CLASS 12 CBSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROJECTFull description
CLASS 12 CBSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROJECT
Physical Education Project class12 with yoga
every thing is ready except add 2 or 3 colour pics. This contains :- INTRODUCTION HISTORY GAME PLAY AIFFFull description
This paper shows some fundamental concepts of Physical EducationFull description
Learning how to trade and make money on virtual football.Full description
lesson plan in physical educationFull description
NCSE 2013 Physical Education 2 Past PapersFull description
On Education Summary. On Education - Albert Einstein.Full description
K to 12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide
To-Puneet sir | By- Aashirwad jindal
PHYSICA L EDUCATI ON.
FOOTBALL-THE LEGENDARY GAME..!!!
1. During the very first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872, players not only wore “knickerbockers” or long pants but bobble hats or caps too. The head dresses were a normal part of the footballing attire at the time and lasted well into the 20th century. 2. Balls were not exactly round when the first club and country matches took place. A pig’s bladder was blown up like a balloon, tied at the ends and placed inside a leather case, affording it an egg shape. The discovery of Indian rubber in the 1860s gave the ball greater roundness. 3. While it is true footballs of yesteryear gained weight in wet conditions, they were in fact lighter than today’s ball. In 1889, the spherical object used had to be between 12-15 ounces (340 – 425 grams) but this increased to 14-16 ounces (397 -454 grams) in 1937. 4. In the FA rules of 1863, there was no mention of a crossbar. As in rugby today, a goal could be scored at any height as long as the ball went between the sticks or posts. A tape was used to close the goal during the first internationals before a crossbar replaced it in 1875. 5. Mob football, a descendant of the modern game, stormed into England around the 12th Century and caught on to such an extent it was banned by A 450-year-old football, made from a pig's bladder and Royal decree by many kings and pieces of leather, laced queens. It was a violent game in together and found in the which “murder and manslaughter” rafters of Stirling Castle were allegedly the only barriers to transporting the ball to village ends. King Henry VIII, however, is believed to have been a keen player. 6. Contrary to some beliefs, football was very much an upper class sport in England during its infancy. The rules of the game were largely drafted by students belonging to public schools and universities. The working class adopted the sport during the late 19th Century.
H I S T O R Y
7. The first meeting of the Football Association on 26 October 1863 in London did not end in total agreement among the 12 attendees. One club walked out, refusing to accept the noninclusion of hacking (kicking below the knee) among the original rules.
8. Penalties or referees found no place in the original rules of the game. Gentlemen would never intentionally foul, it was assumed. In fact debating techniques were almost as important as ball skills in those days as players could appeal against decisions first to The ancient Greek "Maradona", playing captains and then to "Episkyros" with a pala (National Museum of umpires before Archeology in Athens) referees, named so because they had originally been referred to by umpires, found their place on the pitch in 1891. 9. It was only in the 20th Century that the penalty spot was introduced. In the decade before penalties, originally called the kick of death, could be taken anywhere along a line 12-yards from goal. 10. The word soccer does not come from the United States but was a term used by public school and university students, most notably at Oxford, in the 19th Century to shorten the new game “Association Football”. The predilection to shorten words with “er” extended to Rugby too, known as rugger. 11. The FA’s 1863 rules of the game permitted the use of handling. Although a player could not handle the ball if it was on the ground, he
H I S T O R Y
was able to catch it in the air and make a mark to gain a “free” kick, which opposing players were not allowed to charge down. 12. Goalkeepers, in their own half, could handle the ball both inside and outside the penalty area before 1912. 13. Before 1913 when a corner was taken, instead of deciding on an inswinger, outswinger or taking a short one, there was nothing to stop a player dribbling the ball by himself. The rules were changed after several players teed themselves up before scoring. 14. Referees attempted to catch up with play around the turn of the century decked in black trousers, blazer and bow tie!
