. 6 and No. 7. On the 9 cylinder engine the devices are placed between cylinder No. 2 and No. 3 and between cylinder No. 7 and cylinder No. 8. Fit special studs 3 on four cylinder head studs 6 (on either end) and screw them down till fully seated. Mount suspension device 4 and fasten it with nuts 5. Tighten nuts 5 firmly, using impact spanner AF 65 (impact spanner is not a standard engine tool). Remark
The engine suspension device is entered in the tools list of the Maintenance Manual. It is however not part of the standard tool kit and is only supplied against a special separate order.
Key to Illustration
1 Cylinder head 2 Round nut to cylinder head 3 Special stud 4 Suspension device 5 Hexagonal head nuts (AF 65) 6 Cylinder head studs