Thesis on final year project on Vehicle Tracking System through GPS device
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THE AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BWB BASELINE II E5-8 UAV WITH CANARD ASPECT RATIO (AR) OF 8 AT ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10 DEGREE AT 0.1 MACH NUMBER THROUGH CFD SIMULATION AT DIFFERENT CANARD SETTING …Full description
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LIQUID CONTAINING CYLINDERICAL TANKS By: Samuel
CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Its Background Introduction Being able to read is an avenue for personal and social growth. A child can fully view ever winding horizons and explores areas in the world of people, things, and events through reading. Indeed, the key to success is through reading; hence, proficiency in reading is vital to the continuous growth and development of the child. Corollary to this, as early as Grade one, the child must already be exposed to various low level but interesting reading materials that will capture his interest, motivate him to turn the pages, and later develop his love for books, and start to read. Obviously, highly contributes to the development of the child, especially in acquiring knowledge and the most needed learning that will help him become more competitive and language literature. In school, reading is the most important subject to be learned by the child. For this matter, a child will learn little in today’s world if he does not learn to read properly. In fact, Reading is both a subject of instruction and a tool employed towards effective teaching- learning process. It cannot also be denied that every teacher is in cognizance that skilful handling of Reading as a school subject is very vital and important especially to beginning readers to avoid frustrations in the end. Truly, the significance of Reading as a school subject cannot be refuted and underestimated. This made clear that proficiency in Reading is directly related to academic success. Furthermore, skills in reading is considered a fundamental factor,
a must, a need, which enables, helps, assists, and inspires the child to succeed in school, in his daily activities, in his career, and in his life as a whole. Nevertheless, despite all efforts exerted by the teachers in their desire to help their pupils read and comprehend, many just cannot cope and could hardly decode the printed words. Thus, this inability to read becomes one of the major causes of failure among them which leads to other problems that are either behavioural or personal in nature. Furthermore, to a pupil, the inability to read may lead him to nowhere, as disability in reading affects his achievements in school. He may find himself left out of school activities which make him inferior almost all the time. His socialization skills are also affected and he fails to appreciate the beautiful things life offers. Furthermore, as he grows older and progress through the grade, more interactions are founded greatly through the medium of being able to read the printed materials, however, with such reading disabilities emotional problems may crop up and lead to the pupil’s dropping out from school. In addition, when a pupil does not learn to read at the time it is expected of him, he suffers not only from the failure itself, but from the difficulty with all other subjects and activities in school that depend on reading competence. For this matter, Hasentah and Laughton (2002) suggested that diagnosing pupils properly especially those with reading disabilities is very important. According to them, evaluation and assessment will provide the teachers significant information that will assist them in the development of strength and remediation of weaknesses of their pupils. Corollary to this, Phil IRI is a very good material for diagnosing
reading abilities and difficulties of elementary grade pupils especially those in Grade One. However, their instrument must be prepared to assess both the reading and other factors emanating from the home, the environment and other biological factors. Foremost, the teacher must exert all efforts to explore everything she can, to help her pupils with reading disabilities, cope and overcome their failures, because all academic tasks can never be achieved when they perform ineffectively in reading. For this reason, a functional PHIL-IRI program becomes imperative to properly address the problem. This prompted the researcher who is suffering from the same problem every year to conduct the study.
Background of the Study In the lower elementary grades in Pulilan district particularly in Grade two, the presence of pupils with reading difficulties remain a problem to teacher and often times lead to frustrations. Reading, being a potent tool for understanding and mastery of other subjects and school activities must be the immediate and major concern of the teachers. However, despite teachers’ effectiveness, concerns, and dedication, it cannot be denied that there are really pupils who are retorted in reading and are usually educationally disadvantaged because of certain problems emanating from home, as a result of biological factor. A poor reader therefore becomes a poor learner, and all academic tasks can never be achieved whenever a pupil performs ineffectively in Reading. In fact, survey shows, according to Andasan
(1996) in his study that more likely, non- readers are those that become delinquent, unemployed, and misfit in the society. This is indeed very alarming and has to be seriously and properly addressed not only by the teachers, but by the entire educational system in the country. While it is true that if ever there is one fulfilment classroom teacher’s desire, it is to find out that every pupil in her class will be able to read and comprehend. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that each pupil is unique, whose personality, potential and capacity differ from other pupils, hence, the presence of slow and nonreaders, at times, become equally significant to those who are able to read. Cognizance of these, teachers often complain about pupils who go through Grade one without learning to read. When pupils do not learn to read at the time expected of them, they are unable to profit exactly from the classroom interaction they received. It therefore becomes impossible to teach pupils to read without sufficient understanding of how pupils actually learn to read. This poses serious problems among teachers with non-reader pupils since, they know that Reading seems to be the culprit in the low academic performance of the pupils. Furthermore, considering that proficiency in Reading is the royal road to knowledge acquisition, and essential to success in all learning areas, reading teachers in this district are now placed in a seemingly unpleasant situation because the complaint now is that “our pupils could hardly read English” and not only” our pupils could hardly speak English”. This perplexed the researcher who is also a reading teacher in one of the schools in Pulilan district, DepEd Bulacan
Statement of the Problem The study attempted to determine the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI Program and performance in English of Grade two pupils in Pulilan District, Dep Ed, Bulacan during the school year 2011-2012. Specifically, it tried to answer to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the Grade two teacher in terms of: 1.1 age, 1.2 sex, 1.3 civil status, 1.4 highest educational attainment, 1.5 major field of specialization, 1.6 present position, 1.7 years in service, and 1.8 number of seminars attended in Reading? 2. What is the extent of the implementation of Phil –IRI Program in English 3. How may the following factors affecting reading skills of Grade two pupils in Sto. Cristo Elementary School, Dep Ed, Bulacan be described in terms of: 3.1
3.2 home factor 3.3
pupil factor, and
4. Is the Phil-IRI program significantly related in identifying the performance in English of the Grade two pupils? 5. Do the following independent variables significantly related to the performance of Grade two pupils in English? 5.1 profile of the Grade two teachers, 5.2 extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English, and 5.3 factors affecting reading skills of Grade II pupils.
Scope and Limitations of the Study The study focused on the extent of implementation of Phil –IRI program and the English performance of Grade II pupils in Sto. Cristo Elementary School, Dep. Ed., Bulacan during school year 2011-2012. It included the item statements on the extent of implementation of the PHILIRI Program among Grade Two pupils. It also included the factors affecting the reading skills of Grade Two pupils described in terms of parent factor, home factor, pupil factor and teacher factor. Likewise it included the profile of the teacher respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, highest educational attainment, major field of specialization, present position, years in service, and number of seminars attended in Reading. The performance in English of Grade Two pupils are also included. The respondents of the study are the Grade Two teachers and their pupils with reading disabilities.
Significance of the Study Results of the study will help Grade Two teachers understand pupils with reading disabilities which they may use in formulating guidelines and remedial measures to help them. Result may also yield significant information as regards the extent of the implementation of PHIL-IRI Program and the effects of the parent, home, pupil and teacher factors to the English performance of grade two pupils, hence, remedial measures maybe instituted. Findings of the study may also serve as basis for in-service trainings of teachers to further upgrade their competencies. Results may also redound to a better and more sympathetic understanding between parents and teachers as regards their children with reading disabilities. More importantly, results may benefit the Grade Two pupils with reading disabilities because their problems will be properly and timely addressed.
CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter presents the literature and studies read and reviewed by the researcher, the synthesis, the theoretical framework, conceptual framework, the research paradigm, research hypothesis and definition of terms.
Related Literature and Studies Age On age Galicia (2002) found out that age was a factor in feelings of emotional exhaustion and fatigue. It is also a determinant in the world of work. As workers grow older, they tend to be slightly more satisfied with their jobs. There are number of reasons for this, like lowered expectation, better adjustment, and, other causes. These are exceptions but the general trend is higher job satisfaction goes with advantage age. The work performance of older and younger workers is the same in some cases but in typical situation is wherein infirmities are associated with age, oftentimes performance is affected by age. Sex Padlan cited in the study of Pates (2003), that sex is a socio-cultural dimension of being a man or a woman. Men and women are born with similar capacities and potentials; however, the society still defines specific roles to each. When a person is judged according to the attributes expected of males and females, and then it is called gender stereotyping. These gender roles change overtime and vary across cultures. Since gender roles are culturally constructed, they can be changed. Civil Status
This refers to the state of being single or unmarried, married, widow, or widower of the teachers involved in the study. According to Bautista (2006), civil status plays significant roles in job performance. It points out that being married or single affects teacher’s performance. She further implied that married teachers tend to have greater understanding and anticipation of time management. Tagulao (2006) also concluded that civil status is a predictor of the institution’s performance. Educational Attainment Clemente (1996) define educational attainment as the academic preparation of a teacher, which includes the particular degree he had acquired in college, and other studies related to his line of specialization. In many cases, it has been found that education and performance of teachers greatly affect the quality of pupils produced. One of the main qualifications of a teacher is educational attainment. Besides, he must have a strong desire to grow professionally while in the service. He must attend seminars, workshops and conferences that will enrich his qualifications. Thus, his educational qualifications, teaching experience if any, plus all in-service trainings that he attended will likely enhance and increase his teaching efficiency as well as his effectiveness.