H I S T O R Y
The rules of football are officially referred to as the "Laws of the Game". The Laws of the Game are described very precisely (approximately 150 pages) on the FIFA website here. There are 17 laws in total, each one briefly summarised below. Field of Play. The game can be played on either natural or artificial surfaces, the surface must be green and rectangular in shape. The two long sides of the rectangle are called touch lines and the two shorter sides are called goal lines. The field is divided in half by the halfway line. Ball. Must be spherical, made of leather (or similar) 68-70 cm in circumference and of a certain pressure. Number of Players. Two teams of no more than 11 players (one of which is the goalkeeper). A game cannot start if either team has less than 7 players. Equipment. Players must wear a jersey, shorts, stockings, shinguards and footwear. Referee. The referee ensures the Laws of the Game are respected and upheld. Assistant Referees. There may be at most 2 assistant referees. Duration of the Match. The game is played in 2 halves consisting of 45 minutes each. The half time interval must not exceed more than 15 minutes. At the discretion of the referee more time is allowed to compensate for any stoppage during play e.g. Due to substitutions or care and attention of injured players. Start and Restart of Play. A kick-off starts play at the start of the match or after a goal. A kick-off involves one player kicking the ball, from stationary, forward from the centre spot. All players must be in their own half prior to kick-off. A coin is tossed pre-game, the team which loses the toss are awarded the kick-off to start the game whilst the team that win the toss are
allowed to choose which direction they want to play. After half time the teams switch direction and the other team will kick-off. After a goal is scored, the team which conceded the goal will kick-off to restart play. Ball in and Out of Play. The ball is out of play once a goal has been scored or when the referee has stopped the game. The ball is in play at all other times.
Method of Scoring. The ball crosses the goal line inside the goal mouth. Offside. It is an offence for a player to be in contact with the ball when they are closer to the opponents' goal than both the ball and the second-last opponent. The offside rule exists to ensure there are always opponents (generally the goal keeper and a defender) between a player receiving the ball and the goal. Without the offside rule, play can become boring with repeated long balls being kicked to a player stood next to the goalkeeper for an easy goal. Fouls/Misconduct. These are many and varied, broadly speaking it is an offence to use excessive force whilst playing the game either deliberately or undeliberately or to handle the ball (unless you are a goal keeper). The referee may show the yellow card to caution players for less serious offences and the red card for more serious offences resulting in the player being sent off. Two yellow cards are equivalent to one red card. Free Kicks. Are given by the referee for fouls and misconduct. A free kick can either be direct or indirect. A goal can be scored directly from a direct free kick. A goal can only be scored from an indirect free kick if it touches at least one other player first. The free kick must be taken from a stationary position with that position varying depending on whether the free kick was given inside or outside the goal area and whether it's direct or indirect. The opposing team must be a minimum of 9.15 m from the ball when the free kick is taken.
Penalty Kicks. Are given against a team when they commit an offence which would normally be awarded a direct free kick inside their goal area. The ball is kicked from stationary from the penalty spot. The opposing team must be outside
L E S
of the penalty area and at least 9.15 m from the ball. Throw-in. Used to restart play after the whole of the ball has crossed the touch line. Goal kick. Used to restart play after a goal has been scored. Corner Kick. Is given when the whole of the ball crosses the goal line and was last touched by a member of the defending team (and no goal was scored). A corner kick is taken from inside the corner arc closest to the point where the ball crosses the goal line. The defending team must be at least 9.15 m from the ball when the corner kick is taken.
The rules of specification outline certain factors relating to the playing set up of Gaelic Games. They specify limitations relating to:
The Field of Play
Equipment 1. FIELD OF PLAY Pitch Dimensions The field of play for Gaelic Games is rectangular and its dimensions are as follows:
Length - 130m minimum to 145m maximum
Width - 80m minimum to 90m maximum Pitch Markings At distances of 13m, 20m, 45m (football) and 65m (hurling), lines are marked parallel to the end lines. The intersection of
R S p U e c L I F E I S C a t I o n
these lines and the end lines with the sidelines are marked with flags. The midline of the field is marked parallel to the end lines and has a maximum length of 10m (Note: the dimensions may be reduced by local bye-laws for U15 or younger grades). Goalmouth and Scoring Space
The scoring space is marked in the centre of each end line by two goalposts 6.5m apart, with a height of not less than 7m above ground level. A cross bar is fixed to the goal posts at a height of 2.5m above the ground (Note: goalpost dimensions may be reduced by local bye-laws for U15 or younger grades).
