FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation: Negatives For the FCE exam, there's nearly always at least one negative in the word formation paper. There are lots of prefixes and suffixes we can use to make negatives. 1. Negative prefixes can be used with nouns, verbs, adjective and adverbs. For example disapproval, disapprove, disapproving, disapprovingly. 2. Usually im + p (impatient) but not always (unpleasant). (unpleasant). 3. Often il + l (illegal) but not always (unlikely). 4. Often ir + r (irregular) but not always (unresponsive). (unresponsive). 5. Usually -ful changes to -less (harmful/less) but not always (endless). 6. If you can't remember, choose un - it's the most common negative prefix.
FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation: Nouns with -ion One of the most common ways to change a verb to a noun is with -ion (e.g. act to action) and -ation (e.g. observe to observation). Sometimes we also change the verb stem as well when we make the noun like this (e.g. explain to explanation). The table below shows common nouns in which the spelling of the stem also changes.
FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation: Nouns with -ence and -ance Two common noun endings are -ance and -ence. Usually, their adjectives are made with ant and -ent. Here are some common examples which might help you in the FCE exam.
attendance attendant (person)
assistance assistant (person)
Note: You are only given the more common words here. There are other forms (for example, it is possible to use "to evidence something" as a verb) but these are less common.
FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation Verb + ment / adjective + ness Many verbs can form nouns with the suffix -ment. And many adjectives can form their nouns with the suffix -ness.
FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation: Irregular Nouns There are lots of standard noun suffixes (e.g -ment, -tion) or verb suffixes. But many nouns and verbs have irregular suffixes which you'll need to know for the FCE exam.
FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation: Adjectives with -ful/-less Most adjectives which end in -ful make the negative with -less. But, not all. Note also that we can make adverbs from these adjectives with -fully or -lessly. For example, carefully and carelessly . This is a list of key words which might appear in the FCE exam. The words in this table all use -ful and -less to make the adjectives.
The adjectives in this table take -ful or -less, but not both.
FCE (First Certificate) Word Formation: height, width... The word formation part of the FCE use of English exam often tests adjectives such as 'short', 'wide', 'dark' and their nouns and verbs. Here is a list of some of the more common adjectives and their forms.