Gonzales (1997) emphasized that teachers must be competent in their craft so that they can improve and help their pupils attain higher levels of intellectual and social competence. She believes that if teacher education programs can focus on equipping teachers with the knowledge and skills they need, in helping learners to succeed, in attaining the goals of the school, then education can truly prepare pupils for life in democratic society. Present Position Most studies show that teachers in the elementary level still occupy Teacher I positions from the time they were employed up to present. Years in Service Generally, years in service influences the performance of the teachers. Therefore, it widens perspective on the role and nature of learning and the relationship between growth and development of pupils. Teachers who continually teach certain subjects through the years are expected to demonstrate competence in teaching a particular subject. It also develops effective on the part of the teachers, skills in the use of effective teaching strategies and competence in guiding the learning of pupils. The development of research in various fields of education changes in the various methodologies. The longer the services of the employees the better is their performance on the job, that is according to Pulido (2002). He further explained that the number of years the teachers rendered in the field of teaching greatly influences their
performance. The longer the services of the employees the better is their performance on the job. One of the reasons for this is the possibility that the longer the employees are in the service the more they tend to have a wholesome interpersonal relationship connected to their performance on the job. In teaching therefore, the longer the experience in teaching the better the method of teaching were employed and the keener the teacher becomes to perceive possible problems and the more efficient in solving or dealing with others.
PHILIPPINE INFORMAL READING INVENTORY (Phil-IIRI) SILENT READING, SPEED AND COMPREHENSION A. Background Information for Teachers The Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) is one of the most useful classroom tools in assessing a pupil’s reading ability. It can give the teachers information on the level of their pupils’ performance in reading by actual observation. A typical IRI is administered individually and consists of graded stories followed by comprehension questions of different dimensions. Depending on the purpose, an IRI may contain comprehension questions on a few or more of the following reading skills: getting the main idea, inferencing, sequencing events, finding cause-effect relationships, and noting details. Most IRIs would include measures of word miscues and comprehension as well as provision for pupil retelling of the passage read. Thus, the IRI provides the teachers with a comprehensive profile of their pupils’ ability in reading, whether orally or silently, including their reading habits and attitudes. The
teachers may then use this information in planning their classroom reading instruction. The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI)-Oral Test is one variation of IRI. It is adapted in the context of IRI to help teachers determine the reading abilities and needs of their pupils in order to provide bases for planning their classroom instruction. The Phil-IRI-Oral Test is an informal measure that assesses the pupils’ word identification, vocabulary and comprehension skills in oral reading. It consists of graded reading passages from Grade I to Grade VI. Each graded passage is followed by 5-7 comprehension questions. The questions are categorized into three dimensions namely literal, interpretive and applied. The critical questions are subsumed in the applied dimension. The definitions of each dimension can be found in the glossary of this manual. The passages may either be narrative and expository texts. They are carefully written to ensure that the characters, setting and plot appeal to the children. They are culture-neutral, gender-free and without biases against religion, ethnicity/race and socio-economic status. They are also laden with values and real-life lessons. The Phil-IRI-Oral Test gives both quantitative and qualitative information about the pupil’s oral reading capabilities. Quantitative information shows the reading levels namely: frustration, instructional and independent. Qualitative information emphasizes word recognition, patterns of word errors, comprehension strengths and difficulties as well as oral reading behaviors and attitudes. It also
reveals the reading growth of the pupils over time. The information in the Phil-IRIOral Test should help the teachers, school managers and divisions plan appropriate interventions and strategies in teaching reading. Table 1. PHIL-IRI Silent Reading Test Criteria Reading Level/Grade
The PHIL-IRI has the same limitations of a typical IRI. Its findings are to be interpreted cautiously and are not to be thought of as an absolute measure and encompassing of the total pupil’s reading ability. The PHIL-IRI only provides an approximation of the pupil’s ability in word recognition and comprehension within his/her grade level. The findings are to be regarded only as “very tentative indicators of pupil’s reading levels and competencies to modify, when necessary, a classroom
reading program” (Miller, 1995). They should never be the sole bases for promoting or retaining the child in the grade level. B. Test Materials The Phil- IRI Silent Reading
Test package consists of the Manual of
Administration, Teacher’s/Pupil’s copy of the Graded Passages (Grade I-VI), Phil-IRI Forms and the Key to Corrections. 1. Manual of Administration The manual includes the Background Information for the Teachers, the mechanics of the administration of the test and instructions for recording and reporting results. It serves as a guide to teachers, principals and supervisors in administering the tests as well as in recording results. The manual should be studied carefully before administering the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test. The mechanics of administration are the same for both English and Filipino. Thus, only one manual will be printed for both English and Filipino.
2. Teacher’s Copy The teacher materials for the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test consist of the following forms: •
PHIL-IRI Form 1: Grade Level Passage Rating Sheet – This is the rating sheet which the teacher marks the comprehension score of the
pupil as well as the pupil records his/her reading time while taking the test. The rating sheet contains the passage to be read silently by the pupil. This is followed by comprehension questions which the pupil will answer. The teacher should ensure that each pupil is provided with this form. •
PHIL-IRI Form 2: Individual Summary Record – This form serves to summarize the performance of each pupil. The teacher should transfer the marks of the pupil in the Phil-IRI Form 1 to his/her individual PhilIRI Form 2.
PHIL-IRI Form 3: Class Reading Profile – This form shows the class reading profile. The teacher should fill this with the data from pupils’ Phil-IRI Form 2. He/she should submit this form to the principal/school head who will consolidate all the class profiles to establish the school reading profile.
3. Pupil’s Copy The same copy of the grade level passage rating sheet (Phil-IRI Form 1) which the teacher uses in marking the score of pupils will also be used by the pupils. The silent reading passages are either paragraphs, stories or passages that the pupils read silently. Each paragraph/story/passage is
followed by comprehension questions categorized as literal, interpretive and applied. 4. Other Phil-IRI Forms The following Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test forms shall be accomplished and submitted to the offices indicated below: Name of Forms
Who Will Accomplish
Where to Submit
1. Phil-IRI Form 4 (School Reading Profile) 2. Phil-IRO Form 5 ( District Reading Profile) 3. Phil-IRI Form 6 (Division reading Profile) 4. Phil-IRI Form 7 (Regional Reading Profile)
C. Important Information For Administrators Beginning school year 2007-2008, all schools shall administer the PhilIRI Silent Reading Test in English and Filipino. For SY 2007-2008, the BEE will provide two (2) copies of Phil-IRI package for all the regions and three (3) copies for the divisions. The divisions shall reproduce and distribute the tools to all schools using local funds except for those schools with MOOE. These schools should reproduce their own copies charged against their own MOOE. The region and division English and Filipino supervisors and district supervisors should orient the school heads before the administration of PhilIRI. The supervisors are also advised to monitor the schools in their
administration of the Phil-IRI Silent Reading test and assist in the analysis of data and recording of results. School heads should make sure that all teachers are oriented on the mechanics of administration before the conduct of Phil-IRI test. They should also ensure that all the necessary tests and forms are reproduced according to the number of pupils taking the test. In reporting the district, division, and regional progress in the Phil-IRI Silent reading Test, only the data of pupils who were able to take both pretest and post test should be included. The school head should use the results of pupils who took only either the pre test or the post test in planning appropriate school interventions in reading.
D. Mechanics of Administration Important Notes: Before administering the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test, the teacher should note the dates of administration for both pretest and post test. The teacher should at all times keep the assessment tool with utmost confidentiality. The test materials should not in any way be posted or exposed to pupils except during the administration of the pre test and post test.