Two rectangles of the following dimensions are formed in front of each set of goalposts. A) Small Rectangle 14m long by 4.5m wide. The distance from the inside of each goalpost to the beginning of each line of width is 3.75m
B) Large Rectangle 19m long by 13m wide. The distance from the inside of each goalpost to the beginning of each line of width is 6.25m Substitution Zone and Semi Circle Arc
A semi circle arc of 13m radius, centred on the mid-spot of the 20m line, is marked outside of each 20m line. An area of the sideline extending 5m on either side of the centre line denotes the substitution zone. All substitutions and temporary replacements occur through this zone, when given permission by the referee (Note: an injured player may leave the field at the nearest point to him)
C F C A T I O N
2. THE PLAYERS A team consists of 15 players. These are made up of one goalkeeper, six defenders, two midfielders and six attackers. (Note: the positional line up is as below, but no player is restricted in his movement around the field). The teams line up as follows:
A team may commence a game with 13 players, but must have fielded 15 players (inclusive of any players ordered off or retired injured) by the start of the second half. A maximum of five substitutes are allowed. A substitution is not allowed in the case of a player ordered off (Note: in the case of extra time, an additional three substitutes are allowed. A player ordered off, in any circumstances, during normal time may not play in extratime, but may be replaced). Substitutions/temporary replacements may only be made during a break in play. Before all official games, the referee must be given a list of players. The first 15 names on the list indicate those players constituting the actual team, unless otherwise clearly indicated. 3. TIME The playing time consists of two periods of 30 minutes each, but time is added on in each period for incidental or deliberate delays.
S p e c i f i c a t i o n
In Senior Inter-county Championship and National League games, the playing time consists of two periods of 35 minutes each. Playing time may be reduced for U15 or younger grades. A team must take the field not later than 10 minutes before the appointed starting time for Senior Inter-county Championship and other selected games. In all other cases, a team must take the field not later than 5 minutes before the appointed starting time. 4. EQUIPMENT A football and a goal post..
1. FIFA cup 2. international Nehru cup 3. Asia cup 4. merdeka cup 5. Durand cup 6. rovers cup 7. i.f.a cup 8. santosh trophy 9. federation cup 10. DCM cup 11. kopa cup 12. women federation cup 13. air lines cup 14. UEFA cup
Olympic Games: football was included in Olympic Games in 1908 . Since, football competition has become a part of these games.
Rajiv Gandhi gold cup: it is national level tournament for boys below 21 years Subroto cup: it I sinter school level tournament. Santosh trophy: it is national level football tournament of football.
T H O IU R S N A T M E O N T R S Y
Top 10 Sporting Personalities . Lionel Messi (Argentina & Barcelona)
Four times World Player of the Year, Messi is by some distance the best player on the planet. His ability to mesmerize defenders with a mix of skill and pace is unmatched and it often appears as though the ball is glued to his feet. The Barcelona star is versatile enough to play anywhere across the frontline, but his country Argentina have so far failed to find a way to get the maximum out of this extraordinary talent. Already one of the best soccer players of all time. 2. Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal & Real Madrid)
Ronaldo may have less of an influence on games than Messi, but he is stronger and taller than the Argentine, and his goals-to-games ratio similar. Since joining Real Madrid from Manchester United in 2009, Ronaldo has been a revelation, making the world record outlay of US$131 look less outrageous with every hat-trick. His famous stepover is imitated in parks right across the world.