The pre test of the Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test shall be conducted in October for Grades II-VI pupils. For Grade I pupils, this shall be administered in December since they are still on the period of oral reading. The silent reading pre test results together with the oral pre test results will be utilized by the teacher/school head for planning a sound school-based reading program to improve the reading proficiency of the pupils. The post test shall be administered at the end of the school year ( February – March ) to Grades I-VI pupils. The results will reveal the progress achieved by the pupils during the school year. In reporting the progress in Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test, include only the data of pupils who were able to take both pre test and post test. Since the teacher cannot assess the progress of his/her pupils who either took only the pre test or the post test, the teachers are advised to use the available data to plan for the appropriate reading program for these pupils. Unlike the Phil-IRI Oral Reading Test which is done individually, The Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test can be done in one grade level at one time. However, for purposes of close supervision in the conduct of the test, only 20 children may be given the test at one time. Step 1: Preparatory Activities The following preparations shall be done before conducting the test:
1. Secure copies from the Office of the Principal/School Head the following forms for each pupil in your class: •
Form 1 – Grade Level Passage rating Sheet
Form 2 – Individual Summary Record
2. Prepare number card in multiples of 10 starting with 30 Example: 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 etc. 3. Ensure that you have a copy of the Phil-IRI Form 3 – Class Reading Profile 4. Familiarize yourself with the test materials and the accompanying forms.
Study the procedures that should be followed. 5. Ensure that the testing area is well-ventilated, well-lighted and free from distractions. Step 2: Administering the Grade Level Passage for Speed 1. Establish rapport with the pupils. Explain to the pupils that they are going to record the time after they can read the passage silently and carefully as fast as they can. Say: “ Today, you are going to read a passage silently as fast as you can. I would also like to find out how well each one of you understand the passage.”
2. Distribute the passage to each pupil. Let them accomplish all the personal information (Name, Grade & Section). All pupils should start reading at the same time. Begin timing only when the pupils start reading the passage. Say: “ no one should start reading the passage until instructed.” 3. Place the improvised number cards on the board. Take note of the time
started. After thirty seconds (30 seconds) that the pupils have started reading, start flashing the cards (begin with 30) and every ten seconds thereafter (10 seconds interval). Continue flashing the cards until everybody has finished reading the passage. Say: “ read the passage silently. After reading the passage, look at the number shown on the number card. Write the number on the space provided (Reading Time: _____ Seconds).” Step 3 : Administering the Grade Level Passage for Comprehension 1. Let the pupils answer the questions that follow. Tell them to encircle the letter of their answer. 2. After all the pupils have finished answering the questions, retrieve the passage. Check the answers and write the pupil’s score on the space provided. (Score:____). 3. Transfer the marks of the pupil in the Phil-IRI Form 1 to his/her Individual Phil-IRI Form 2. A sample accomplished Phil-IRI Form 1 follows.
Phil-IRI Form 1 – Pretest Sample Accomplished Individual Grade Level Passage rating Sheet (Pupils hold this sheet)
Name: John Paul Marquez Reading Time : __80 Seconds
Grade & Section: III-Sampaguita Score: 5____
GRADE LEVEL PASSAGE RATING SHEET Direction: Read the passage silently. Record your reading time as soon as you finish reading. Read the questions and encircle the letter of your answer.
Lost at Sea The weather was fine. The day was bright and the sea was calm. Father and Ben went fishing. Father prepared his fishing rod, reel and boat. They rowed the boat until they were at the middle of the sea. But in the afternoon, rain poured down. The wind was getting stronger. It pushed their boat farther and farther out to sea. It was difficult for them to go back to the shore.
22 The great waves carried their boat to the other side of the island. They could not find their way back. They were lost at sea. Mother was now worried. She asked the help of their neighbors. The men searched for the lost boat. Later, they found the boat hiding behind a big rock.
Grade III No. of words: 131 Questions: 1. What is the story about? a. b. c. d.
fishing farming hunting gardening
2. What was the weather like when the story began? a. b. c. d.
dry wet fine stormy
3. What happened in the afternoon? a. b. c. d.
It became foggy. It started to rain The boat turned over The sun shone brightly
4. Why was it difficult for Father and Ben to go back? a. b. c. d.
Because the thunder roared Because the fog was getting thicker Because the great waves were too high Because the strong wind pushed their boat to the sea
5. How did Mother feel about Father and Ben’s situation? a. b. c. d.
She felt sad. She felt lonely She was worried. She was discouraged.
23 6. How did the weather affect Father and Ben’s life? a. b. c. d.
The weather taught them to sail. The weather set them free from danger. The weather gave them time for each other. The weather caused the dangers in their lives.
7. What does the story prove about weather? a. b. c. d.
It is merciful. It is constant. It is a part of life. It is unpredictable.
Step 4: Recording Individual and class Reading Profile A. Individual Summary Record 1. Each pupil has an individual summary record which has three parts: Part A – Speed Part B – Comprehension Part C – Summary 2. For Part A – Speed, compute the reading speed of each pupil using the formula below: Reading Speed = No. of word in the passage Reading time in seconds
Example ( to compute for John Paul’s speed) 131 80
x 60 = 98 wpm
John Paul’s reading speed : Average 3. Write the speed level of the pupil under the appropriate column. Identify the speed level of the pupil as fast, average and slow using the standard specified in the form (Refer to table 1, page 2.) 4. For Part B – Comprehension, mark each correct answer of the pupils in
every question with one ( 1 )or incorrect answer with ( 0 ) under the appropriate column.
5. Enter the total score under the Score ( % ) column. 6. Compute the comprehension level of each pupil using the formula below: Comprehension ( C ) = No. of correct answers No. of questions
x 100 = % of CR
Example: ( to compute for John Paul’s comprehension ) ___5____ x 100 = 71 % 7 John Paul’s comprehension level : Frustration
7. Identify the comprehension level of the pupil referring to Table 1, page 2. See sample on page ---- for steps 1-7 in recording Individual Summary Record Phil-IRI Form 2 Name : John Paul Marquez III - Sampaguita ( Pangalan) School : Aklan Elem. School ( Paaralan ) Date : ( Petsa ) Pretest: October 2, 2007 ( Panimulang Pagtataya) Posttest: _____________ ( Panapos na Pagtataya )
INVIDUAL SUMMARY RECORD ( Lagom ng Pansariling Talaan sa Pagbasa ) Pretest ( Panimulang Pagtataya ) A. Speed ( Bilis sa Pagbasa ) No. of Words/Minute Reading Time ( WPM ) ( Nagugol na Oras sa Pagbasa )
Speed Level ( Antas ng Bilis sa Pagbasa ) Average
98 B. Comprehension
( Pang-unawa sa Binasa )
n Level (Antas ng Pang-unawa) Frustration
8. Identify the reading level of the pupil in reading speed and comprehension
Therefore, John Paul, a Grade III pupil who got 92 wpm (average) in reading speed and 71% in comprehension (frustration) will have an overall reading level of Frustration. However, it should be noted that since the goal in reading is constructing meaning, the comprehension score will be given more weight than speed. This means
that if the score in comprehension is independent and the speed is in the slow level, the child belongs to instructional level ( see example in Table 2). In short, if the scores in the two extremes, slow and independent, give consideration to the comprehension score and mark it lower than the independent because of the low level in speed. Hence, in this case, the child’s level is Instructional. 9. Enter each pupil’s data under the appropriate category in Form 2. The responses of the pupil in the pretest shall be entered under the pretest column. 10. For Part C – Summary, write the speed, comprehension and reading level on the space provided during the pretest. Follow the same procedures 1-9 on the appropriate column during the posttest. ( See example on the next page for Step 10 ).
Phil-IRI Form 2 Name : John Paul Marquez Sampaguita ( Pangalan) School : Aklan Elem. School ( Paaralan ) Date : ( Petsa ) Pretest: October 2, 2007 ( Panimulang Pagtataya) Posttest: _____________ ( Panapos na Pagtataya )
Grade/Section: III Baitang/ Pangkat Teacher : Mrs. Joy Santos ( Guro )
INDIVIDUAL SUMMARY RECORD ( Lagom ng Pansariling Talaan sa Pagbasa ) Pretest ( Panimulang Pagtataya ) A. Speed ( Bilis sa Pagbasa ) No. of Words/Minute ( WPM )
Reading Time ( Nagugol na Oras sa Pagbasa )
Speed Level ( Antas ng Bilis sa Pagbasa )
27 Average 98 B. Comprehension ( Pang-unawa sa Binasa )
Comprehension Level (Antas ng Pangunawa) Frustration
C. Summary ( Lagom ) Pretest ( Panimulang Pagtataya ) Speed : Average ( Bilis sa Pagbasa ) Comprehension : Frustration ( Pang-unawa ) Reading Level : Frustration ( Antas sa Pagbasa
Class Reading Profile 1. Using the data in the Phil-IRI Form 2- Individual Summary record, transfer each pupil’s performance in the Phil-IRI Form 3-Class Reading Profile. Enter the names of the pupils in column 1. 2. For the pretest, check the pretest column corresponding to the pupil’s speed level and comprehension level ( columns 2 & 3 ) and the reading level ( column 4 ). 3. Do the same procedure in the posttest. When the posttest shall have been conducted at the end of the school year, determine whether each pupil has improved or regressed under Remarks in column 5. An example of a Class reading Profile is shown on the next page.
Note: In case the pupil was unable to take either the pretest or the posttest, do not include his/her results in the class reading profile. Instead, use the information gathered to improve his/her reading capabilities.
The following terms are operationally defined in the manual: Assessment Tool
- a set of passage given to the child to determine his/her reading level
Informal Oral Reading and
- an assessment on the child’s word recognition comprehension skills
Informal Silent reading
- an assessment on the child’s speed and comprehension skills
Intervention Strategy provide difficulty
- a scheme, device or activity, a teacher may to remedy or overcome a reading
Level of Questions passage
- these are the questions asked regarding a arranged in order of difficulty as:
- questions whose answers are explicitly stated/given in the story
- these are questions which require children to between the lines to find the answer. The are not directly stated in the text
read answers c) Critical synthesis, point of of view
- these are questions which elicit analysis, judgement in the context of the author’s view as well as the reader’s point
- these are questions that draw from the child his own way of visualizing things based on scheme
- these are questions that elicit the reader’s opinion/decision as applied in daily life situations Philippine Informal Reading Inventory ( Phil-IRI )
- a set of oral and silent reading passages for the elementary grades in order to get the reading level of the public elementary school pupils
passage to help understand it. It activates prior the child
brief questions, description, discussion as a motivation and background of the the child read and knowledge of
Reading levels a) Frustration
● This is the lowest reading level
● The pupils scores 75% & below in comprehension classified as slow reader with the following speed grade level:
b) Instructional classified speed per
Grade I - 30 below
Grade II - 60 below
Grade III - 90 below
Grade IV - 110 below
Grade V - 140 below
Grade VI - 160 below
● The pupil scores 75-89% in comprehension and as average reader with the following reading grade level: Grade I - 31-69
Grade II - 61-99
Grade III - 91-119
Grade IV - 111-139
Grade V - 141-169
Grade VI - 161-189
● This is the highest reading level.
● The pupil scores 90-100% in comprehension and classified as fast reader with the following per grade level: Grade I - 70 above
Grade II - 100 above
Grade III - 120 above
Grade IV - 140 above
Grade V - 170 above
Grade VI - 190 above
- one who teaches reading or the teacher-adviser of the child tested
References Swearigen, Rebecca and Allen, Diane. Classroom Assessment of reading Process 2nd ed. USA: Houghton Mufflin Company: 2000 Barrentine, Shelby J. ed. Reading Assessment: Principles And Practices for Elementary Teachers. USA: International Reading Association. 1999 Reading Expert’s Review 1. Dr. Lydia P. Lalunio
Dean College of Languages, Linguistics and Literature Philippine Normal University ( 2006 )
2. Dr. Melchor A. Tatlonghari
Chair, Department of Reading and Literacy College of Languages, Linguistics and Literature Philippine Normal University ( 2006 )
3. Ms. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez
Head, Center for Raeding and Literacy Philippine Normal University ( 2006 )
Factors Affecting Reading Skills Parent Factor Children from early childhood should be encouraged to read and love books. When they see adult members of their families holding and reading books, they imitate them. And it may be the start of a worthy leisure time activity. Sometimes it is enough to read a few pages for encouragement, and the child will gladly read on. Children whose parents read to them or narrated bed time stories were more ready to tackle first grade work than those who did not have such a joyful experience. A child may be 5 or 6 years old chronologically. But he may have a mental age of 7 years old ready for school work. “When children see their father and mother read willingly, they try to imitate,” says Regal-Paredes (2007). Children age 2-6 are the stage of imitating adult’s actions and behavior. In this stage parents should be aware of their actions because their children might imitate them and possibly, they might think that what they see is right. Gonzales (2002) made a study on reading interests of high school students. Her findings revealed that parents have greatly influenced the
respondents’ choice of reading materials. Likewise, it was also found that urban respondents spent more time teaching than rural respondents. This can be attributed to the fact that the urban parents have steadier and more income occupation than rural parents. Espedido (2005) said that active participation and involvement of parents in children curriculum and understanding of the nature of educational institution and learning process. In the early years, first parents and then teachers are also the “significant others” who help children develop attitudes relating to their bodies, their social selves and their cognitive selves. The formation of reading habits as influenced by parents was the work of Maranan (1995). The results also revealed that reading habits wan influenced by teachers as well. Students have parents who love reading also developed love of reading. Students who have teachers who devote most of their time in scrutinizing printed materials encourage students to go to library to enjoy reading books, newspaper and magazines. Scottish Secondary Teachers association (SSTA-1997) suggests that parents do not have sufficient experience to deal with all aspects of an educational system. Parents and teachers in the study feel strongly that parent volunteers must be qualified for whatever roles they assume. According to Cecilia A. Florencio (1995), attendance in school, ability to concentrate in class and /study habits at home were not independent of participation in supplementary feeding, breakfast skipping, feeling of hunger in school and/or
health and nutritional status. She further emphasized that better nourished children did significantly better in the mental ability. Significant positive relationship between nutritional status and academic achievement remained even when relevant pupil factors were all constant. Sarason (1995), states that parent involvement is a component of the profession and the profession needs to take a stance and educate its members. Some teachers feel threatened and endangered while others feel enhanced by parent involvement. This creates tension within the profession. Professionalism is not threatened with increased parent involvement in local school governance, it means adjusting to new partnership. He further stressed that educators working interdependently with parents. “ Educators need to consider parents as assets, not as deficits in school,” he added. Parents’ desire increased information and involvement in their children’s education. They would like a synopsis of curriculum and expectations, and more frequent contact with teachers by phone or in person. Most parents simply want more information about the educational programs their children are receiving. The parents should consider their children’s grade level in asking questions or in communicating with the school staff. If the child is in elementary school, they might ask how well their child is doing in reading, how does their child work independently or with others, or how does their child seem to feel about school or his/her own abilities.
Parents have the responsibility to keep informed, ask questions, attend meeting and borrow resources in order to make sound decisions about their children and the school. With the right to be involved in school governance comes a responsibility to the school and children. Several parents felt that support groups should be developed to share parenting and schooling successes and difficulties with children. It should be the parents’ responsibility to establish and maintain these groups. Jewell and Rosen (1993) studied educational reform in New York and discovered that parents needed to know more about a variety of areas: budgets, decision making and curriculum, in order to participate meaningfully in discussions about the school. Conlet (1993) states that expanded parent roles can occur when parents become knowledgeable about learner outcomes, setting learning goals with teachers and pupils, communicating with teachers about the child’s interests and learning style, becoming involved in local school activities and advocating and supporting changes in the school. Epstein (1995) outline five types of parent involvement in schools. The first three types include parenting (type 1), communicating (type 2), and volunteering (type 3). These include activities such as driving for various outings, running book fairs, supervising in the computer room, volunteering in the library and fund raising for the Home and School associations. For fewer parents are involved in learning activities at home, such as helping with home works (type 4) and decision making (type 5) as outlined by Epstein (1995).