P e r s o n a l i t y
3. Xavi Hernandez (Spain & Barcelona)
Barcelona’s midfield metronome dictates the tempo of a match with his phenomenal pass completion rate. He works superbly with partner-in-crime Andres Iniesta, the pair undoubtedly responsible for enhancing Messi’s game further with the steady stream of passes with which they provide in the final third. Xavi is now into his 30s, and a chronic Achilles injury notwithstanding, has the potential to continue for several years yet. 4. Andres Iniesta (Spain & Barcelona)
Iniesta's understanding with club-mate Xavi Hernandez borders on the telepathic at times. The short, eye of the needle passing the pair produce can pierce holes in the most stubborn of rearguards. Iniesta is also very modest, never creating problems for the coaches he works under. Scored the winner in the World Cup final against the Netherlands. 5. Robin van Persie (Netherlands & Manchester United)
P e r s o n a l i t y
Having put the injury problems that blighted Van Persie throughout his mid-20s behind him, the Dutchman is now one of the most feared strikers in world soccer. Manchester United procured the player from Arsenal in 2012 and it proved a masterful signing as he picked up where he had left off at the Emirates Stadium with goals galore to fire United to the 2012-13 Premier League title. A player of immaculate technique, with a left foot to die for. 6. Gareth Bale (Wales & Real Madrid)
The Welsh attacker completed his long-awaited move to Real Madrid on September 1, 2013 after a summer of protracted negotiations with Tottenham Hotspur. Bale is a supreme dribbler who boasts the pace and skill to beat multiple opponents. He is also a great finisher and capable of scoring consistently from long range. 7. Wayne Rooney (England & Manchester United)
If there were question marks over Rooney's goal scoring abilities, they were well and truly answered in the 2009/10 season. Now that he has added more goals to his game, Rooney is the all-round player. Superb awareness, long-range passing, hold-up play and a never-say-die spirit combine to make a precious asset for club and country.
P e r s o n a l i t y
8. Yaya Toure (Ivory Coast & Manchester City)
The all-round midfielder. The emergence of Sergio Busquets at Barcelona proved a blessing for Manchester City because it meant that the Catalans were willing to offload the Ivorian to the Etihad Stadium in 2011. Toure was one of the linchpins as City won their first league title since 1968. Few players are capable of switching through the gears so effortlessly and watching Toure rampage through Premier League midfields is one of the most spectacular sights in world soccer. 9. Radamel Falcao (Colombia & Monaco)
The Colombian has been a goalscoring phenomenon since moving to Europe in 2009. A serial Europa League scorer when at Porto and Atletico Madrid, Falcao also features at the top of the domestic goalscoring charts on a regular basis and it was little surprise that cash rich Monaco chose the striker as their marquee signing in 2013 at over 50 million euros.
P e r s o n a l i t y
10. Zlatan Ibrahimovic (Sweden & Paris SaintGermain)
Expect the unexpected with the mercurial Swede. Ibrahimovic is the moodiest player in world soccer, but completely unplayable when on his game. Just witness his stunning overhead kick against England in 2012. Ibra has won league titles in Holland, Italy, Spain and France with six different clubs and is something of a lucky charm for those willing to invest in his considerable talents.
The basic techniques In grassroots football, the basic techniques can be divided into three categories:
Control of the ball Running with the ball Striking the ball
S K I L L S
1. Control of the ball
a. Control / b. Keepy-uppy Control To control the ball is to master it. Properly controlling the ball means that a move will be successful. The control movements to focus on are: directed control and gathering the ball while moving – these introduce speed into the play. Keepy-uppy
If repeated regularly, keepy-uppy develops the skills ofdexterity, coordination and balance in young footballers. These skills favour the more rapid acquisition of othertechniques.
2. Running with the ball
S K I L L
a. Without obstacles / b. With obstacles = dribbling Running with the ball This is how an individual moves in free space with the ball. When a player is running well with the ball, he/she is in control of it at all times: this requires good balance and excellent stability. Running with the ball while keeping the head up allows a continuous flow of information to be received and allows movement to be adapted to play. Dribbling This is how an individual moves with the ball when faced by opponents. Dribbling allows the player in possession of the ball to eliminate one or more opponents by:
making a manoeuvre and taking individual risks, setting up a team move, gaining time to allow support from team-mates,
deceiving an opponent (the concept of the feint).