Parents can get involved in school activities in many ways, Deval said. They can assist teachers with class once a week, volunteer to talk to the class on a particular topic, help with field trips or donate supplies for special events or projects. Deval suggested, parents should attend parent group meeting or join the PTCA, have lunch with children at school occasionally. They may visit classrooms to observe children’s behavior and interactions with teachers and other pupils. Jeanne S. Chall (2000) states that from the variety of proposals to raise the academic achievement of elementary pupils, they call for greater parent involvement, others seek to implement more school choice and others prepare better teacher training and higher teacher salaries, a longer school year and school day, smaller schools and smaller classes. Home Factor Home could influence the pupils reading skill as stated by Chua (2005), that at home some parents put pressure to child to have a high grades, wanting him to jump through several developmental stage at once. Children should not always experience frustration at an early stage. They need to assimilate a quite time to digest skills already learned. In the excellent book magical child Joseph Chilton Pearce as cited by Chua (2005) states that, “Children learn and develop, when home and school work close together … An unstimulating home environment device the child stimuli. Preschool readiness, according to the environmentalist, is the age or stage when young children can respond appropriately to the environment of the school and
the classroom. The ability to respond appropriately to this environment is necessary for young children to participate in teacher-initiated learning activities. Success is dependent on the child following instructions from the teacher or adult in the classroom. Many environmentalist influenced educators and parents believe that young children learn best by rote activities. At home, parent may provide their young children with workbooks containing activities that require little interaction between parent and child. When young children are unable to respond appropriately to the classroom and environment, they often are labelled as having some form of learning disabilities and are tracked in classroom with curriculum designed to control their behaviors and responses. Likewise, the significance of pre-primary education was answered by Dr. Miguela M. Solis and the said. “The intellectual capacity of a child is most acceptable to the development in early childhood particularly in favorable environment. It was found out that with stimulating a conducive surroundings and challenging activities, the intellectual development of the increase at about 2.5 I.Q. points as compared to the 0.4 points per year usual increase of I.Q., from the eight to the seventeenth years of life. There is a close correlation between intelligence and reading achievement. Those with high I.Q. will acquire higher reading skill faster than those with lower I.Q.” Pupil Factor Domingo (1995) studied the reading performance of grade five pupils in Victoria East District in Tarlac. He studied the reading performance as influenced by
selected variables such as nutritional status, pupil-book ratio and recreational activities of pupils. The findings showed that these variables
had no significant
relationship and influence to the reading performance of pupils. In relation to the previous study, the said factors revealed no relationship with the ability of the pupils in reading. Furthermore, the study has shown several of the most common factors affecting the reading performance of the pupils such as I.Q. Macabanding (2000) discovered that the reading difficulties of majority of the Grade Six pupils of Matungao District, Lanao Del Norte were on vocabulary skills, comprehension skills, and pronunciation of vowel. There are no significant differences in pupils’ reading difficulty levels when grouped according to the sex, age, parents’ socio-economic status, parents’ educational attainment, reading interest and availability of reading materials. R. Gonzaga (1996), in her assessment of the reading comprehension achievement of Grade Five pupils, found out that pupils showed poor performance in terms of reading skills. The skills included noting details, getting the main idea, following directions, making inferences, sequencing events/ideas, cause and effect relationship and organizing ideas. In relation to the previous study, Gonzaga has presented several factors affecting the low reading comprehension performance of Grade Five pupils. These identified factors are language problems, inappropriate teaching strategies, and not suited reading materials. Furthermore, the pupils’ intellectual factors and their socioeconomic factor also affect the pupils’ reading comprehension.
R. Gonzaga in her evaluation of the reading comprehension shows some similarities to the present study in which both were concerned with the reading comprehension of the pupils. Differences were noted in the scope and emphasis with the factors that affect reading abilities. Cinches (1999) in her study of the reading skills of Grade Five pupils includes the sex of the pupils and the educational background of their parents. Through the standardized test by Dra. Ma. Tumanglay, the findings were as follows: 1. Majority of the parents were college graduates. 2. Most of the pupils were female. 3. Male pupils’ level of reading skills in word, sentence meaning, reading rate, comprehension and paragraph meaning were low. Female word meaning, reading weight and paragraph were average while sentence and comprehension were low. 4. Male and female pupils significantly differed in their skills in paragraph meaning unlike the rest of the reading skill. 5. There is a significant relation between educational background of parents in the pupils’ level of reading skills. Furthermore, Cinches’ study revealed that female pupils are children of government and private employees. They help their children improve their reading skills. However, majority of the male pupils are not good readers. Statistics show that there was no significant difference in reading skills of both the male and female
pupils. Therefore, it is safe to say that sex did not show any relationship with the reading ability of the pupils. In terms of paragraph meaning, both the male and female pupils differ significantly. It is concluded that that female were good readers as compared to the male. These previous researches have similarities to the present study to be conducted because they all deal on the reading skills of Grade Five pupils. Differences were based on the factors in which the former included the parent-pupil factors while the latter was about the pupil factor. Larin (2001) found out that most of the Fourth Year students of Mercy Junior College and National Comprehensive High School have good reading ability based on the Teacher-Made Test. The students showed positive attitude toward English as a language for reading purposes. There was a significant relationship between type of school and interest in reading materials. Females were better in vocabulary test than males and there were no significant differences in reading comprehension test. Parents’ monthly income did not significantly affect students’ reading ability. Fathers’ educational attainment significantly affected students’ vocabulary in context test. Kush and Watkins (1996) summarized in their study that positive attitudes like study habits toward reading contribute to higher reading achievement. They quoted that girls consistently expressed more positive attitudes toward recreational reading than boys. Teacher Factor
Reading as a process of teacher’s intervention is explained by Riggs (2005). The first step covers the “INTO” covering activating prior knowledge, helping students predict or construct text, and giving various experience. The second step is known as the “THROUGH” where direct teaching to comprehension happens through imparting information about comprehension, giving explanations about how skills are used, citing examples, modelling how to think about reading, and teaching students to self-motivate. The last step is called “BEYOND” in which readers are tested by the teacher through assessing comprehension by asking questions to find out what was remembered, by grand conversations, and by activities to help children internalize and appreciate what they had read. Michaels and Mitchell (2005) elaborated on some of the skills used in the reading process. They are through using letter-sound relationships referred to as the ability to sound out words using knowledge of sound-spelling relationships in a real reading context, acquiring a sight vocabulary pertaining to the recognition of certain common English words that cannot be easily sounded out or decoded, and through gaining meaning from context where readers manifest the ability to use the surrounding information in a sentence to figure out an unknown word. Gambrell and his colleagues (2006) cite about the characteristics of the reading process as holistic wherein various sub-skills must be integrated to form a smooth, coherent whole, as constructive where readers use what is in their heads and what is on the page to construct meaning, as strategic focusing on the readers use of different strategies depending on their purposes for reading and the difficulty of the material, and as interactive that readers must interact with the author in order
for meaning to occur. Similarly, the same authors provides for the conditions for poor reading performance. These are that the readers does not see letters or symbols on the page or may not be able to recognize them; has confusions or incorrect associations between sounds and letters, and has little experience with or knowledge of the subject. Consequently, the reading product on any reading situation should always be meaningful depending on comprehension, and readers must be able to derive meaning from symbols and connect them to experiences and impressions from their own lives. Classroom teachers need to understand contemporary theories of reading and literacy development and be able to articulate their theoretical perspectives concerning kinds of reading texts and materials, the reading process, and their instructional practices, so they do not fall victim to the political pressures associated with standardized tests, state-mandated curricula, and commercially prepared learning programs (Coles, 1998; McQuillan 1998). As literacy educators, teachers need to be able to understand and discuss why they do what they do if they are going to create readers who can do more than decode texts accurately, read them aloud on demand, and score well on tests as reflections of academic performance. According to St. James (2007), a mandatory reading ability test is given to students wishing to enrol in an academic program at St. Louis Community College. Although it remains open to all students who wish to study, too many students have been frustrated and discouraged because they are not ready to succeed in the program they select. Research shows that a student who failed the test in developmental reading and yet enrols without improving his/her reading ability
succeeds at the rate of only 13 percent. This means that too often student pay tuition in courses they cannot handle and leave the school unhappy with themselves and with their experience. The above literature point to the importance of determining the reading ability of students as an important factor that should be known be known by teachers. In a speech delivered by Senator Edgardo Angara during the commencement exercises of the Roosevelt College Foundation Center for Teacher Education held at the University of the Philippines, Diliman on April 1, 1997, he emphasized the importance of quality education and the role the teachers play to achieve it. He said, “ I have always believed that the progress of a nation depends crucially on the quality of education that it provides its citizens, and the quality of education depends on the skills, knowledge and dedication of teachers.” He challenged the teachers to take the responsibility, being the key player to attain it. He quotes, “ Let us, as teachers take on the burden on improving our national record in Science and Mathematics so that by the end of this century, we will be – if not at the top – at least in the middle.” He stresses, “ I cannot over emphasize to you the need for better education, the coming years will be characterized by fierce competition within countries and between nation for jobs, marker resources and technologies. In these contests, the better educated and the better trained will surely prevail.” “There are more expectations from teachers today, with their role in the nation building”, stated by Ariola, 2000. A teacher needs mastery of subject she is to teach.
If he/she lacks the knowledge of the subject matter, he/she will not receive respect from pupils and even parents. In working with the primary grade children, a teacher must know the behavior that can be expected of a child ages 6 to 8 years old. It is a must to know the best ways of working with them and the types of reading material and other activities they will enjoy. In language teaching, the teacher should serve as a model to the students. The teacher should therefore be able to produce the vowel and the consonant sounds correctly for the students to imitate. Each pronunciation lesson should develop in the student’s ability to hear sounds accurately and to produce the sound and sound sequence without conscious effort. Dang (2000) explained the varieties of the teachers teaching techniques and strategies is very necessary. Reyes (2003) and Latha (2004) noted the value of motivating activities in teaching reading to ease the pressure of beginning readers. They further elaborated the use of approaches suited in learning. English Performance Rayos and Gochuico (2008) discussed the different levels of reading comprehension. Accordingly, there are several levels of comprehending a selection one reads. These are the following: 1. Literal Comprehension. This is understanding the ideas stated in the selection. Also known as “reading the lines”, this level of reading involves getting answers to who, what, when and where questions.
2. Interpretative Comprehensions. This is the understanding of facts and ideas not directly stated in one reads. The answer to the why and how questions often fall under this level because reader has to get the implied meaning. This is why this level is called “ reading between the lines”, the why and how questions may fall under level one above if the answer to the questions are stated. 3. Critical analysis. This is the level of reading where the reader needs to
draw conclusion or make a decision, based on the facts given and the ideas implied in the reading material. This often involves answering questions on characterization or on the style of the writer. 4. Integration and application. Often called “reading beyond the lines”, the reader makes use of the ideas he gets from the selection and applies them, probably on the situations in the selection. In the same breath, both authors also provided the kinds of reading that are learned and engaged by readers. Accordingly, a good reader can adjust his reading to the type of material he or she is reading and to his or her purpose in reading. The kinds of reading can be identified as: 1. Skimming and scanning. The fastest rates at which a person reads,
skimming and scanning are called reading by signposts or the clues by the writer. These signposts include chapter titles, section headings, boldfaced or italicized type, and underlining. Although these two terms are sometimes interchangeable, they can be differentiated thus; skimming is
used when the reader needs to get the general idea of what he reads. Scanning is used when the reader looks for definite facts in what he reads. 2. Study Reading. This kind of reading is done when a reader reads to understand the main ideas in what he or she reads and how they are related. A student must react to, challenge, and interpret the assignment he is reading. He must look for appropriate assumptions, adequate supporting evidences, and relevant information. He understands it for his future use, probably a test. 3. Critical Reading. This is kind of thoughtful reading done because a more rapid reading may lead to false conclusions. The reader watches out for inconsistent logic and false analogies in what he reads. This is a kind of reading with periodical articles and advertising materials using a propaganda devices designed to sway opinions or to sell particular ideas or products. 4. Recreatory Reading. One does this kind of reading when one goes over magazines, newspapers, and paper backs for one’s enjoyment. The reader’s eyes rapidly move along the lines of print, reading for main ideas, and remembering only the important words in each thought phrase. Reading as a process of teacher’s intervention is explained by Riggs (2005). The first step covers the “INTO” covering activating prior knowledge, helping students predict or construct text, and giving various experience. The second step is known as the “THROUGH” where direct teaching to comprehension happens
through imparting information about comprehension, giving explanations about how skills are used, citing examples, modelling how to think about reading, and teaching students to self-motivate. The last step is called “BEYOND” in which readers are tested by the teacher through assessing comprehension by asking questions to find out what was remembered, by grand conversations, and by activities to help children internalize and appreciate what they had read. Michaels and Mitchell (2005) elaborated on some of the skills used in the reading process. They are through using letter-sound relationships referred to as the ability to sound out words using knowledge of sound-spelling relationships in a real reading context, acquiring a sight vocabulary pertaining to the recognition of certain common English words that cannot be easily sounded out or decoded, and through gaining meaning from context where readers manifest the ability to use the surrounding information in a sentence to figure out an unknown word. Gambrell and his colleagues (2006) cite about the characteristics of the reading process as holistic wherein various sub-skills must be integrated to form a smooth, coherent whole, as constructive where readers use what is in their heads and what is on the page to construct meaning, as strategic focusing on the readers use of different strategies depending on their purposes for reading and the difficulty of the material, and as interactive that readers must interact with the author in order for meaning to occur. Similarly, the same authors provides for the conditions for poor reading performance. These are that the readers does not see letters or symbols on the page or may not be able to recognize them; has confusions or incorrect associations between sounds and letters, and has little experience with or
knowledge of the subject. Consequently, the reading product on any reading situation should always be meaningful depending on comprehension, and readers must be able to derive meaning from symbols and connect them to experiences and impressions from their own lives. According to St. James (2007), a mandatory reading ability test is given to students wishing to enrol in an academic program at St. Louis Community College. Although it remains open to all students who wish to study, too many students have been frustrated and discouraged because they are not ready to succeed in the program they select. Research shows that a student who failed the test in developmental reading and yet enrols without improving his/her reading ability succeeds at the rate of only 13 percent. This means that too often student pay tuition in courses they can not handle and leave the school unhappy with themselves and with their experience. The above literature point to the importance of determining the reading ability of students as an important factor that should be known be known by teachers. The basic premise of the Gates-MacGinite Reading Tests, authored by Walter H. MacGinite, Ruth K. MacGinite, Katherine Maria, Lois G. Dreyer, Kay E. Hughes both paper-pencil online, is that it is useful for teachers and schools to know the general level of reading achievement of individual students throughout their entire school careers (Guimary, 2008; Hernandez, 2007). According to the authors , the test is based on the following premises as: 1) Powerful diagnostic tools used nationally to help teachers know their student’s level of reading achievement; 2)
Flexible enough to use for a variety of testing needs throughout the student’s school career: screening, diagnosis, outcomes, or progress monitoring; 3) Developmentally appropriate for all learners – from beginning readers to adults; 4) Suitable for use in reading First and Striving Readers programs; 5) Alternate forms for pre and post testing, which can be used to measure growth over time or monitor program effectiveness; 6) Identifies students that need additional individual diagnosis and special instruction; 7) Support materials and services that can help teachers link assessment to instruction. Jeanne S. Chall (2000) states that from the variety of proposals to raise the academic achievement of elementary pupils, they call for greater parent involvement, others seek to implement more school choice and others prepare better teacher training and higher teacher salaries, a longer school year and school day, smaller schools and smaller classes.
Theoretical Framework This study was based on the theory that the development of reading skills among school children takes along process. First and foremost is the planning of the
reading program. Another is the problem that the teacher will meet in the development of reading skills. Meeting these challenges therefore is a big task considering that the common criticisms hurled at today’s schools in all levels is the low performance in the academic achievement of the pupils in all areas. According to Durrell (1999) it has been observed that the failure if frequently due to inability to learn the subject, but because the pupils cannot read efficiently, and much less, comprehend reading materials, hence, authorities suggest that reading should receive the most scrutiny. In this regard, Braganza (1993) also stressed that the best and dedicated teachers should be assigned in Grade I and II where the reading problems and dropouts are crucial. This means providing the learners with the strongest learning foundation, possibly giving rise to high learning motivation. Materials, administrative, academic and moral support must be provided to these teachers so that after the first grade, the child shall not be non-reader nor a disabled reader. Likewise, the study was anchored on the DepEds’ greatest concern on the return to the basics wherein reading is one of the 3R’s as a tool for learning. In this regard, Bush and Hueber (1997) also explained that every individual needs to read intelligently in order to gain information, acquire useful knowledge and attain a useful, enjoyable and profitable life. Proficiency in reading helps one to secure valuable information relating to health, family life, government and current issues and events. Society therefore, demands that the pupils must be effective readers as early as Grade one. A child who cannot read risks security, loss self esteem and ability to attain his future interest to the fullest. Successful achievement in reading,
on the other hand leads to the pupils’ happiness and success, while failure in reading leads to unhappiness in the child and disapproval of the society. The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI)
also served as
anchorage of the study The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI) is an initiative of the Bureau of Elementary Education – Department of Education that directly addresses its thrust to make every Filipino child a reader. It is anchored on the flagship program of the Department “Every Child A Reader Program,” the goal of which is to enable every Filipino child to communicate both in English and Filipino through effective reading instruction. The Phil-IRI is an assessment tool that evaluates the reading proficiency level of elementary school pupils. It is the first validated instrument that intends to measure the pupils’ reading comprehension level. The pupil’s word recognition and comprehension ability as well as his/her reading speed are informally assessed quantitatively and qualitatively through stories and passages. The results present the reading profile of public elementary schools nationwide. The entire set of Phil-IRI consists of four assessment tools namely: the 1) Phil-IRI-Oral (English), 2) Phil-IRI-Speed and Comprehension (English), 3) Phil-IRIOral (Filipino) and 4) Phil-IRI-Speed and Comprehension (Filipino). These assessment tools are packaged in two sets: Phil-IRI-Oral Test (English and Filipino) and Phil-IRI-Speed and Comprehension (English and Filipino). Each set of Phil-IRI comes with a manual of administration and the test materials. Starting SY 2010-
2011, the recording forms shall be downloadable to the Phil-IRI website: www.philiri.com. Each manual provides all the necessary information about the reading inventory and the instruction for administration. Each Phil-IRI assessment tool focuses on evaluation of specific pupils’ reading ability. The Phil-IRI oral assessment tools (English and Filipino) attempt to measure the pupils’ comprehension level vis-à-vis fluency within the context of oral assessment. On the other hand, the Phil-IRI speed and comprehension assessment tools (English and Filipino) aim to measure the pupils’ comprehension level within a specific time frame. When the pupils are administered with all four assessment tools, the teachers will have a more comprehensive view of their pupils’ reading abilities whether the context of evaluation is silent or oral Conceptual Framework The study made use of the IV-DV model in presenting its conceptual framework. Thus, for the IV, the profile of the Grade Two teacher respondents in terms of age, gender, civil status, highest educational attainment, present position, and years in service are reflected. Likewise, the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI Program and the extent to which parent factor, home, pupil and teacher factor affects reading skills of Grade Two pupils are also reflected in the IV box. On the other hand, the DV reflects the performance in English of the Grade Two pupils.