3. Striking the ball
a. Passes / b. Shots on goal Passing The action of giving the ball to a team-mate. This is an essential part of team play. As the core of the game, passing allows a team to:
keep possession of the ball, set up attacks, change the direction of play, counter attack, provide a decisive or final pass.
Crosses are a type of short or long pass, usually leading to a shot. They serve as the last pass. Shooting An action with the objective of dispatching the ball into the opponent’s goal. It is the logical conclusion, the culmination of an attack. It is what football is all about. Shooting requires technical qualities (striking the ball well, accuracy), physical qualities (power, coordination, balance) and mental qualities (determination, audacity, self-confidence).
S K I L L S
Main individual tactics for defending
Always keep between your opponent and your goal, Always watch your opponent and the ball, Try to counter the opponents’ attacking build-up as soon as possible by marking, Don’t give your opponent space. Slow your opponent down when they run with the ball (shutting down), Try to get to the ball before your opponent, or otherwise hinder them when they receive the ball. Contest all balls,
Mark your opponent on the side of the ball, in other words the side where he/she will make the pass, When a high ball comes in, jump a moment earlier than your opponent, Do not dribble in your penalty area, Avoid cross-pitch passes from the outside to the inside, Play on the outside along the touchline, Don’t hit the ball randomly, build an attack from the back, If you lose the ball, strive to recover it,
Avoid ineffective tackles, don’t throw yourself at an opponent who has the ball. Wait until your opponent changes the weight on his/her feet before challenging them, Never turn your back on an attacker, Push your opponents towards the touchline, Carefully follow play, even if the ball is far away, A good defender never gives up,
T a c t i c s
The goalkeeper must command his/her area.
COMMON INJURIES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS
Traumatic Injuries Knee injuries in football are the most common, especially those to the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament (ACL/PCL) and to the menisci (cartilage of the knee). These knee injuries can adversely affect a player's longterm involvement in the sport. Football players also have a higher chance of ankle sprains due to the surfaces played on and cutting motions. Shoulder injuries are also quite common and the labrum (cartilage bumper surrounding the socket part of the shoulder) is particularly susceptible to injury, especially in offensive and defensive linemen. In addition, injuries to the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) or shoulder are seen in football players. Concussions Football players are very susceptible to concussions. A concussion is a change in mental state due to a traumatic impact. Not all those who suffer a concussion will lose consciousness. Some signs that a concussion has been sustained are headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance, drowsiness, numbness/tingling, difficulty concentrating, and blurry vision. The athlete should return to play only when clearance is granted by a health care professional. Overuse Injuries Low-back pain, or back pain in general, is a fairly common complaint in football players due to overuse. Overuse can also lead to overtraining syndrome, when a player trains beyond the ability
I n j u r i e s . P r e v e n t i
for the body to recover. Patellar tendinitis (knee pain) is a common problem that football players develop and can usually be treated by a quadriceps strengthening program. Heat Injuries Heat injuries are a major concern for youth football players,
especially at the start of training camp. This usually occurs in August when some of the highest temperatures and humidity of the year occur. Intense physical activity can result in excessive sweating that depletes the body of salt and water. The earliest symptoms are painful cramping of major muscle groups. However, if not treated with body cooling and fluid replacement, this can progress to heat exhaustion and heat stroke — which can even result in death. It is important for football players to be aware of the need for fluid replacement and to inform medical staff of symptoms of heat injury. HOW CAN FOOTBALL INJURIES BE PREVENTED?
Have a pre-season health and wellness evaluation Perform proper warm-up and cool-down routines Consistently incorporate strength training and stretching Hydrate adequately to maintain health and minimize cramps Stay active during summer break to prepare for return to sports in the fall o Wear properly fitted protective equipment, such as a helmet, pads, and mouthguard o Tackle with the head up and do not lead with the helmet o Speak with a sports medicine professional or athletic trainer if you have any concerns about football injuries or football injury prevention strategies o o o o o