Following is the paradigm of the study. RESEARCH PARADIGM Independent Variable
1. Profile of the Grade Two
Teacher respondents in terms of: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Age Sex Civil status Highest educational attainment 1.5 Major field of specialization 1.6 Present position 1.7 Years in service, and 1.8 No. of seminars attended in Reading
Performance in English of Grade Two pupils
2. Extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English 3. Factors affecting reading skills of Grade II pupils 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
Parent factor Home factor Pupil factor, and Teacher factor
Figure I. Paradigm of the study showing the relationships of the profile of the Grade II English teachers, extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English and the factors affecting Reading of Grade II pupils to their performance in English. Research Hypothesis The study will answer the following hypothesis:
1. The following independent variables significantly relate to the performance of Grade II pupils in English. 1.1 profile of Grade two teachers, 1.2 extent of implementation of Phil-IRI in English, and 1.3 Factors affecting reading skills of Grade II pupils.
Definition of Terms The following terms are operationally defined for clearer understanding of the readers. Comprehension – this refers to a type of understanding such that the individual knows what is being communicated without necessarily relating it to other material or seeing its fullest application. It refers to the ability to read between the lines, to read beyond the lines. Comprehension Skills – this refers to the ability to understand or interpret the material read or speech language based on previous experiences recalled and related to the present situation. Extent of Implementation of PHIL-IRI – this pertains to the school wide implementation of the program to help solve reading difficulties and enhance reading skills of the pupils. Home Factor – this pertains to the provisions for the study needs of the school children at home, such as study rooms, proper lightning and ventilation.
Insertion – this refers to inserting a word or a series of words that does not appear in the text. Learning – this refers to the process of gaining knowledge, information, and skills through experience and study. Learning Disability – the term refers to significant discrepancies along learner’s sensory motor, perceptual, cognitive academic and other related developmental which interfere with the performance of academic tasks. Mispronunciation – this refers to attempting to pronounce the word but produces a nonsense word, rather than a real one. Non-reader – the terms refers to a pupil who has not mastered the ability to read any reading material suited to his age level or even below his age level. Omission – this refers to omitting a word or a continuous sequence of words in the text but continues to read. Parent Factor – this refers to the sufficient educational support from parents. Performance in English – this refers to the achievement of the Grade Two pupils based on the Phil-IRI results. Phil-IRI – is an assessment tool that evaluates the reading proficiency level of elementary school pupils. It is the acronym for Philippine Informal reading Inventory. Pupil Factor – this refers to the proper motivation to read the printed page, the pre-reading preparation and the ability to cope and understand the lessons presented in Reading. Reading – this refers to the purposeful activity which involved the comprehension and interpretation of ideas symbolized by written or printed
language. It is the ability of the pupils’ to see, think, interpret and pronounce printed matters or written symbols in one setting. It is a developmental task which a child must perform in order to satisfy his own needs, so that he may satisfy the demands made upon him by the society and so that he is better prepared to handle subsequently development task. Reading Deficiency – the term refers to a mild severe retardation in learning to read which is desperate with the individual’s general intelligence and with their cultural, linguistic and educational experience. Reading Difficulties – this refers to the handicap that interferes with reading, lack of ability to read with average or normal achievement for one’s age and grade level. These are children who seem normal but they are not making the growth in reading in his maturity limits due to the handicap that interferes with his comprehension. Reading Skills – this refers to the skills that are readers possess in order to attain a level of functional literacy, the level at which he can independently handle reading materials. They also refer to the reading skills, literal comprehension and interpretative skills. Refusal to Pronounce –the term refers to neither pronouncing the word nor attempting to do so. Remedial Reading – the terms refers to the instruction given to the learners who operate reading levels below their capabilities, the purpose of which is to overcome difficulties discovered in any aspect of the reading process.
Repetition –this refers to repeating one or more words that have been read. Groups of adjacent words that are repeated count as one repetition. Retarded Reader - the terms refers to one whose reading achievement is less than that of what is expected of his peer group. Reluctant Reader – the term refers to the pupil who can read but will not the root cause of which is the mental attitude of the individual. Retained Non-readers – the term refers to the Grade One pupils who were retained in Grade One as a result of reading disability. Reversal- the term refers to the reversing of the order of words or letters. Substitution – the term refers to substituting a real word that is incorrect. Teacher
Factor – this refers to the capability of the teacher to handle
Reading with pupils with varied potentials and reading difficulties. Underachiever in Reading – the term is restricted to those whose reading performance is not below age and grade standards but who are judged to be functioning significantly below their own potential level in reading.
This chapter presents the research design, population of the study, sampling procedure, research instrument, validation, data gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of data. Research Design The descriptive type of research was used by the researcher to find out and determine the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI Program and performance in English of Grade Two pupils including the factors affecting their reading skills. The researcher believed that this type of research will best describe the results of the investigation since according to Best and Khan (2003), the descriptive type of research describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, point of views, or attitudes that are help, processes that are going on, effects that are felt, and the trends that are developing. Population of the Study The population of the study involved all the Grade Two teachers in Sto. Cristo Elementary School and the Grade Two pupils under their tutelage during the school year 2011-2012 which is the inclusive period of the study. Sampling Procedure Total enumeration or universal sampling was used in this study. This means that all Grade Two teachers and Grade Two pupils were involved and included in the study.
Table 1 presents the respondents of the study.
Table 1 Respondents of the Study Sto. Cristo Elementary Teacher School
Grade Two Pupils
Research Instrument The questionnaire was used as the main instrument for gathering the needed data for the study. This was answered by the Grade Two teachers. It shall comprised of three parts.
Part 1 comprised of the profile of the Grade Two teacher respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, highest educational attainment, present position, years in service and number of seminars attended in Reading. Part 2 comprised of the Phil-IRI pre- and post tests which determined the extent of implementation of the Phil-IRI in English among Grade Two pupils. Part 3 included the other factors affecting the reading disabilities of Grade Two pupils in terms of: parent factor, home factor, pupil factor, and teacher factor. Informal interviews with Grade Two pupils who were subjected to Phil-IRI was also
conducted by the researcher to supplement the data gathered from the
Validation of the Instrument The instrument was no longer validated since the Phil –IRI is a standardized instrument. It was however submitted to her adviser and panel of examiners for approval.
Data Gathering Procedure The researcher first sought permission from the district supervisor of Pulilan District to allow her to distribute questionnaires, conduct informal interviews and gather the needed data for the study.
Upon approval, she personally administered the questionnaires to her target respondents, the Grade Two teachers, for her to be able to explain the mechanics of answering and the actual purpose of the study. On the part of the Grade Two pupils she endeavoured to conduct the Phil-IRI test to the three sections of Grade Two pupils in Sto. Cristo Elementary School comprising of oral reading, silent reading, speed and comprehension.
Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered through the questionnaires and Phil-IRI tests were treated statistically using the following statistical tools: 1. For problem number 1, percentage was used. Percentage
frequency of responses
total number of respondents
2. For problems number 2 and 3. Weighted Mean and Standard Deviations were used. Weighted Mean
frequency of respondents
total number of respondents
number of respondents
3.For problems 4 and 5 Correlation Analysis were used.
CHAPTER 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data (To be presented later)
CHAPTER 5 Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation (To be presented later)
Bibliography Alcantara, Rebeca et. Al. Teaching Strategies for the Teaching of Communication Arts: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing, Quezon City, Katha Publishing. Best, John W. and James V. Kahn. Research in Education (New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Inc. 1998) p. 113. Calmorin, laurentia P. Educational Reasearch Measurement and Evaluation, Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.
Donoghue, Mildred R. The Child abd the English Language Skills, Califonia State University at Fullerton, AWMC. Brown Company Publishers, 2002. Downie, W.M. and R.W. Health Basic Statistical Methods, 5th Edition, New York, harper and Row Publishers Freeman, Dianne Larsen. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, London: AOxford University Press, 2005 Good Cartner V. and Douglas E. Scates. Methodology of Reasearch. New Yoprk: Appleton Century Crafts Jenkin, et. Al. These are Your Children, Chicago: Scott, Forseman & Co., Gonzales, 2002 Reading Interests of H.S. Student Espedido, 2005 Participation and Involvement of Parents in Children understanding of the Learning Process Maronon, 1995 Formation of reading Habits Internet (http:// online academics.org/Reading Diagnosishtm) Reading Disabilities Lapp and Flood as cited by Elecarde Anderson 2000 Clifford and Scott – Little 2005 Chua 2005 Scraw and Bruning 1999 Harvey and Gounduis 2000 Tovani 2000 Vacca and Vacca 2005 Spear Swerling 2004 Unrau 10997 Alcantara, 2003
Delos Santos 2008 Ariola, 2000 Reyes 2003 Latha 2004 Regala – Paredes 2007 Journal Dacanay, Fe and Minda C. Sutania. “ The Teaching of English in the Elementary Schools”, Philippine Journal of Education. Mar 1965. Vol. XLXX, No. 10 Richmond, Elizabeth V. Program for Remedial Reading Pockford, Ilolinois Corpuz, Cosolacion V. The Reading Skills of Grade VI Pupils of Bulaon District: An Analysis (Unpublished Master’s Thesis: Osias Educ’l Foundation, La. Union. Fries, Charles, Reading and Linguistic (New York: holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc. 1993) Heitman, Arthur W. et.al. The Improvement of Reading. New York; Mc Graw Hill Bank Co. 1997) Julian, Amelia, The Reading Difficulties of Grade VI Pupils in San Fernando East District, Pampanga (Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of the Assumption. 1993) Landicho, Beata, Differences In Reading Comprehension Due to Six Mental Ability, Language Content, and Difficulty of the Reading Materials As measured by Clozed Test Among Grade VI Pupils in Batangas City (Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Western Philippines College, Batangas City, 1990) Li, L., Zheng, Y., Ogata, H. & Yano, Y. (2005). Support Ubiquitous Learning with Knowledge Awareness. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceeding of World Conference on E – Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2005, (pp. 2179-2187). Liu, H., Salomaa, j., Huang R., and Ma, D. (2008). An activity – Oriented Design Framework for mobile Learning Experience. In the Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference or Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education, (WMUTE2008), pp. 185-187). March 23-26, Beiging China,
Mones, Elvira Casil Selected reading Skills of Grade Four Pupils in Umingan District: An Appraisal (Unpublished Master’s Thesis: Zaragoza College, 1996) Plameras, Marilyn B. “ Asking Questions In Reading Philippine Journal of Education (July, 1990), p.497
Unpublished Materials Lanipa, Leoniza (2010) “ Reading Ability, Multiple Intelligences and Performance in Mathematics and Science of freshman Students of Pag-Asa National High School”. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines, Manila. Ramirez, Olympio Sandro (2004) “ School, Teachers, and Parent Related Factors and Pupil’s Academic Achievement in Aplaya Elementary School San Juan east District, San Juan Batangas”. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines, Manila. Sarte, Evelyn (2004) “ Factors Associated with the Reading Competencies of grade Five Pupils in District II, DCS; Manila: Basis for Policy Formulation”. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines, Manila.
Technological University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL College of Industrial Education Manila March 22, 2012 MR. BARTOLOME C. DE JESUS District Supervisor Pulilan District Pulilan, Bulacan
Sir: Greetings! The undersigned is currently conducting a study entitled “Extent of Implementation of Phil –IRI Program and Performance in English of Grade Two Pupils in Sto.Cristo Elementary School, Dep Ed, Bulacan” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in Industrial Education, major in Administration and Supervision at Technological University of the Philippines, Manila. In this connection, she is requesting that she be allowed to distribute questionnaires and conduct informal interviews among Grade Two teachers and pupils in Sto. Cristo Elementary School. In anticipation of your favorable response, the researcher gratitude.
Very respectfully yours, ROSARIO A. JOSON Researcher
Approved: BARTOLOME C. DE JESUS District Supervisor Technological University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL College of Industrial Education Manila
Dear Respondent, Greetings!
The undersigned is currently conducting a study entitled “Extent of Implementation of Phil –IRI Program and Performance in English of Grade Two Pupils in Sto. Cristo Elementary School,
Bulacan” in partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Industrial Education, major in Administration and Supervision at Technological University of the Philippines, Manila. In this connection, she is requesting that you answer the attached questionnaire honestly and completely. Please do not leave any item unanswered. Rest assures that all your answers will be treated with strict confidentiality. Thank you and God bless.
Very respectfully yours,
ROSARIO A. JOSON Researcher Technological University of the Philippines GRADUATE SCHOOL College of Industrial Education Manila
“Extent of Implementation of Phil –IRI Program And Performance in English of Grade Two Pupils in Sto. Cristo Elementary School, Dep Ed Bulacan”
I. Profile of the Respondents Instruction: Please provide the most accurate information in the following:
Name :____________________________________ School:____________________________________ Instruction: Please put a check (√) on the most accurate information for the following: 1. Age ___(21-30) years old
___(31-40) years old
___(41-50) years old
___(51-60) years old
2. Sex 3. Civil Status
_____ Male _____ Single _____ Widowed
____(61 & above)
4. Highest Educational Attainment
____ Bachelors Degree
____ BS with Masteral Units
____ Masteral Degree
____ Masteral with Doctoral
____ Doctoral Degree
5. Major Field of Specialization ___________________________________
6. Present Position
_____ Teacher III
_____ Teacher I
_____ Master Teaher I
_____ Teacher II
_____ Master Teacher II
7. Years in Service:
___ 6-10 years
____21 years & above
8. Number of seminars attended in: Reading :
II. Extent of Implementation of Phil-IRI in English for Grade II pupils. Instruction: Please put a checkmark (/) in the column provided opposite each item to signify your answer. Use the scale that follows: 5_______to a very great extent 4 _______great extent 3 _______moderate extent 2 _______ slight extent 1 _______ no extent at all
Item Statement 1. There is a clear school-wide implementation of the Phil IRI program
2. One hundred percent of the pupils undergo Phil IRI evaluation on the following areas: 2.1 Oral Reading 2.2 Silent Reading 2.3 Speed & Comprehension 3. Supplemental lessons or remedial classes are conducted to augment poor pupils’ performance in reading. 4. Teachers encourage the use of reading skills outside lessons in various ways 5. The school/agency encourages the use of reading skills 6. The school involves parents in the Phil IRI program 7. There is a clear provision of administrative support for the Phil IRI program III. Factors Affecting Reading Skills of Grade Two Pupils Instruction: Please put a checkmark (/) in the column provided opposite each item to signify your answer. Use the scale that follows: 5_______to a very great extent 4 _______great extent 3 _______moderate extent 2 _______ slight extent 1 _______ no extent at all
A. Parent Factor
Item Statement 1. Sufficient educational support and concern from parent 2. Obtains proper nourishment needed for their studies 3. Obtains the needed physical needs form parent 4. Rewards their children whenever they obtain high grades 5. Keeps children away from family problems and frequent quarrels which directly and indirectly affect their studies 6. Gives praises for whatever success their children obtain from school 7. Listens to children’s explanations before scolding and beating them 8. Involve themselves to improve the reading deficiencies of their children 9. Assists or help their children in preparing homework 10. Have regular communication with their children as regards their studies 11. Does not allow their children to go to any place around instead of studying their lessons at home 12. Attends to their children’s emotional, social, intellectual, and health needs.
B. Home Factor Item Statement 1. Provides for the study needs of the children 2. Have provisions for tables, chairs, lights, and
ventilation to encourage their children to do their homework and study their lessons 3. Free from too much noise and disturbances 4. Near the school and very accessible to reach the place 5. Small family size allowing no disturbance on children’s studies
C. Pupil Factor Item Statement
1. Interested in studying particularly in reading 2. Obtains the proper motivation to read the printed
page 3. Can cope and understand the lessons presented in Reading 4. Have pre-reading preparation before engaging in beginning reading activities 5. Have enough low level materials for reading practice
D. Teacher Factor 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6.
Item Statement Have time to supervise each pupil with reading disabilities Have enough materials for pupils with reading disabilities Very focus on the regular work loads Employs/utilizes different methods/strategies of teaching Have patience to handle pupils with reading difficulties and disabilities Have enough trainings in handling pupils with varied reading disabilities